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Results of Preoperative Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy for Locally Advanced Rectal Cancer (국소진행성 직장암의 수술 전 동시화학방사선요법의 결과)

  • Choi, Sang-Gyu;Kim, Su-Ssan;Bae, Hoon-Sik
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.34-42
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    • 2007
  • [ $\underline{Purpose}$ ]: We performed a retrospective non-randomized clinical study of locally advanced rectal cancer, to evaluate the anal sphincter preservation rates, down staging rates and survival rates of preoperative chemoradiotherapy. $\underline{Materials\;and\;Methods}$: From January 2002 to December 2005, patients with pathologically confirmed rectal cancer with clinical stage T2 or higher, or patients with lymph node metastasis were enrolled in this study. A preoperative staging work-up was conducted in 36 patients. All patients were treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy, and curative resection was performed for 26 patients at Hallym University Sacred Heart Hospital. Radiotherapy treatment planning was conducted with the use of planning CT for all patients. A total dose of $45.0{\sim}52.2\;Gy$ conventionally fractionated three-dimensional radiotherapy was delivered to the whole pelvis. Chemotherapy was given at the first and fifth week of radiation therapy with continuous infusion i.v. 5-FU (Fluorouracil) and LV (Leucovorine). Surgical resection was performed 2 to 4 weeks after the completion of the chemoradiotherapy regimen. $\underline{Results}$: The complete resection rate with negative resection margin was 100% (26/26). However, a pathologically complete response was not seen after curative resection. Surgery was done by LAR (low anterior resection) in 23 patients and APR (abdomino-perineal resection) in 3 patients. The sphincter preservation rate was 88.5% (23/26), down staging of the tumor occurred in 12 patients (46.2%) and down-sizing of the tumor occurred in 19 patients (73%). Local recurrence after surgical resection developed in 1 patient, and distant metastasis developed in 3 patients. The local recurrence free survival rate, distant metastasis free survival rate, and progression free survival rate were 96.7%, 87% and 83.1%, respectively. Treatment related toxicity was minimal except for one grade 3, one grade 4 anemia, one grade 3 leukopenia, and one grade 3 ileus. $\underline{Conclusion}$: Preoperative concurrent chmoradiotherapy for locally advanced rectal cancer seems to have some potential benefits: high sphincter preservation and down staging. Treatment related toxicity was minimal and a high compliance with treatment was seen in this study. Further long-term follow-up with a larger group of patients is required.

Recirculating Integrated System for the Treatment of Authentic Integrated-textile-dyeing Wastewater from Dyeing Industrial Complex (염색산업단지 종합폐수처리용 재순환 통합시스템)

  • Lee, Eun Ju;Lim, Kwang-Hee
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.55 no.6
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    • pp.837-845
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    • 2017
  • A recirculating integrated system composed of a fluidized biofilter filled with waste-tire crumb media fixed with return sludge from wastewater treatment facility of D dyeing industrial center, and a UV/photocatalytic reactor packed with calcined $TiO_2$ coated-glass beads as photocatalyst-support, was constructed and was run to treat authentic textile-dyeing wastewater from D-dyeing industrial center, which was mixed with an alkaline polyester-weight-reducing wastewater and a wastewater from sizing process. As a result, its total removal efficiency(RE(tot)) of $COD_{cr}$ and colors were ca. 81% and 55%, respectively. The synergy effect of the recirculating integrated system to enhance total removal efficiency(RE(tot)) of $COD_{cr}$ and colors were evaluated at most ca. 7% and 3%, respectively. The fluidized biofilter and the UV/photocatalytic reactor were responsible for ca. 94% and 6% of the total $COD_{cr}$ removal efficiency, respectively, and were also responsible for ca. 86% and 14% of the total color-removal efficiency, respectively. Thus, the degree of the UV/photocatalytic reactor-unit process's contribution to RE(tot) of color, was about 2.4 times of that to RE(tot) of $COD_{cr}$. Therefore, the UV/photocatalytic reactor facilitated the more effective elimination of colors by breaking down the chemical bonds oriented from colors of dyes such as azo-bond, than $COD_{cr}$. In addition, the effect of the removal efficiency of each unit process(i.e., the fluidized biofilter or the UV/photocatalytic reactor) of the recirculating integrated system on RE(tot) of $COD_{cr}$ and colors, was analysed by establishing its model equation with an analytic correlation.

Cyclic Seismic Performance of RBS Weak-Axis Welded Moment Connections (RBS 약축 용접모멘트접합부의 내진성능 평가)

  • Lee, Cheol Ho;Jung, Jong Hyun;Kim, Sung Yong
    • Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction
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    • v.27 no.6
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    • pp.513-523
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    • 2015
  • In steel moment frames constructed of H-shapes, strong-axis moment connections should be used for maximum structural efficiency if possible. And most of cyclic seismic testing, domestic and international, has been conducted for strong-axis moment connections and cyclic test data for weak-axis connections is quite limited. However, when perpendicular moment frames meet, weak-axis moment connections are also needed at the intersecting locations. Especially, both strong- and weak-axis moment connections have been frequently used in domestic practice. In this study, cyclic seismic performance of RBS (reduced beam section) weak-axis welded moment connections was experimentally investigated. Test specimens, designed according to the procedure proposed by Gilton and Uang (2002), performed well and developed an excellent plastic rotation capacity of 0.03 rad or higher, although a simplified sizing procedure for attaching the beam web to the shear plate in the form of C-shaped fillet weld was used. The test results of this study showed that the sharp corner of C-shaped fillet weld tends to be the origin of crack propagation due to stress concentration there and needs to be trimmed for the better weld shape. Different from strong-axis moment connections, due to the presence of weld access hole, a kind of CJP butt joint is formed between the beam flange and the horizontal continuity plate in weak-axis moment connections. When weld access hole is large, this butt joint can experience cyclic local buckling and subsequent low cycle fatigue fracture as observed in this testing program. Thus the size of web access hole at the butt joint should be minimized if possible. The recommended seismic detailing such as stickout, trimming, and thicker continuity plate for construction tolerance should be followed for design and fabrication of weak-axis welded moment connections.

Policy Direction for The Farmland Sizing Suitable to Regional Trait (지역특성을 반영한 영농규모화사업의 발전방향-충남지역을 중심으로-)

  • Shim, Jae-Sung
    • The Journal of Natural Sciences
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.83-121
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    • 2004
  • This study was carried out to examine how solid the production foundation of rice in Chung-Nam Province is, and, if not, to probe alternative measures through the size of farms specializing in rice, of which direction would be a pivot of rice industry-oriented policy. The results obtained can be summarized as follows : 1. The amount of rice production in Chung-Nam Province is highest in Korea and the size of paddy field area is the second largest : This implying that the probability that rice production in Chung-Nam Province would be severely influenced by a global trend of market conditions. The number of farms specializing in rice becoming the core group of rice farming account for 7.7 percent of the total number of farm household in Korea. Average field area financial support which had been input to farm household by Government had a noticeable effect on the improvement of the policy of farm-size program. 2. Farm-size program in Chung-Nam Province established from 1980 to 2002 in creased the cultivation size of paddy field to 19,484 hectares, and this program enhanced the buying and selling of farmland and the number of farmland bargain reached 6,431 household and 16,517 hectares, respectively, in 1995-2002. Meanwhile, long-term letting and hiring of farmland appeared so active that the bargain acreage reached 6,970 hectares, and farm involved was 7,059 households, however, the farm-exchange-and-unity program did not satisfy our expectation, because the retirement farm operators reluctantly participated to sell their farms. Another reason that had delayed the bargain of farms rested on the general category of social complication attendant upon the exchange and unity operation for scattered farm. Such difficulties would work negative effects out to carry on the target of farm-size work in general. 3. The following measures were presented to propel the farm-size promotion program : a. Occupation shift project, followed by the social security program for retirement and elderly farm operators, should be promptly established and also a number of types of incentives for promoting the letting and hiring work and farm-exchange-and-unity program would also be set up. b. To establish the effective key system of rice production, all the farm operators should increase the unit area yield of rice and lower the production cost. To do so, a great deal of production teams of rice equipped with managerial techniques and capabilities need to be organized. And, also, there should be appropriate arrays of facilities including information system. This plan is desirable to be in line with a diversity of the structural implement of regional integration based on farm system building. c. To extend the size of farm and to improve farm management, we have to devise the enlargement of individual size of farm for maximized management and the utilization of farm-size grouping method. In conclusion, it can be said that the farm-size project in Chung-Nam Province which has continued since the 1980s was satisfactorily achieved. However, we still have a lot of problems to be solved to break down the barrier for attainment of the desirable farm-size operation work.. Farm-size project has fairly close relation with farm specialization in rice and, thus, the positive support for farm household including the integrated program for both retirement farmers and off-farm operators should be considered to pursue the progressive development of the farm-size program, which is key means to successful achievement of rice farming enforcement in Chung-Nam Province.

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