• Title, Summary, Keyword: sizing

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Effects of Inorganic Coagulants on Sizing and Contamination in Newsprint Mill (무기 응결제가 신문용지의 사이즈도와 공정오염에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, Tai Ju;Seo, Jin Ho;Lee, Kwang Seob;Jeong, Sung Hyun;Ryu, Jeong Yong
    • Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
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    • v.47 no.3
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    • pp.40-46
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    • 2015
  • For some Korean newsprint mill, addition level of aluminum sulfate has been reduced because sulfur from aluminum sulfate has detrimental effect on the efficiency of anaerobic water treatment. At this moment, an unexpected decrease in sizing degree of TMP mixed newspaper was occurred. The phenomena means that hydrophobic substance usually originated from TMP cannot be fixed on the paper. This study focused on effect of alum and PAC on sizing of paper and contamination. Also, substitutability of PAC was discussed as a possible alternatives of aluminum sulfate under anaerobic condition of water treatment. Evaluation of sizing degree and pitch deposit potential were performed at the varied addition level of PAC and aluminum sulfate. Hydrophobic substance mainly derived from TMP could be fixed on the surface of fiber by PAC. Fines retention was not changed by replacing aluminum sulfate with PAC. Additionally, fixing of hydrophobic substance without excessive agglomeration can be enhanced by PAC with low molecular weight. Consequently, sizing degree of newspaper and contamination of recycling process of ONP can be controlled by low molecular weighted PAC.

A Survey of the Current Production and Sizing System of Korean Children's Wear Brands (국내 아동복 브랜드의 생산현황 및 치수체계 실태 조사)

  • Kim, Min-Jung;Uh, Mi-Kyung;Park, Sun-Kyung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Costume
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    • v.64 no.6
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    • pp.33-46
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    • 2014
  • The purpose of this study is to present basic data for the standardization of the sizing system for children's wear by investigating the current production and sizing system of Korean children's wear brands. The result of conducting a survey of 20 brands show the following: first, regarding the age bracket of Korean children's wear, it ranged from 3~15 years old. Most of the brands divided up the sizes into 4 or 5 different groups. Second, the utilization of a bodice basic pattern was low during the manufacturing of a pattern, and the basic pattern had been used for the item. Third, the designation of garment sizes were done using height or height-chest measurement or height-waist measurement. Fourth, the brands used the smallest size as the basic size in most cases. Most of the brands had similar deviations for any grading deviations. In conclusion, it appears necessary to restructure the unity of size designation and the sizing system in order to establish the sizing system of children's wear, which features diverse age brackets and various body types.

Standards Sizing for Clothing based on Anthropometry Data

  • Lee, Young-Suk
    • Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea
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    • v.33 no.5
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    • pp.337-354
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    • 2014
  • Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine the various sizing systems and specified anthropometric data as well as the fit issues used today. Background: A standard sizing system for clothes is a system that is developed based on body shape and size classifications method. To develop an efficient sizing system, we have to classify the database from the majority of the samples. Method: The method of this paper deals with the secular trend of height spanning from 1997 to 2010 along with the morphological feature patterns for Koreans. It also investigates the comparison of the growth pattern between male and female and the body shape classification according to the drop values based on the anthropometric data samples of KATS taken from the 2010 surveys in order to develop and define the new guidelines for the size designation systems of clothes. Results: The results are classified with body size and shape categories according to the drop values by age and sex in order to develop the new guidelines for the size designation systems based on these body dimensions from the analyzed anthropometric database. Conclusion: These new guidelines for the size designation system will eliminate the confusion that currently exists among countries and individual apparel designers. Application: The adopted standards could be used to compare the sizing systems worldwide.

Analysis of Women's Pants Sizing Systems of RTW Brands and Development of Sizing Systems by Age Groups (국내 여성복 브랜드의 바지 치수체계 분석 및 연령 집단별 치수체계 설정에 관한 연구)

  • Baek, Hye Yoon;Song, Hwa Kyung
    • Fashion & Textile Research Journal
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.733-743
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    • 2018
  • This study aimed to investigate whether women's wear brands' sizing systems for pants item are reflecting body size and shape of their target age customers. This study classified 17 women's wear brands into three target age groups (20-30s, 30-40s, and 40-50s) and surveyed their body sizing systems of pants item. Distribution of waist circumference and hip circumference of brands' sizing systems were compared with size distribution of women in the 7th Size Korea data. The sizing systems of brands targeting 20-30s covered 28.3% and those of brands targeting 40-50s covered 27.3%, while those of brands targeting 30-40s covers 46.6%. Regarding the body types, 80% of 20-30s target brands reflected normal type which is the average body type. However, all 40-50s target brands reflected normal type while 57.8% of women aged 40-50s had large waist shape. The 30-40s target brands reflected body types the best among target age groups since the body shape distribution of the brands was similar to that of 30-40 year old woman in Size Korea. For each age group, 6 sizes with 25.2~27.8% coverage rates were proposed. The 70-91, 73-91, 73-94 sizes were overlapped between the 20-30s and the 30-40s groups. The 76-91, 76-94, 79-94 sizes were overlapped between the 30-40s and 40-50s groups. Pants size has been found to increase in waist circumference compared to hip circumference as age increased.

Survey on the Brand of Online Custom Dress Shirts and Analysis of the Sizing System (온라인 맞춤 드레스셔츠 업체 현황조사 및 치수체계 분석)

  • An, Dong-joo;Lee, Jeong-yim
    • Fashion & Textile Research Journal
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.556-568
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    • 2018
  • In this study, we surveyed the current status and sizing system of the custom dress shirts sold through online shopping, compared with the sizing system of the ready-made dress shirts. We tried to collect the information needed to make the well fitted dress shirts for middle-aged men from this study. The 17 online custom dress shirt brands were selected and the sales type, sales price, design options and size options of each brand were analyzed. The sizing systems of online custom dress shirt brands were compared with the sizing system of the 10 ready made dress shirt brands. The result showed that online custom dress shirts brands offered a variety of design options and size options to meet the consumers' individuality, taste and demand for good fit. In the ready-made brands, all 10 brands were using the same size notation system. In the same size designation, the difference in product size among the ready-made brands showed a tendency to be smaller than the online custom brands. The online custom brands had the different size notation system among brands. The size notation, the number of size designation and the size interval were different for each brand. Also, in the online custom brands, the product size among brands differed from each other in the same size designation. Therefore, the standardized size information and sizing system for middle-aged men that could be used as criteria when making the product size and pattern design in online custom brands were needed.

A Study of the Usage and Sizing Selecting of the Apparels listed in On-line and Catalog Shopping (온라인 및 카탈로그 통신판매 의류 이용현황 및 치수선택에 대한 연구)

  • 김선희;최혜선
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.26 no.7
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    • pp.1015-1025
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    • 2002
  • This study is aimed at investigating and developing the use and sizing system of the apparels listed in on-line and catalog shopping in Korea. This is a basic study for an apparel sizing system to be developed, which could be used to approach consumers more easily and provide improved fitness and accuracy in terms of size and style of apparels for fashion E-commerce. A survey was conducted among the consumers who are more than 18-years-old and purchased more than two times the apparels listed in on-line and catalog shopping of two selected catalog shopping enterprises, and its statistical results are analysed from 281 respondents' questionnaires. The results of the study are as follows: 1. According to the result of the survey on the use and sizing system of the apparels listed in. on-line and catalog shopping, the consumers who purchased once apparels continue doing so in the same manner. A catalog shopping is the most preferred form of shopping. The most dissatisfying part in purchasing apparels is a poor quality of 'texture', and the second biggest problem is about 'size'About 51.2 percent of the apparels were not worn or even returned, while the top reason for that is 'Inappropriate size' and 'color', and 'texture'comes next on the list. 2. According to the survey on the recognition-rate concerning common' body size, most respondents were aware of their height and weight, and So percent of respondents said that they were aware of their waist circumference. But, chest circumference and hip circumference were recognized only by 58.4 percent and 35.6 percent of respondents, respectively. 3. According to the survey on difference between men and women, the male consumers have less aware of hip circumference than the female counterparts. The females have much more dissatisfaction with apparel sizing system and show higher return-rate of purchased apparels than the males.

Analysis of Preferences Based on Purchasing Frequencies and Recognitions of Sizing System for Female Garments (여성복의 구매빈도에 의한 선호도 및 치수 시스템 인지도에 관한 분석)

  • Koo, Hee-Kyung
    • Journal of the Korea Fashion and Costume Design Association
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.125-134
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    • 2011
  • The research is a survey and analysis of female apparel preferences, and recognition of the KS sizing system for adult female garments. The practical surveys in this research are examined by total number of subjects, 200 women who are living in Seoul, South Korea. The homogeneity test using Chi-square statistics, and the analysis of frequencies and ratios of contingency tables were performed with the data which are classified by age, education level, income level and housing modalities. The findings in this study are as follows: 1. Women's preferences for purchasing female garments indicate significant differences between subjects, such as age, education level, income level and housing modalities. Moreover, the following five types of adult female garments were analyzed in this study: upper garment, lower garment, one-piece apparel, sportswear and sleepwear. The results of the preference study show an indirect understanding of the KSK 0051 classification system for subjects of the survey. Therefore the preference study can be used as a pilot study for the sizing recognition survey. 2. Women's recognition of the KSK 0051 sizing system for adult female adult garments do not indicate significant differences based on the characteristics of age, education level, income level and housing modalities. The low recognition of the KS sizing system is due to too many details and complex numbers of application for users. Therefore, the sizing system should be simplified and rearranged to be more effective and have more recognizable categories.

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A Study on the School Uniform Pants Sizing System depending on Lower Body Type for Highschool Girls (여고생 하반신 체형특성에 따른 교복바지 치수설정에 관한 연구)

  • Choi, Eun-Hee;Do, Wol-Hee
    • Fashion & Textile Research Journal
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.834-845
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    • 2012
  • This study was conducted to provide basic information on developing highschool-uniform pants with more suitable fit and to suggest a sizing system for highschool girls' uniform pants that adequately reflects their body figures. To understand the features of high school girls' lower body type, the body measurement values of 833 girls from 16~18 years of age based on Size Korea(2010) were analyzed statistically. For the classification of lower body type for high school girls, a factor analysis and cluster analysis were conducted. The collected data were processed with the programs SPSS 18.0 for windows. The results in this study are follows: The lower body types for high school girls were divided into 3 groups. Body Type A is average stature but the biggest circumference, Type B is the biggest stature and the medium body type, Type C is the smallest stature and skeleton structure. KS size intervals were used for frequency distribution of height and waist for the lower body. Sizing system of the uniform company and frequency distribution of sizes were compared. Using the two-way distribution of highschool girls' waist circumference and hip circumference, sizing system considering body type distribution and high frequency distribution section of sizes was suggested. This study established new sizing system depending on lower body fixed as 26 number of sizes. The most suitable standard is fixed as 12 number of sizes ; 64-88, 64-91, 67-88, 67-91, 67-94, 70-91, 70-94, 70-97, 73-94, 73-97, 76-97, 76-100. The coverage is also calculated. And the coverage of new standard was 63.5%. The continuous study on the uniform pants sizing system of the obesity types is required.

A Study on Actual Conditions and Sizing Systems of Domestic Glove Production Companies (국내 장갑 제조업체의 실태조사 및 치수체계에 관한 연구)

  • Choi Hei-Sun;Kim Eun-Kyong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Costume
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    • v.55 no.2
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    • pp.116-128
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    • 2005
  • The aim of this study is to understand problems with both fit and sizing system of gloves by analyzing the glove production industries with an emphasis on the sizing system, production measurement system, and general marking situation. Also, to suggest the basic raw materials for improving sizing system for gloves, actual glove control sizes were compared to the anthropometric data of the previous study Fifteen domestic production companies were participated in this study-Domestic glove production companies established their own sizing system by copying inter-national brand's glove sizing system or by their experience. The Korean Standard of gloves and the 1997 Korean Standard Anthropometrics Measurement for producing glove patterns are not considered because of its discordance with the reality of the required measurements. Domestic glove production companies used different size designation and labeling system. Size measurement unit also showed difference among the glove production companies. Some companies used 'cm', some used 'mm', some used 'inch' for the measurement unit. In general, companies produced 5 to 4 sizes in one design of glove and the production was the highest in M and L size. In 9 out of 15 companies preferred control size as hand length and hand circumference. For reference size, most of the companies preferred finger circumference, finger length, palm length, hand breadth, crotch height, and hand thickness. Actual glove sizes were compared to the anthropometric data of the previous study. The results indicated that most of the measurements of actual glove sizes were significantly larger than the anthropometric data.

A Study 2nd Proposal on the Sizing System for Middle-School Girls' Clothing (여중생의 기성복 치수적합성과 치수체계에 관한 연구)

  • Kim Nok-Yeon;Choi Hei-Sun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Costume
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    • v.55 no.6
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    • pp.67-81
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    • 2005
  • The purpose of this study is to evaluate a sizing system of ready-to-wear clothes for middle-school girls. Results of the study are as follows. 1. Results of the survey revealed most middle-school girls preferred garments for women like unisex-casual and young-casual, and prioritized overall style and design over sizing issues. However, when they purchased clothes, they were dissatisfied with the poor fit of ready-to-wear clothing, which is a little too big for average middle-school girls. 2. There is a difference between a brand's target age and its average consumer age. $96.7\%$, of respondents purchased clothes from unisex-casual and young-casual brands, which sizes did not fit for them. Most of these brands had female adults ages 18 to 24 as their targets, whose somatotypes do not correspond with those of girls 12 to 15 years old. 3. Body measurements of those in age groups from 12 to 15 and from 10 to 24 were analyzed to identify physical differences between middle-school girls and female adults, which confirmed the relevance of different sizing systems for each age group. As a result, it is undesirable that middle school girls' clothes are designed in accordance with sizing system for female adults' garments. 4. Using the two-wav distribution of middle school girls' stature-bust circumference for upper garments, and stature-waist circumference for lower garments, this study establishes a sizing system in sections of high frequency. The size intervals of stature and circumference were 5cm and 3cm respectively.