• Title/Summary/Keyword: sizing

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Optimum Design for Sizing and Shape of Truss Structures Using Harmony Search and Simulated Annealing (하모니 서치와 시뮬레이티드 어넬링을 사용한 트러스의 단면 및 형상 최적설계)

  • Kim, Bong Ik
    • Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.131-142
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    • 2015
  • In this paper, we present an optimization of truss structures subjected to stress, buckling, and natural frequency constraints. The main objective of the present study is to propose an efficient HA-SA algorithm for solving the truss optimization subject to multiple constraints. The procedure of hybrid HA-SA is a search method which a design values in harmony memory of harmony search are used as an initial value designs in simulated annealing search method. The efficient optimization of HA-SA is illustrated through several optimization examples. The examples of truss structures are used 10-Bar truss, 52-Bar truss (Dome), and 72-Bar truss for natural frequency constraints, and used 18-Bar truss and 47-Bar (Tower) truss for stress and buckling constraints. The optimum results are compared to those of different techniques. The numerical results are demonstrated the advantages of the HA-SA algorithm in truss optimization with multiple constraints.

A Study on the Removal of Fluorescent Whitening Agents from Recycled Fibers

  • Lee, Ji-Young;Lee, Hak-Lae;Youn, Hye-Jung;Lim, Hyung-Woo
    • Proceedings of the Korea Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry Conference
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    • pp.117-121
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    • 2006
  • Virgin bleached kraft pulp, CPO (computer printout) and white ledgers are main raw materials used in tissue mills. The utilization rate of recycled fibers and virgin pulp in South Korea tissue industry are 90% and 10%, respectively. To improve brightness of printing grades the use of 'fluorescent whitening agents (FWAs)' or 'optical brightening agents (OBAs)' has been increased. When recycling these papers for tissue production, it is unavoidable that FWAs contained in recycled papers flow into tissue production lines and remain in the products. And this draws great attention from the public. This study was carried out to develop a technology for the removal of fluorescent whitening agents from recycled fibers. Enzymatic removal of FWAs was evaluated as a method to remove FWAs from the recycled fiber. The ${\alpha}-amylase$ that degrades starched used for surface sizing of fine papers and contained substantial condition is needed to prevent the re-adsorption of FWAs on fibers. The temperature of pulp suspension was another important factor affecting on FWA removal. The higher the temperature, the greater the efficiency of removing FWAs was obtained. Optimum pH and temperature for the effective removal of FWAs were suggested to be pH 8.5 and $65^{\circ}C$, respectively. The enzymatic removal of FWAs showed a great synergistic effect when proper control in pH and temperature was made.

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Analysis of Research Trends on Domestic Stage Costumes (무대의상 연구의 동향 분석)

  • Choi, Hyunok;Yi, Kyonghwa
    • Journal of Fashion Business
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.1-13
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    • 2014
  • This study examines research trends in the dissertations and journal articles on stage costume so as to provide basic information on directions for future studies. The data was collected from the theses of domestic journals of the Korean Studies Information (KSI) which were published until December, 2012 and retrieved by a keyword related to the "design of stage costume", "costume for performing art", and etc. Theses and articles for the analyses were a total of 200 published. Reviewing the theses by dividing the times into 8 Chronicles of 5 years in each term. The findings of the study are as follows: According to the chronological analysis, there has been a steady increase in the rates of the musical, ballet, dance, and circus costume and cutting edged technology such as LED has been utilized in the performing art, currently. The real production and making up of the costumes have been increasing as well by replacing of illustration and rendering of the costumes. In the recent costume of the performing arts show the tends of the visual effects and up-sizing, comprehensiveness and fusion. From the analysis of the background of the work, those were confirmed that the most common historical period was modern period, and places were France, England, and Egypt. In regard to research themes and methods, many of research papers utilized content analysis method, character analysis method as research methods. The most popular presentation of the costume designs was "rendering", "costumes schedule" and "illustration". However, development and explanation of the patterns was insufficient and constructions methods and real works(costumes) were usually omitted in the articles.

Multidisciplinary UAV Design Optimization Implementing Multi-Fidelity Analysis Techniques (다정밀도 해석기법을 이용한 무인항공기 다분야통합 최적설계)

  • Lee, Jae-Woo;Choi, Seok-Min;Van, Nguyen Nhu;Kim, Ji-Min;Byun, Yung-Hwan
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Aeronautical & Space Sciences
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    • v.40 no.8
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    • pp.695-702
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    • 2012
  • In this study, Multi-fidelity analysis is performed to improve the accuracy of analysis result during conceptual design stage. Multidisciplinary Design Optimization(MDO) method is also considered to satisfy the total system requirements. Low-fidelity analysis codes which are based on empirical equations are developed and validated for analyzing the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle(UAV) which have unconventional configurations. Analysis codes consist of initial sizing, aerodynamics, propulsion, mission, weight, performance, and stability modules. Design synthesis program which is composed of those modules is developed. To improve the accuracy of the design method for UAV, Vortex Lattice Method is used for the strategy of MFA. Multi-Disciplinary Feasible(MDF) method is used for MDO technique. To demonstrate the validity of presented method, the optimization results of both methods are compared. According to those results, the presented method is demonstrated to be applicable to improve the accuracy of the analyses during conceptual design stage.

The Apparel Sizing System of Early Adolescent Girls - Focusing on Lower Garments - (청소년 전기 여학생의 하의 치수 규격에 관한 연구)

  • Jeong, Hwa-Yeon;Suh, Mi-A
    • The Research Journal of the Costume Culture
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.671-685
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    • 2005
  • The purpose of this study was to develop a new size range and size interval for early adolescent girls. For this purpose, a total of 529 girls aged between 10 and 14 were measured and data were collected from 42 anthropometric measurements and 41 photographic measurements per a person. SAS 8.1 was used in data analysis including means, standard deviations, and frequency analysis. The stature was divided at 5cm intervals as in KS into 9 sizes from the lowest 130cm to the highest 171cm. If waist circumference were divided at the same intervals, the sizes cannot reflect the body growth of adolescent girls at these ages. Thus this study set intervals between sizes irregularly based on the mean of waist circumference by the type of body shape. Based on the results, this study proposed: for Type A - 6 sizes (140A-58, 145A-54, 145A-62, 150A-58, 150A-62, 155A-62); for Type X- 9 sizes (150X-59, 155X-63, 155X-66, 160X-59, 160X-63, 160X-66, 165X-59, 165X-63, 165X-66): and for Type H - 7 sizes (145H-68, 150H-68, 150H-70, 155H-68, 155H-73, 160H-68, 160H-73). For the sizes selected for each type, reference measurements were decided - centering on items necessary for manufacturing clothes. Reference measurements suggested for lower garments 8 items including waist circumference, hip circumference, slacks length and crotch length. The suggested sizes are distributed in a wider range, so they are considered to be helpful for students to find clothes fitting their bodies.

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A Study on the Knit Pattern Considering the Characteristics of Rib Stitch(2) -Focused on $2{\times}1\;and\;2{\times}2$ Rib Stitches (리브조직의 특성을 고려한 니트 패턴 연구(2) -$2{\times}1$ rib 조직과 $2{\times}2$ rib 조직을 중심으로-)

  • Kim, Soo-Ah;Suh, Mi-A
    • The Research Journal of the Costume Culture
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.47-59
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    • 2005
  • This study aims to measure stretch rate of standard weight in the $2{\times}1$ rib stitch and $2{\times}2$ rib stitch, and to apply features of rib stitch to the knit pattern. The reviewer examined the sample knit for test with 100% wool, $2/48's{\times}2$, 12 gauge, and then made knit patterns and sample clothes for test considering stretch rate of standard weight of 10gf, 15gf, 20gf, 25gf based on the results from the former test, and finally estimated the try-outs for sample clothes. This study came out with the following results: From the functional estimate of knit patterns made by standard stretch rate of each stitch, the 20gf weight sample clothes of $2{\times}1$ and $2{\times}2$ rib stitchs were in high estimate. For the bust, B/4~ -4.6cm knit pattern was made of $2{\times}1$ rib stitch, B/4~5.3cm of $2{\times}2$ rib stitch. In conclusion, because $2{\times}1$ and $2{\times}2$ rib stitchs has the much higher stretch rate in the direction of the course than $0{\times}0$ ad $1{\times}1$ rib stitchs, high stretch rate of standard weight should be applied to the case of making knit wear. It is expected that this will lead stable sizing and measurement system when used in making knit patterns, and satisfy knit wearers' various needs.

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A Study on the Knit Pattern Considering the Characteristics of Rib Stitch(1) - Focused on 0${\times}$0 and 1${\times}$1 Rib Stitches (리브조직의 특성을 고려한 니트 패턴 연구(1) -0${\times}$1 rib 조직과 1${\times}$1 rib 조직을 중심으로)

  • 김수아;서미아
    • The Research Journal of the Costume Culture
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    • v.12 no.5
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    • pp.769-780
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    • 2004
  • This study aims to measure stretch rate of standard weight in the direction of the knit stitch course by the difference in the way of weaving rib stitch, the most elastic stitch of all the knit stitches and to apply features of rib stitch to the knit pattern. The reviewer examined the sample knit for test with 100% wool, 2/48's 2, 12 gauge, and then made knit patterns and sample clothes for test considering stretch rate of standard weight of 10gf, l5gf, 20gf, 25gf based on the results from the former test, and finally estimated the try-outs for sample clothes. This study came out with the following results. From the functional estimate of knit patterns made by standard stretch rate of each stitch, the l5gf weight sample clothes of 0×0 and 1×1 rib stitches looking similar to plain stitch. For the bust, B/4-1.0㎝ knit pattern was made of 0×0 stitch, B/4-1.2㎝ of 1×1 rib stitch. In conclusion, because rib stitch has the much higher stretch rate in the direction of the course than other stitches, low stretch rate of standard weight should be applied to the case of making knit wear. It is expected that this will lead stable sizing and measurement system when used in making knit patterns, and satisfy knit wearers' various needs.

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A Study on Development of the Evaluation Guideline for the Storage Performance (스토리지 성능 평가지침 개발 연구)

  • Ko, Dae-Sik
    • Journal of Advanced Navigation Technology
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.266-271
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    • 2010
  • In this paper, we chose IOPS(input output operation per second) and MB/s as a performance standard, and we developed the evaluation standard for the storage performance. Since there is no vendor-neutral evaluation criteria for storage performance, it is difficult to evaluate storage performance and design the storage resource's sizing. We proposed block size for measurement of the storage's IOPS for OLTP(online transaction processing) application to 4KB, 8KB and 16KB and read/write rate of it to 7:3. On the other hand, we proposed block size for measurement of the storage's IOPS for backup, VOD, Large file processing) to 64KB, 256KB and 1024KB and read/write rates of it to 7:3 and 1:0. Finally, we proposed the Vdvench BMT tool, which is independent on platform. We also developed the result reporting tool for developed evaluation criteria.

A Study on the Development of Ready-to-wear Garment Size for their Early 20's by Body type and Basic Blocks for Women's Dress (20대 전반 여성의 체형별 기성복 치수설정과 원형개발에 관한 연구)

  • 이형숙;임영자
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Costume
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    • v.50 no.3
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    • pp.87-104
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    • 2000
  • The women's apparel sizing system, currently used in the Korean industry, does not reflect measurement differences associated with varying body types and age. Forty five body meaqsurements were taken on 560 subjects, whoes eages ranged from 18-24. STatistical analysis of the data was coducted by using frequences, crosstables, correlation, oneway ANOVA, Regressio analysis. The results of this study were as follow. 1. Average height of women in their early 20's is 160cm, average bust girth 82cm, average hip girth 90cm and average drop 809. The correlation between height and grth items were low and the correlation of length items in the superior and inferior body were shown to bo high respectively. 2. The average Rhrer index is 1.28 and they ussually seem to be in the thin and standard body group. 3. body types were divided by differences between hip and bust sizes. N type(medium hip), A type (large hip), H type(small hip). A classification by body type showed that N type made up 58% while a type made up 24%. 4. The garment sizes for women in their early 20's were developed. 5. The new basic blocks and garment sizes for women in their early 20's were developed as follows : Bust girth (1/2) = 76N, 76A, 79A type($\frac{1}{2}$B+ 4cm) 79N type($\frac{1}{2}$B+ 3.5cm) 82N, 85N type ($\frac{1}{2}$B +3cm) Hip girth($\frac{1}{2}$) =N type($\frac{1}{2}$H + 2~2.5cm) Atype($\frac{1}{2}$H +1.5~2cm) Waist girth($\frac{1}{2}$)=$\frac{1}{2}$W + 2-3cm Back length =extimated measure -0.5cm Front length=76A, N (Back length + 2.2cm) 79A, N(back length +2.7cm) 82N(Back length +3.2cm) 85N(Back length + 3.7cm) Sleeve length=Sleeve length +3cm.

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Fast Determination of Minimum Spanning Tree Based on Down-sizing Technique of Edges Population (간선 모집단 규모축소 기법을 적용한 빠른 최소신장트리 결정)

  • Lee, Sang-Un;Choi, Myeong-Bok
    • The Journal of the Institute of Internet, Broadcasting and Communication
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.51-59
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    • 2014
  • This paper suggests a method of lessening number of a graph's edges population in order to rapidly obtain the minimum spanning tree. The present minimum spanning tree algorithm works on all the edges of the graph. However, the suggested algorithm reduces the edges population size by means of applying a method of deleting maximum weight edges in advance from vertices with more than 2 valencies. Next, it applies a stopping criterion which ideally terminates Borůvka, Prim, Kruskal and Reverse-Delete algorithms for reduced edges population. On applying the suggested algorithm to 9 graphs, it was able to minimize averagely 83% of the edges that do not become MST. In addition, comparing to the original graph, edges are turned out to be lessened 38% by Borůvka, 37% by Prim, 39% by Kruskal and 73% by Reverse-Delete algorithm, and thereby the minimum spanning tree is obtained promptly.