• 제목, 요약, 키워드: sizing

검색결과 1,196건 처리시간 0.043초

국내 20대 여성의 엉덩이 형태에 따른 하반신 체형 분류 (Lower Body Type Classification by Buttocks Shapes of Korean Women in Their 20's)

  • 최세린;도월희
    • 한국의류산업학회지
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.327-337
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of this study is for size suitability and fitness improvement for Korean 20's women. This study has classified hip types of 20's women by the 6th Korean Anthropometric Survey(Size Korean), then compared their lower body-type by hip types each other. The results are as follows. Factor analysis in sorting hip types can be explained 77.72% by nine factors. And cluster analysis can be divided into three types. Type 1 is referred to as a general type which has the largest size in the 'Hip circumference', but the buttocks's horizontal sizes are in the middle size besides the hip line. Type 2 is referred to as a protruding type in upper buttocks which is large in protruding volume of upper buttocks, but the buttock's horizontal sizes are small including 'Hip circumference', and buttock's horizontal section form close to circle. Type 3 is referred to as a type which is contrary to Type 2. Type 3 is small in protruding volume of upper buttocks, but large in lower buttocks, and the protrusions in whole buttocks are small, so the side view of Type 3 made gentle fit shape. By these results, the study could classify lower body of 20's women, and it can be basic data for new sizing systems and pattern development of bottoms.

강도 및 강성 조건을 고려한 탄소섬유강화플라스틱(CFRP) 로어 컨트롤 아암의 치수 최적설계 (Sizing Optimization of CFRP Lower Control Arm Considering Strength and Stiffness Conditions)

  • 임주희;도재혁;유상혁;강오성;강건욱;이종수
    • 한국CDE학회논문집
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.389-396
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    • 2016
  • The necessity for environment-friendly material development has emerged in the recent automotive field due to stricter regulations on fuel economy and environmental concerns. Accordingly, the automotive industry is paying attention to carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) material with high strength and stiffness properties while the lightweight. In this study, we determine a shape of lower control arm (LCA) for maximizing the strength and stiffness by optimizing the thickness of each layer when the stacking angle is fixed due to the CFRP manufacturing problems. Composite materials are laminated in the order of $0^{\circ}$, $90^{\circ}$, $45^{\circ}$, and $-45^{\circ}$ with a symmetrical structure. For the approximate optimal design, we apply a sequential two-point diagonal quadratic approximate optimization (STDQAO) and use a process integrated design optimization (PIDO) code for this purpose. Based on the physical properties calculated within a predetermined range of laminate thickness, we perform the FEM analysis and verify whether it satisfies the load and stiffness conditions or not. These processes are repeated for successive improved objective function. Optimized CFRP LCA has the equivalent stiffness and strength with light weight structure when compared to conventional aluminum design.

호주산 저품위 동광의 부유선별에 관한 특성조사 (The Survey on Froth Floatation of Low Grade Copper Ore from the Australia)

  • 김준수;김우진;황하;김명준;김완태
    • 자원리싸이클링
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    • v.25 no.6
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    • pp.98-104
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    • 2016
  • 본 연구의 목적은 호주산 저품위 동광을 부유선별하여 정광으로 회수하고자 할 때, 최적의 부유선별 조건을 얻고자 하는데 있다. 본 연구에서는 저품위 동광의 파분쇄 및 분급에 의해 선별에 적절한 입자크기의 시료를 얻은 다음, 이를 대상으로 부유선별 시 포수제, 활성제, 억제제의 첨가량 및 광액의 pH 변화가 부선효율에 미치는 영향을 조사함으로써 품위가 향상된 정광을 얻고자 하였다. 본 연구실험결과 얻은 최적의 부유선별 조건은 광액산도 pH9.0, 활성제 500 g/t $CuSO_4{\cdot}5H_2O$, 포수제 500 g/t K.E.X, 억제제 1500 g/t $Na_2SO_3$, 광액농도는 25 wt.% 이었다. 최적조건하에서 얻은 정광중의 동 품위 및 회수율은 각각 4 wt.%와 65 wt.% 정도이었고 대부분 철 성분을 함유한 광물 이었다.

SPA 브랜드의 의류치수 사용 실태에 관한 연구 (A Study on the Apparel Sizing System of SPA brands)

  • 이경화;조미나
    • 패션비즈니스
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.139-156
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    • 2015
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate various information relating to research on the dimensions of clothing used in the sale of products via the internet that used to target global SPA((Specialty Store Retailer of Private Label Apparel) brands sold in Korea. A total of 12 SPA brands including seven global SPA brands and five national. SPA brands were surveyed in this study. Brands were chosen net sales and consumer preferences the last three years. In all SPA brands, literal size designation such as S, M, L and numeric size designation such as 0, 2, 4 or 32, 34, 36 etc. were mixed, but in case of Jean, the size codes mark waist circumference were dominant. European size codes were more common in case of European brands while literal codes were more dominantly used for American size codes with in the US brands. By reviewing the measurement information of the body and product size, the product measurement methods of UNIQLO, FOREVER 21 and TOPTEN were much more accountable and excellent than other brands. However, most of the others didn't offer proper information such as pictograms or figures about measurement methods relating body sizes and product sizes. In addition, most of global SPA brands offered size conversion chart which consumers could reference, however of none of the national SPA brands offered a conversion size chart on their website. Regardless of the type of clothing, the coverage of clothing size was higher than in global SPA brands such as H&M GAP compared to national SPA brands. In particular, 8seconds did not present apparel size ranges that fit consumers' individual clothes sizes.

산업별 특성에 따른 소요공수 규모 산정 모델 연구 (A Study on the Scale Effort Estimation Model based on Industry Characteristics)

  • 곽송해;박구락;김동현
    • 디지털융복합연구
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    • v.14 no.11
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    • pp.233-240
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    • 2016
  • 정보시스템 개발 프로젝트는 다양한 리스크 요소로 인하여 많은 비용이 발생하는 구조를 가지고 있다. 일반적으로 정보시스템 소프트웨어 프로젝트가 납기 내에 성공적으로 이루어질 확률은 매우 낮아 프로젝트 실패를 막는 주요한 요인인 정형화된 비용에 대한 예측이 필요하다. 그러나 대부분의 프로젝트 규모 산정 시 산정 기준의 객관성이 부족하며, 프로젝트 수행 중 베이스라인의 관리가 제대로 이루어지지 않고 있는 실정이다. 이에 본 논문에서는 정보시스템 개발 프로젝트 초기에 현장에서 실용적이지 못한 기법의 한계를 극복하고자 방법론 기반으로 개발에 소요되는 공수를 산정하는 모델을 제안한다. 이러한 융복합적인 제안 모델을 통하여 정보시스템 개발 사업에서 소요되는 공수와 비용을 추정하는데 간단하게 활용할 수 있는 도구가 될 것으로 기대된다.

신사 정장 브랜드의 기성복 및 MTM 생산 실태 조사 - 백화점 입점 브랜드를 대상으로 - (Investigation of Production Condition of Ready-Made and MTM Men's Suits - Focusing on Brands of Department Store -)

  • 최진영;송화경
    • 한국의류산업학회지
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    • v.18 no.6
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    • pp.746-754
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    • 2016
  • This study aimed to investigate the status of ready-made suit and MTM (Made-to-measure) suit production with 10 men's suit brands turning over 200 billion won. Their target age group is late 30's to late 40's. Regarding production for the ready-made suit, eight out of 10 brands are using both KS and their own sizing. Classification of body shapes was done in 8 brands, mostly for upper body in simple ways (lean, normal, and obese). All brands are conducting fittings on only standard size. The number of sizes produced is varying depending on the brands; 9 to 17 for a jacket and 9 to 20 for a pair of pants. Regarding on the MTM production, four out of 10 brands have implemented MTM production. The rate of MTM production to their total production is about 15-20%. There were positive opinions on MTM production since it enables to reduce stocks through a small quantity of production for necessary sizes only. The reasons of orders of MTM production were answered as 'no size available', 'unique body shape', etc., and most orders were placed by consumers who are fat-bellied or have thick thighs. They have used MTM automated CAD software developed by Gerber Technology or Investronica. All the brands have utilized automated marker-making software and cutting facilities for MTM production.

선박속력 및 급유결정 문제에 대한 휴리스틱 알고리즘 (A Heuristic Algorithm for a Ship Speed and Bunkering Decision Problem)

  • 김화중;김재곤
    • 산업경영시스템학회지
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.19-27
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    • 2016
  • Maritime transport is now regarded as one of the main contributors to global climate change by virtue of its $CO_2$ emissions. Meanwhile, slow steaming, i.e., slower ship speed, has become a common practice in the maritime industry so as to lower $CO_2$ emissions and reduce bunker fuel consumption. The practice raised various operational decision issues in terms of shipping companies: how much ship speed is, how much to bunker the fuel, and at which port to bunker. In this context, this study addresses an operation problem in a shipping companies, which is the problem of determining the ship speed, bunkering ports, and bunkering amount at the ports over a given ship route to minimize the bunker fuel and ship time costs as well as the carbon tax which is a regulatory measure aiming at reducing $CO_2$ emissions. The ship time cost is included in the problem because slow steaming increases transit times, which implies increased in-transit inventory costs in terms of shippers. We formulate the problem as a nonlinear lot-sizing model and suggest a Lagrangian heuristic to solve the problem. The performance of the heuristic algorithm is evaluated using the data obtained from reliable sources. Although the problem is an operational problem, the heuristic algorithm is used to address various strategic issues facing shipping companies, including the effects of bunker prices, carbon taxes, and ship time costs on the ship speed, bunkering amount and number of bunkering ports. For this, we conduct sensitivity analyses of these factors and finally discuss study findings.

구조 최적설계를 위한 다양한 근사 최적화기법의 적용 및 비교에 관한 연구 (Comparative Study of Approximate Optimization Techniques in CAE-Based Structural Design)

  • 송창용;이종수
    • 대한기계학회논문집A
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    • v.34 no.11
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    • pp.1603-1611
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    • 2010
  • 본 논문에서는 범프 및 브레이크 하중조건 하에서 자동차 넉클의 강도설계에 관한 다양한 회귀모델 기반 근사최적화 기법 및 그 성능을 비교하고자 한다. 최적설계문제는 응력, 변형 및 진동주파수의 제한조건 하에서 중량을 최소화하여 설계변수인 단면치수가 결정되도록 정식화 된다. 비교 연구를 위해 사용된 근사화 기법은 순차적 근사최적화(SAO), 순차적 이점대각이차 근사최적화(STDQAO), 그리고 개선된 이동최소 자승법(MLSM) 기반 근사최적화 기법인 CF-MLSM 와 Post-MLSM 이다. SAO 와 STDQAO 적용을 위하여 상용 프로세스통합 설계최적화(PIDO) 코드를 사용하였다. 본 연구에 적용한 MLSM 기반 근사최적화 기법들은 제한조건의 가용성을 보장할 수 있도록 새롭게 개발되었다. 다양한 근사최적화 기법에 의한 설계결과는 설계 해의 개선 및 수렴속도 등 수치적 성능을 기준으로 실제 비근사최적화 결과와 비교검토 되었다.

유전알고리즘과 ε-NTU 모델을 이용한 다양한 열교환기의 최적설계 및 성능해석 (Heat Exchanger Ranking Program Using Genetic Algorithm and ε-NTU Method for Optimal Design)

  • 이순호;김민성;하만영;박상후;민준기
    • 대한기계학회논문집B
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    • v.38 no.11
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    • pp.925-933
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    • 2014
  • 오늘날 고성능컴퓨터로 인해 많은 산업분야에서 전산해석이 사용되고 있다. 하지만 정해진 컴퓨터자원과 시간에 의해 3 차원 풀 스케일 해석에서는 많은 어려움 등이 있다. 본 연구에서 ${\varepsilon}-NTU$ 식과 열교환기 성능의 데이터베이스를 이용해 열교환기의 성능예측프로그램을 개발하였다. 다양한 타입의 열교환기 형상정보와 성능데이터베이스를 구축하였고, 이를 바탕으로 정해진 작동 조건에서 열교환기의 성능을 계산하였다. 계산된 정보를 바탕으로 최적의 사이즈를 갖는 형상을 찾기 위해 유전알고리즘(Genetic Algorithm)을 이용하였다. 계산을 위해 상용 소프트웨어인 MATLAB 과 REFPROP 이 사용되었다.

항공기 구름 관측에 사용되는 전방산란 관측 기기의 정확도 향상을 위한 구름입자의 광학적 특성 계산 (Calculations of Optical Properties of Cloud Particles to Improve the Accuracy of Forward Scattering Probes for In-Situ Aircraft Cloud Measurements)

  • 엄준식
    • 대기
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.75-89
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    • 2020
  • Current in-situ airborne probes that measure the sizes of ice crystals smaller than 50 ㎛ are based on the concept that the measured intensity of light scattered by a particle in the forward and/or backward direction can be converted to particle size. The relationship between particle size and scattered light used in forward scattering probes is based on Mie theory, which assumes the refractive index of particle is known and all particles are spherical. Not only are small crystals not spherical, but also there are a wide variety of non-spherical shapes. Although it is well known that the scattering properties of non-spherical ice crystals differ from those of spherical shapes, the impacts of non-sphericity on derived in-situ particle size distributions are unknown. Thus, precise relationships between the intensity of scattered light and particle size and shape are required, as based on accurate calculations of scattering properties of ice crystals. In this study, single-scattering properties of ice crystals smaller than 50 ㎛ are calculated at a wavelength of 0.55 ㎛ using a numerically exact method (i.e., discrete dipole approximation). For these calculations, hexagonal ice crystals with varying aspect ratios are used to represent the shapes of natural small ice crystals to determine the errors caused by non-spherical ice crystals measured by forward scattering probes. It is shown that the calculated errors in sizing nonspherical ice crystals are at least 13% and 26% in forward (4~12°) and backward (168~176°) directions, respectively, and maximum errors are up to 120% and 132%.