• Title, Summary, Keyword: sizing

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Characteristics of Building Structural System with IsoTruss® Grid (IsoTruss® 그리드를 적용한 건물구조시스템의 특성)

  • Kim, Tae-Heon;Kim, Young-Chan
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.737-742
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    • 2017
  • Recently, unconventional high-rise building shapes have attracted attention as a landmark of metropolitan cities and the search for innovative building forms in architecture is ongoing. In this study, $Isotruss^{(R)}$ grid(ITG) used in smaller scale structures was applied to building structural systems and its structural performance was examined. The structural behavior of an ITG was compared with that of a diagrid structure as a reference structure. The stiffness-based design method of the diagrid system was used for the preliminary design stage of member sizing in an ITG. The structural design of 16, 32, and 48-story buildings was carried out for the two systems with the same size. The angle of the inclined columns for ITG and diagrid was $59^{\circ}$ and $68.2^{\circ}$, respectively. The lateral stiffness, steel tonnage of the exterior frame, axial strength ratio, story drift ratio, and natural frequency of the two systems were compared. Based on the analysis result of 6 buildings, the two systems had similar structural capacity; 93.3% and 88.7% of the lateral load was carried by the perimeter frame in the ITG system and diagrid system, respectively. This suggests that the ITG system is better in arranging core columns. Therefore, the proposed ITG system has not only a unique façade, but also substantial structural capacity equivalent to the existing system.

Estimation of the Kinetic Energy of Raindrops for Hourly Rainfall Considering the Rainfall Particle Distribution (강우입자분포를 고려한 시강우의 강우에너지 산정 연구)

  • Kim, Seongwon;Jeong, Anchul;Lee, Giha;Jung, Kwansue
    • Journal of the Korean GEO-environmental Society
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    • v.19 no.12
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    • pp.15-23
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    • 2018
  • The occurrence of soil erosions in Korea is mostly driven by flowing water which has a close relationship with rainfalls. The soil eroded by rainfalls flows into and deposits in the river and it polluted the water resources and making the rivers become difficult to be managed. Recently, the frequency of heavy rainfall events that are more than 30 mm/hr has been increasing in Korea due to the influence of climate change, which creating a favourable condition for the occurrence of soil erosion within a short time. In this study, we proposed a method to estimate the distribution of rainfall intensity and to calculate the energy produced by a single rainfall event using the cumulative distribution function that take into account of the physical characteristics of rainfall. The raindrops kinetic energy estimated by the proposed method are compared with the measured data from the previous studies and it is noticed that the raindrops kinetic energy estimated by the rainfall intensity variation is very similar to the results concluded from the previous studies. In order to develop an equation for estimating rainfall kinetic energy, rainfall particle size data measured at a rainfall intensity of 0.254~152.4 mm/hr were used. The rainfall kinetic energy estimated by applying the cumulative distribution function tended to increase in the form of a power function in the relation of rainfall intensity. Based on the equation obtained from this relationship, the rainfall kinetic energy of 1~80 mm/hr rainfall intensity was estimated to be $0.03{\sim}48.26Jm^{-2}mm^{-1}$. Based on the relationship between rainfall intensity and rainfall energy, rainfall kinetic energy equation is proposed as a power function form and it is expected that it can be used in the design of short-term operated facility such as the sizing of sedimentation basin that requires prediction of soil loss by a single rainfall event.

Analysis of Broken Rice Separation Efficiency of a Laboratory Indented Cylinder Separator

  • Kim, Myoung Ho;Park, Seung Je
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.95-102
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: Using a laboratory indented cylinder separator, broken rice separation experiments were conducted and the characteristics of the separation process were studied to provide information for developing a prototype indented cylinder broken rice separator. Methods: Rice (Ilmi variety) milled in a local RPC was used for the experiment. Rice kernels were classified into four groups according to their length l; whole kernels (I > 3.75 mm), semi-whole kernels (2.5 < I < 3.75 mm), broken kernels (1.75 < I < 2.5 mm), and foreign matters (I < 1.75 mm). A laboratory grain cleaner, Labofix '90 (Schmidt AG, Germany) was used for the experiments. Experiments were designed as a $4{\times}4$ factorial arrangement in randomized blocks with three replications. Cylinder rotational speeds (17, 34, 51, 68 rpm) and trough angles (15, 37.5, 60, $82.5^{\circ}$) were the two factors and feed rates (25, 50 kg/h), indent shapes (Us, $S_1$ type), and indent sizes (2.5, 3.75 mm) were treated as the blocks. Two 125 g samples and one 125 g sample were taken at the cylinder outlet and from the trough, respectively. The whole, semi-whole, and broken kernel weight ratio of the samples and feed was determined by a rice sizing device. From these weight ratios, purities, degrees of extraction and coefficient of separation efficiency were calculated. Results: Trough angle, cylinder speed, and their interaction on the coefficient of separation efficiency were statistically significant. Cylinder speed of 17, 34, and 51 rpm made the most effective separation when the trough angle was $15^{\circ}$ or $37.5^{\circ}$, $60^{\circ}$, and $82.5^{\circ}$, respectively. Maximum values of coefficient of separation efficiency were in the range of 60 to 70% except when the indent size was 2.5 mm and were recorded for the combinations of low cylinder speed (17 rpm) with medium trough angle ($37.5^{\circ}$ or $60^{\circ}$). Indent shape did not appear to make any noticeable difference in separation efficiency. Conclusions: Due to the interaction effect, the trough angle needs to be increased appropriately when an increase in cylinder speed is made if a rapid drop of effectiveness of separation should be avoided. In commercial applications, $S_1$ type indents are preferred because of their better manufacturability and easier maintenance. For successful separation of broken kernels, the indent size should be set slightly bigger than the actual sizes of broken kernels: an indent size of 3.0 mm for separating broken kernels shorter than 2.5 mm.

Transport and management of diffuse pollutants using low impact development technologies applied to highly urbanized land uses (고도화 도시지역에 적용된 LID 기법의 비점오염물질 관리 및 이동)

  • Geronimo, F.K.F.;Choi, H.S.;Kim, L.H.
    • Journal of Wetlands Research
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.173-180
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    • 2019
  • This study was conducted to understand factors affecting TSS and heavy metals transport on the road, parking lot and roof. During storm events, heavy metals, which were mostly attached to TSS, were also transported when TSS was washed off in the road, parking lot and roof. This finding may be supported by the significant correlations between TSS load and total and soluble heavy metals load including Cr, Fe, Cu, and Pb (Pearson r value: 0.52 to 0.73; probability p value<0.01). Generation and transport of TSS and heavy metals were greater in the road and parking lot compared to the roof due to vehicular activities, slope and greater catchment areas of these sites. It was found that TSS transport during peak flows of storm events ranges from 65% to 75% implying that by controlling peak flows, TSS transportation to nearby water bodies may be decreased. Depending on the target TSS and heavy metal reduction, sizing of low impact development (LID) technologies and green infrastructures (GI) such as infiltration trench, tree box filter, and rain garden may be calculated. Future researchers were recommended to assess the limitations of the systems and determine the design considerations for these types of facilities.

A study on the program development for area optimizing of damper ports in road tunnels with transverse ventilation system (횡류식 도로터널의 급, 배기구 포트 개구면적 최적화 프로그램 개발 연구)

  • Jo, Hyeong-Je;Chun, Kyu-Myung;Min, Dea-Kee;Kim, Jong-Won;Beak, Jong-Hoon
    • Journal of Korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.177-188
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    • 2019
  • The purpose of the optimization of the installation of supply/exhaust ports for tunnels with transverse ventilation system is to supply fresh air from outside to inside of tunnels uniformly and exhaust pollutant from tunnels properly for creating safe and clean environment for tunnel users. For this purpose, a ventilation port area optimization program was developed to obtain a uniform supply or exhaust air volume inside a great depth double deck tunnel with transverse ventilation system. In order to area optimize the developed port sizing program, the wind velocity was measured in the duct of the currently operated tunnel with semi-transverse ventilation. Also 3D cfd was performed on the same tunnel and cfd results were compared to the measured value. As a result, the error rate between the predicted value from the program and measured value was 6.72%, while the error rate between the predicted value from the program and 3D cfd analysis value was 4.86%. Both of comparison results show less than 10% of error rate. Thus It is expected that supply/exhaust port optimization design of transverse ventilation tunnel can be possible with using this large exhaust port area optimization program.

Experimental Study of Collapse Delay Effect of Riprap on Dam Slope (사력댐 사석 보호공의 붕괴 지연 효과에 대한 실험 연구)

  • Jeong, Seokil;Kim, Seung Wook;Kim, Hong Taek;Lee, Seung Oh
    • Journal of Korean Society of Disaster and Security
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.31-38
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    • 2018
  • The 99.1% of small dam and most of the levees in Korea are soil dam which can be constructed with lower cost and less effort compared with ones made of concrete. However, they are so vulnerable to overflow. Sudden collapses of these strucrues lead to increase flow rate rapidly, which may cause catastrophic problems in downstream regions. In this study, the experimental study on the collapse delay effect of riprap that was laid on slope of soil levee was carried out. A prismatic rectangular open channel was used and three different sizes of the riprap were installed on slope of a scaled earth dam. A new formula for the collapse time of the levee with the installation of riprap was presented, using the previous researches and the dimensional analysis. In this process, an unsteady flow condition was considered to derive the deviation time of the riprap. And additional experiments were conducted to understand the effect of reinforcement of riprap, and it was found that the reinforcement of riprap was more effective than twice sizing of intial riprap. If the collapse time is delayed, EAP (Emergency Action Plan) and forecasting can greatly reduce the degree of flood damage. Also, it will be meaningful that the results of this study are used for river design.

Structure Design Sensitivity Analysis of Active Type DSF for Offshore Plant Float-over Installation Using Design of Experiments (실험계획법을 이용한 해양플랜트 플로트오버 설치 작업용 능동형 DSF의 구조설계 민감도 해석)

  • Kim, Hun-Gwan;Song, Chang Yong;Lee, Kangsu
    • Journal of Convergence for Information Technology
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.98-106
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    • 2021
  • The paper deals with comparative study on sensitivity analysis using various methods regarding to design of experiments for structure design of an active type DSF (Deck support frame) that was developed for float-over installation of offshore plant. The thickness sizing variables of structure member of the active type DSF were considered the design factors. The output responses were defined from the weight and the strength performances. Various methods such as orthogonal array design, Box-Behnken design, and Latin hypercube design were applied to the comparative study. In order to evaluate the approximation performance of the design space exploration according to the design of experiments, response surface method was generated for each design of experiment, and the accuracy characteristics of the approximation were reviewed. The design enhancement results such as numerical costs, weight minimization, etc. via the design of experiment methods were compared to the results of the best design. The orthogonal array design method represented the most improved results for the structure design of the active type DSF.

Application of Experimental Design Methods for Minimum Weight Design and Sensitivity Evaluation of Passive-Type Deck Support Frame for Offshore Plant Float-Over Installation (해양플랜트 플로트오버 설치 공법용 수동형 갑판 지지 프레임의 최소중량설계와 민감도 평가를 위한 실험계획법 응용)

  • Kim, Hun Gwan;Lee, Kangsu;Song, Chang Yong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.161-171
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    • 2021
  • This paper presents the findings of a comparative study on minimum weight design and sensitivity evaluation using different experimental design methods for the structural design of an active-type deck support frame (DSF) developed for the float-over installation of an of shore plant topside. The thickness sizing variables of the structural members of a passive-type DSF were considered the design factors, and the output responses were defined using the weight and strength performances. The design of the experimental methods applied in the comparative study of the minimum weight design and the sensitivity evaluation were the orthogonal array design, Box- Behnken design, and Latin hypercube design. A response surface method was generated for each design of the experiment to evaluate the approximation performance of the design space exploration according to the experimental design, and the accuracy characteristics of the approximation were reviewed. Regarding the minimum weight design, the design results, such as numerical costs and weight minimization, of the experimental design for the best design case, were evaluated. The Box- Behnken design method showed the optimum design results for the structural design of the passive-type DSF.

Studies on the Processing and Management Forms of Filatures (우리나라 제사공장의 공정 관리실태에 관한 조사연구)

  • 송기언;이인전
    • Journal of Sericultural and Entomological Science
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    • no.12
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    • pp.37-45
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    • 1970
  • The processing management forms of our country's filature factories in 1969 are summarized as follows. (1) About 80% of total cocoon collection is made within 5 days involving peak day, and 10% of cocoon collection is finished until 3 days before and after the peak day, (2) About 92% of alive cocoons transported on unpaved road, and about 40% of the cocoons purchased by all factories are loaded on trucks from common selling station which is far beyond 40km, therefore a new packing system of alive cocoons to drop the damage of cocoon qualities, should be taken. (3) 22% of all factories in our. country have only low-temperature cocoon drying machine. Therefore the installment of hot-air cocoon drying machine is required urgently. (4) In view of cocoon qualities in our country, the grouping method of cocoon for reeling. taken by about 50% of the factories at percent, which classify cocoons for reeling as high group (1,2,3,4 grades) and low group(5,6 grades), will have to be replaced by the method tat classify them high group (1,2 grades) middle group (3,4 grades), low group (5,6 grades). (5) The .ratio of cocoon assorting stood about 10% in multi-ends reeling, about 15% in automatic reeling, conclusively, the ratio of cocoon assorting for automatic reeling was higher tan that for multi-ends reeling. One person's ability for a day in cocoon assorting reaches to about 80-100kg. (6) Cocoon cooking condition requires the increase of the cooking time, the pressure and temperature used to be prolonged as much as the qualities of cocoons are material cocoon ior automatic and double cocoon machines are treated uncompletely. (7) Automatic silk reeling is being performed at 1-2$^{\circ}C$ lower in reeling water temperature and operated at about twice velocity. (8) The temperature and humidity of rereeling room stood at 25$^{\circ}C$, 67.2% R.H and 32.3$^{\circ}C$, 51.9% R.H of rereeling machine are showed, Average rereeling velocity is 233m/min and large reefs charged for one person are 7.5 reels and form of skein used in all factories is double skein. (9) About 73% of water sources for filature used under-earth water. About 48% of all filature factories in our country have not yet water purifying equipments. Installation of the equipment for these factories seems to be urgent, (10) Denier .balance, sizing reel, seriplane, are being used in most factories as self-inspection apparatus. (11) More than 90% of the factories use the vacum tank in rereeling process and about 20% of them use it in cocoon cooing process (12) Only 21% of the factories use chemicals in filature process. About all them use "Seracol 100" in cocoon cooking process and "Seracol 500" in rereeling process, (13) Above survey results explain each all factories show large difference in the processing management. Therefore, it is believed that intercommunication through seminar or technical exchange will contribute to the production evaluation of cocoon in our filature industry.

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Results of Preoperative Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy for Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer (국소진행성 직장암의 수술 전 동시화학방사선요법의 결과)

  • Choi, Sang-Gyu;Kim, Su-Ssan;Bae, Hoon-Sik
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.34-42
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    • 2007
  • [ $\underline{Purpose}$ ]: We performed a retrospective non-randomized clinical study of locally advanced rectal cancer, to evaluate the anal sphincter preservation rates, down staging rates and survival rates of preoperative chemoradiotherapy. $\underline{Materials\;and\;Methods}$: From January 2002 to December 2005, patients with pathologically confirmed rectal cancer with clinical stage T2 or higher, or patients with lymph node metastasis were enrolled in this study. A preoperative staging work-up was conducted in 36 patients. All patients were treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy, and curative resection was performed for 26 patients at Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital. Radiotherapy treatment planning was conducted with the use of planning CT for all patients. A total dose of $45.0{\sim}52.2\;Gy$ conventionally fractionated three-dimensional radiotherapy was delivered to the whole pelvis. Chemotherapy was given at the first and fifth week of radiation therapy with continuous infusion i.v. 5-FU (Fluorouracil) and LV (Leucovorine). Surgical resection was performed 2 to 4 weeks after the completion of the chemoradiotherapy regimen. $\underline{Results}$: The complete resection rate with negative resection margin was 100% (26/26). However, a pathologically complete response was not seen after curative resection. Surgery was done by LAR (low anterior resection) in 23 patients and APR (abdomino-perineal resection) in 3 patients. The sphincter preservation rate was 88.5% (23/26), down staging of the tumor occurred in 12 patients (46.2%) and down-sizing of the tumor occurred in 19 patients (73%). Local recurrence after surgical resection developed in 1 patient, and distant metastasis developed in 3 patients. The local recurrence free survival rate, distant metastasis free survival rate, and progression free survival rate were 96.7%, 87% and 83.1%, respectively. Treatment related toxicity was minimal except for one grade 3, one grade 4 anemia, one grade 3 leukopenia, and one grade 3 ileus. $\underline{Conclusion}$: Preoperative concurrent chmoradiotherapy for locally advanced rectal cancer seems to have some potential benefits: high sphincter preservation and down staging. Treatment related toxicity was minimal and a high compliance with treatment was seen in this study. Further long-term follow-up with a larger group of patients is required.