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A Study on the Effective Bicycle Fitting Method for Injury Prevention (For the Development of Bicycle Fitting System)

  • Shon, Gyoung-Hoan
    • Journal of the Korea Society of Computer and Information
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.145-154
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    • 2020
  • This paper proposes a corresponding bicycle fitting method through a number of clinical results and experiments, with the aim of standardizing the comprehensive bicycle fitting method with the aim of developing a system that incorporates bicycle fitting software and hardware to proceed more precisely and quickly. This bicycle fitting method can determine the value of bicycle setting for the rider through in-depth counseling, bicycle check, sophisticated body sizing and analysis, and from the bicycle adjusted to this setting, the posture and pedaling torque can be analyzed through fixed lading, which can be followed to find the most efficient setting value and optimize the bicycle to meet the needs of the rider. Such a fitting method can increase the satisfaction of bicycle riders and also be expected to prevent injury through accurate bicycle setting values. This paper can be established as a bicycle fitting technology that can be recognized even in the global market if the final bicycle fitting system is implemented as the result presented in the most concrete domestic and foreign countries.

A Comparative Study on Surrogate Models and Sensitivity Analysis for Structure Design of Automatic Salt Collector Using Orthogonal Array Experiment (직교배열실험을 이용한 자동채염기 구조설계의 민감도해석과 대리모델 비교 연구)

  • Song, Chang Yong;Lee, Dong-Jun
    • Journal of Convergence for Information Technology
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    • v.10 no.7
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    • pp.138-146
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    • 2020
  • The paper deals with comparative study of characteristics of surrogate models and sensitivity evaluation using design of experiments in order to enhance and analysis the structure design of an automatic salt collector under various design load conditions. Orthogonal array design based on numerical analysis was used for the design of experiments. The thickness sizing variables of main structure member were considered the design factors, and the output responses were selected from the strength performances as well as the weight. The quantitative effects on responses for each design factor were evaluated from the orthogonal array experiment. Optimum design case was also identified to improve the strength performances with weight minimization. Using the orthogonal array experiment. various surrogate models such as response surface model, Kriging model, and Chebyshev orthogonal polynomial were generated. The orthogonal array experiment results were validated by the surrogate modeling results. The most suitable surrogate model was the response surface model for the exploration of design space of the automatic salt collector.

Cost-based design of residential steel roof systems: A case study

  • Rajan, S.D.;Mobasher, B.;Chen, S.Y.;Young, C.
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.165-180
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    • 1999
  • The cost effectiveness of using steel roof systems for residential buildings is becoming increasingly apparent with the decrease in manufacturing cost of steel components, reliability and efficiency in construction practices, and the economic and environmental concerns. While steel has been one of the primary materials for structural systems, it is only recently that its use for residential buildings is being explored. A comprehensive system for the design of residential steel roof truss systems is presented. In the first stage of the research the design curves obtained from the AISI-LRFD code for the manufactured cross-sections were verified experimentally. Components of the truss systems were tested in order to determine their member properties when subjected to axial force and bending moments. In addition, the experiments were simulated using finite element analysis to provide an additional source of verification. The second stage of the research involved the development of an integrated design approach that would automatically design a lowest cost roof truss given minimal input. A modified genetic algorithm was used to handle sizing, shape and topology variables in the design problem. The developed methodology was implemented in a software system for the purpose of designing the lowest cost truss that would meet the AISI code provisions and construction requirements given the input parameters. The third stage of the research involved full-scale testing of a typical residential steel roof designed using the developed software system. The full scale testing established the factor of safety while validating the analysis and design procedures. Evaluation of the test results indicates that designs using the present approach provide a structure with enough reserve strength to perform as predicted and are very economical.

A Study on The Wearing Condition of Jeans for Development of Slim-fit Jeans Pattern (슬림핏 청바지 패턴 개발을 위한 청바지 착용 실태 조사)

  • Shin, Kayoung;Do, Wolhee
    • Fashion & Textile Research Journal
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.349-356
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    • 2020
  • This study provides information on how to improve the wearing sensation and the fit of slim-fit jeans through an analysis of actual wearing conditions and dissatisfaction. The study is based on a questionnaire survey. A survey was conducted on 296 women in their 20s living in Korea to analyze wearing dissatisfaction with slim-fit jeans. The study used descriptive statistics for analysis using SPSS Statistics Ver.23. Surveys on the actual situation of wearing jeans and level of dissatisfaction indicated that most women in their 20s mainly wore slim-fit jeans and were aware of the size of their jeans. Most tended to double-check the size of the jeans, indicating that the inaccurate sizing system of slim-fit jeans caused confusion for consumers. In addition, the results of the survey on the most considered parts of the body when consumers buy jeans are waist, thigh and leg length. They insisted that their waists were thin and their thighs were thicker than their waists; so their pants would not fit and they were obese. There is a problem between waist size and thigh size; therefore, it is necessary to develop new patterns for slim-fit jeans with improved fit around the waist area that can improve the negative results of surveys on the level of dissatisfaction, indicating discomfort in the waist, belly, and thigh areas while wearing slim-fit jeans.

Development of a split beam transducer for measuring fish size distribution (어체 크기의 자동 식별을 위한 split beam 음향 변환기의 재발)

  • 이대재;신형일
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Fisheries and Ocean Technology
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.196-213
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    • 2001
  • A split beam ultrasonic transducer operating at a frequency of 70 kHz to use in the fish sizing echo sounder was developed and the acoustic radiation characteristics were experimentally analyzed. The amplitude shading method utilizing the properties of the Chebyshev polynomials was used to obtain side lobe levels below -20 dB and to optimize the relationship between main beam width and side lobe level of the transducer, and the amplitude shading coefficient to each of the elements was achieved by changing the amplitude contribution of elements with 4 weighting transformers embodied in the planar array transducer assembly. The planar array split beam transducer assembly was composed of 36 piezoelectric ceramics (NEPEC N-21, Tokin) of rod type of 10 mm in diameter and 18.7 mm in length of 70 kHz arranged in the rectangular configuration, and the 4 electrical inputs were supplied to the beamformer. A series of impedance measurements were conducted to check the uniformity of the individual quadrants, and also in the configurations of reception and transmission, resonant frequency, and the transmitting and receiving characteristics were measured in the water tank and analyzed, respectively. The results obtained are summarized as follows : 1. Average resonant and antiresonant frequencies of electrical impedance for four quadrants of the split beam transducer in water were 69.8 kHz and 83.0 kHz, respectively. Average electrical impedance for each individual transducer quadrant was 49.2$\Omega$ at resonant frequency and 704.7$\Omega$ at antiresonant frequency. 2. The resonance peak in the transmitting voltage response (TVR) for four quadrants of the split beam transducer was observed all at 70.0 kHz and the value of TVR was all about 165.5 dB re 1 $\mu$Pa/V at 1 m at 70.0 kHz with bandwidth of 10.0 kHz between -3 dB down points. The resonance peak in the receiving sensitivity (SRT) for four combined quadrants (quad LU+LL, quad RU+RL, quad LU+RU, quad LL+RL) of the split beam transducer was observed all at 75.0 kHz and the value of SRT was all about -177.7 dB re 1 V/$\mu$Pa at 75.0 kHz with bandwidth of 10.0 kHz between -3 dB down points. The sum beam transmitting voltage response and receiving senstivity was 175.0 dB re 1$\mu$Pa/V at 1 m at 75.0 kHz with bandwidth of 10.0 kHz, respectively. 3. The sum beam of split beam transducer was approximately circular with a half beam angle of $9.0^\circ$ at -3 dB points all in both axis of the horizontal plane and the vertical plane. The first measured side lobe levels for the sum beam of split beam transducer were -19.7 dB at $22^\circ$ and -19.4 dB at $-26^\circ$ in the horizontal plane, respectively and -20.1 dB at $22^\circ$ and -22.0 dB at $-26^\circ$ in the vertical plane, respectively. 4. The developed split beam transducer was tested to estimate the angular position of the target in the beam through split beam phase measurements, and the beam pattern loss for target strength corrections was measured and analyzed.

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Effect of Strength Increasing Sizes on the Quality of Fiberboard (섬유판(纖維板)의 증강(增强)사이즈제(齊)가 재질(材質)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Shin, Dong So;Lee, Hwa Hyoung
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.19-29
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    • 1976
  • The fiberboard and paper mills in this country are much affected by the price hikes and shortage of phenolic resins, since phenolic acid as a raw material depends on imported good. It is prerequisite to fiberboard industry to help replace with other sized and stabilize the prices and supply of them, improving the quality of boards. Thus, the present study was carried out to examine the effect of strength increasing sized such as urea formaldehyde resin (anion and cation type) and urea melamine copolymer resin, on the quality of the wet forming hardboard, and comparing them with two types of proprietary modified melamine resins, and ordinary size, phenol resin. The Asplund pulp was prepared from wood wastes mixed with 20 percent of lauan and 80 percent of pines as a fibrous material. After sizing agents were added at a pH of 4.5 for 10 minutes with alum in the beater, the stock was made in the form of wet sheet, prepared, and then performed by hot pressing cycle: $180^{\circ}C$, $50-6-5kg/cm^2$, 1-2-7 minutes. The properties of hardboard were examined after air conditioning. The results obtained are summarized as follows: 1. There is a significant difference in specific gravity among hardboards that were treated with strength increasing resins, but no difference is effected by the increase in the resin content. In the case of modified melamine resin, its specific gravity is highest. The middle group comprises cation type of urea resin, anion type of urea resin, and acid colloid of urea-melamine copolymer resin. The lowest is phenolic resin. 2. The difference of the moisture content of hardboard both by the resins and by the amount of each resin applied is significant. The moisture content of hardboard becomes lower along with the increase of each resin content, but there is no difference between 2 and 3 percent. 3. For water absorption, there is a significant difference both in the adhesives used and in the amount of paraffin wax emulsion. The water resistance becomes higher inn proportion to the content of the paraffin wax emulsion. To satisfy KS F standards of the water resistance, a proprietary modified melamine resin (p-6100) and modified cation type of urea resin (p-1500) do not require any paraffin wax emulsion, but in the case of anion type of urea resin, cation type of urea resin, and urea-melamine copolymer resin, 1 percent of paraffin wax emulsion is needed, and 2 percent of paraffin wax emulsion in the case of phenolic resin. 4. The difference of flexural strength of hardboard both by the resins and by the amount of each resin is significant. Modified melamine resin shows the highest degree of flexural strength. Among the middle group are urea-melamine copolymer resin, p-1500, anion type of urea resin, and cation type of urea resin. Phenolic resin is the lowest. The cause may be attributable to factors combined with the pressing temperature, sizing effect, and thermal efficiency of press platens heated electrically. 5. Considering the economic advantages and properties of hardboard, it is proposed that urea-melamine copolymer resin and cation type of urea resin be used for the development of the fiberboard industry. It is desirable to further develop the modified urea-melamine copolymer resin and cation type of urea resin through continuous study.

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Development of New Materials of Ginseng by Nanoparticles

  • Yang, Deok Chun;Mathiyalagan, Ramya;Yang, Dong Uk;Perez, Zuly Elizabeth Jimenez;Hurh, Joon;Ahn, Jong Chan
    • Proceedings of the Plant Resources Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.3-3
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    • 2018
  • For centuries, Panax ginseng Meyer (Korean ginseng) has been widely used as a medicinal herb in Korea, China, and Japan. Ginsenosides are a class of triterpene saponins and recognized as the bioactive components in Korean ginseng. Ginsenosides, which can be classified broadly as protopanaxadiols (PPD), protopanaxatriols (PPT), and oleanolic acids, have been shown to flaunt a vast array of pharmacological activities such as immune-modulatory, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, anti-diabetic, and antioxidant effects. In recent years, a number of ginseng and ginsenoside researches have increasingly gained wide attention owing to its unique pharmacological properties. Although good efficacies of ginsenosides have been reported, lack of target specific delivery into tumor sites, low solubility, and low bioavailability due to modifications in gastro-intestinal environments limit their biomedical application in clinical trials. As a result to this major challenge, nanotechnology and drug delivery techniques play a significant role to solve this problematic issue. Thus, we reported the preparation of poly-ethylene glycol (PEG) and glycol chitosan (GC) functionalized to ginsenoside (Compound K and PPD) conjugates via hydrolysable ester bonds with improved aqueous solubility and pH-dependent drug release. In vitro cytotoxicity assays revealed that PEG-CK, and PPD-CK conjugates exhibited lower cytotoxicity compared to bare CK and PPD in HT29 cells. However, GC-CK conjugates exhibited higher and similar cytotoxicity in HT29 and HepG2 cells. Furthermore, GC-CK-treated RAW264.7 cells did not exhibit significant cell death at higher concentration of treatment which supports the biocompatibility of the polymer conjugates. They also inhibited nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW64.7 cells. In addition to polymer-ginsenoside conjugates, silver (AgNps) and gold nanoparticles (AuNps) have been successfully synthesized by green chemistry using different m. The biosynthesized nanoparticles demonstrated antimicrobial efficacy, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant activity, biofilm inhibition, and anticoagulant effect. Special interest on the effective delivery methods of ginsenoside to treatment sites is the focus of metal nanoparticle research.In short, nano-sizing of ginsenoside results in an increased water solubility and bioavailability. The use of nano-sized ginsenoside and P. ginseng mediated metallic nanoparticles is expected to be effective on medical platform against various diseases in the future.

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Experimental Study of Collapse Delay Effect of Riprap on Dam Slope (사력댐 사석 보호공의 붕괴 지연 효과에 대한 실험 연구)

  • Jeong, Seokil;Kim, Seung Wook;Kim, Hong Taek;Lee, Seung Oh
    • Journal of Korean Society of Disaster and Security
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.31-38
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    • 2018
  • The 99.1% of small dam and most of the levees in Korea are soil dam which can be constructed with lower cost and less effort compared with ones made of concrete. However, they are so vulnerable to overflow. Sudden collapses of these strucrues lead to increase flow rate rapidly, which may cause catastrophic problems in downstream regions. In this study, the experimental study on the collapse delay effect of riprap that was laid on slope of soil levee was carried out. A prismatic rectangular open channel was used and three different sizes of the riprap were installed on slope of a scaled earth dam. A new formula for the collapse time of the levee with the installation of riprap was presented, using the previous researches and the dimensional analysis. In this process, an unsteady flow condition was considered to derive the deviation time of the riprap. And additional experiments were conducted to understand the effect of reinforcement of riprap, and it was found that the reinforcement of riprap was more effective than twice sizing of intial riprap. If the collapse time is delayed, EAP (Emergency Action Plan) and forecasting can greatly reduce the degree of flood damage. Also, it will be meaningful that the results of this study are used for river design.

Wavelet Analysis of Ultrasonic Echo Waveform and Application to Nondestructive Evaluation (초음파 에코파형의 웨이브렛 변환과 비파괴평가에의 응용)

  • Park, Ik-Keun;Park, Un-Su;Ahn, Hyung-Keun;Kwun, Sook-In;Byeon, Jai-Won
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Nondestructive Testing
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    • v.20 no.6
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    • pp.501-510
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    • 2000
  • Recently, advanced signal analysis which is called "time-frequency analysis" has been used widely in nondestructive evaluation applications. Wavelet transform(WT) and Wigner Distribution are the most advanced techniques for processing signals with time-varying spectra. Wavelet analysis method is an attractive technique for evaluation of material characterization nondestructively. Wavelet transform is applied to the time-frequency analysis of ultrasonic echo waveform obtained by an ultrasonic pulse-echo technique. In this study, the feasibility of noise suppression of ultrasonic flaw signal and frequency-dependent ultrasonic group velocity and attenuation coefficient using wavelet analysis of ultrasonic echo waveform have been verified experimentally. The Gabor function is adopted the analyzing wavelet. The wavelet analysis shows that the variations of ultrasonic group velocity and attenuation coefficient due to the change of material characterization can be evaluated at each frequency. Furthermore, to assure the enhancement of detectability and naw sizing performance, both computer simulated results and experimental measurements using wavelet signal processing are used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the noise suppression of ultrasonic flaw signal obtained from austenitic stainless steel weld including EDM notch.

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Aluminum Powder Metallurgy Current Status, Recent Research and Future Directions

  • Schaffer, Graham
    • Proceedings of the Korean Powder Metallurgy Institute Conference
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    • pp.7-7
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    • 2001
  • The increasing interest in light weight materials coupled to the need for cost -effective processing have combined to create a significant opportunity for aluminum P/M. particularly in the automotive industry in order to reduce fuel emissions and improve fuel economy at affordable prices. Additional potential markets for Al PIM parts include hand tools. Where moving parts against gravity represents a challenge; and office machinery, where reciprocating forces are important. Aluminum PIM adds light weight, high compressibility. low sintering temperatures. easy machinability and good corrosion resistance to all advantages of conventional iron bm;ed P/rv1. Current commercial alloys are pre-mixed of either the AI-Si-Mg or AL-Cu-Mg-Si type and contain 1.5% ethylene bis-stearamide as an internal lubricant. The powder is compacted in closed dies at pressure of 200-500Mpa and sintered in nitrogen at temperatures between $580~630^{\circ}C$ in continuous muffle furnace. For some applications no further processing is required. although most applications require one or more secondary operations such as sizing and finishing. These sccondary operations improve the dimension. properties or appearance of the finished part. Aluminum is often considered difficult to sinter because of the presence of a stable surface oxide film. Removal of the oxide in iron and copper based is usually achieved through the use of reducing atmospheres. such as hydrogen or dissociated ammonia. In aluminum. this occurs in the solid st,lte through the partial reduction of the aluminum by magncsium to form spinel. This exposcs the underlying metal and facilitates sintering. It has recently been shown that < 0.2% Mg is all that is required. It is noteworthy that most aluminum pre-mixes contain at least 0.5% Mg. The sintering of aluminum alloys can be further enhanced by selective microalloying. Just 100ppm pf tin chnnges the liquid phase sintering kinetics of the 2xxx alloys to produce a tensile strength of 375Mpa. an increilse of nearly 20% over the unmodified alloy. The ductility is unnffected. A similar but different effect occurs by the addition of 100 ppm of Pb to 7xxx alloys. The lend changes the wetting characteristics of the sintering liquid which serves to increase the tensile strength to 440 Mpa. a 40% increase over unmodified aIloys. Current research is predominantly aimed at the development of metal matrix composites. which have a high specific modulus. good wear resistance and a tailorable coefficient of thermal expnnsion. By controlling particle clustering and by engineering the ceramic/matrix interface in order to enhance sintering. very attractive properties can be achicved in the ns-sintered state. I\t an ils-sintered density ilpproaching 99%. these new experimental alloys hnve a modulus of 130 Gpa and an ultimate tensile strength of 212 Mpa in the T4 temper. In contest. unreinforcecl aluminum has a modulus of just 70 Gpa.

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