• Title, Summary, Keyword: sizing

Search Result 1,203, Processing Time 0.048 seconds

Alkaline Sizing of Mechanical Pulp

  • Kim, Bong-Yong;Akira Isogai
    • Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
    • /
    • v.32 no.5
    • /
    • pp.1-7
    • /
    • 2000
  • Alkaline Sizing behavior and mechanism of handsheets, which were prepared from thermomechanical pulp (TMP) with alkylketene dimer (AKD), were studied in terms of the conditions of the handsheet-making. AKD content in the TMP handsheets was increased with increasing of AKD addition level and the addition of a polyamideamine-epichlorohydrin resin (PAE) clearly enhanced AKD retention as well as the resultant sizing performance of TMP handsheets. Although drying of the AKD sized TMP webs at $20^{\circ}C$ led to no or quite low sizing level, but TMP handsheets sized with AKD had higher sizing degrees with increasing of the temperature of heat treatment. Scanning electron microscopic observations of the AKD-sized TMP handsheets showed that AKD emulsion particles were present on pulp fiber surfaces independently without coagulation in the TMP handsheets dried at $20^{\circ}C$. Heat treatment of the AKD-sized handsheets resulted in disappearance of the AKD emulsion particles because of their melting and spreading. The addition of calcium carbonate filler to the TMP suspensions did not influence on AKD content in the TMP handsheets. Nevertheless, their sizing degrees clearly increased by the addition of $CaCO_3$filler. Probably, AKD molecules adsorbed on the $CaCO_3$filler particles contribute to the enhancement of sizing performance. Thus, AKD can give sizing features effectively to the TMP handsheets, when they are made under suitable conditions.

  • PDF

Mechanical Properties and Fabric Handle of Hansan Ramie (PartII) (한산모시의 역학적 특성 및 태에 관한 연구(제2보)-푸새효과에 대하여-)

  • 홍지명;유효선
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
    • /
    • v.22 no.7
    • /
    • pp.862-871
    • /
    • 1998
  • In this study, the effect of sizing on the physical and mechanical characteristics of Hansan ramie was studied. 2 kinds of Hansan ramie were used for this study and one kind of the chinese ramie was also used for comparing with the characteristics of Hansan ramies. The following results were obtained from this experimental study. The wrinkle recovery angle was gradually reduced according to the increasing of the concentration of sizing agent. As the size agent could easily penetrate between the thick yarms, the effect of sizing on the wrinkle recovery angle was evident on the Chinese and Hansan coarse ramie. The result of KES-F system showed that the sizing affected much on the bending properties and shear properties. As the size concentration was increased the shear properties were increased more evidently on the Chinese and Hansan coarse ramie. The result of KES-F system showed that the sizing affected much on the bending properties and shear properties. As the size concentration was increased the shear properties were increased more evidently than the bending properties. The other mechanical properties didn't changed much by sizing. The calculated primary hand value also showed that the ramie became more stiff after sizing.

  • PDF

Preparation and Application of Water-Based Acrylic Sizing Agent (수용성 아크릴 호제의 합성 및 그 응용에 대한 연구)

  • Lee, Doug-Youn;Seo, Eun-Hyun;Kim, Joong-In;Kim, Jung-Hyun
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
    • /
    • v.7 no.3
    • /
    • pp.536-542
    • /
    • 1996
  • Water-based acrylic sizing agent(GSW-7000) was prepared by emulsion copolymerization for sizing polyester yarns. Ammonium salt version of the acrylic sizing agent offered greater abrasion resistance to weaving forces and water resistance for water jet loom. GSW-7000 exhibited proper viscosity for sizing, high penetration ability and excellent adhesion to polyester yarn. It was possible to reduce the size pick-up to 70~80% of ordinary solvent-based sizing agent due to excellent adhesive strength of GSW-7000.

  • PDF

Design of the anvil shape in sizing press for decrease of the defect generated width reduction (사이징 프레스에서 폭 압하 공정중 결함 감소를 위한 엔빌의 형상설계)

  • Lee S.H.;Kim D.H.;Byon S.M.;Park H.D.;Kim B.M.
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Precision Engineering Conference
    • /
    • /
    • pp.437-438
    • /
    • 2006
  • Generally, the vertical roll process is used to achieve extensive width reduction in hot strip mill. However, it is difficult to avoid the defects such as dog-bone and seam-defect. The sizing press has been developed in response to the defects mentioned above. Especially, this study is carried out to investigate the deformation of slab by two-step sizing press. The deformation behavior in the width sizing process is more favorable than that in conventional vertical rolling edger. The objective of this study is to determine the optimal anvil shape parameters in the sizing press with two-step die from the viewpoint of edge-seam length. In general, the edge-seam defect occurs parallel to the rolling direction at both edges in horizontal rolling process after sizing press. The optimal combination of the parameters is determined by FE-simulation and Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The slab deformation in sizing press with convex anvil is analyzed by FE-simulation. The most suitable profile of the anvil is also discussed fur the improvement of trimming loss because of the side seam defect by FE-simulation and ANN.

  • PDF

A Study on Sizing System and Growth-allowance Measure for Middle-school Girl's School Uniform According to Their Body Types (여자중학생 교복설계를 위한 체형별 치수체계 및 성장여유분)

  • 김덕하;김인숙
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
    • /
    • v.28 no.11
    • /
    • pp.1524-1535
    • /
    • 2004
  • The purpose of this study was to develop middle school girl's' school uniform sizing system according to their body types. The data collected with anthropometric measurements from 390 middle school girls aged 12-15 years old was analyzed using t-test, ANOVA, factor analysis and cluster analysis. A new sizing system was developed in accordance with each of the 2 body-type clusters. The analysis of two-way distribution of 'height-bust girth' and 'height-waist girth' was conducted for the girls of the first grade, which is the time when they purchase their school uniforms. The interval of sizing system was defined in consideration with the most efficient distribution of the body sizes utilizing Loss Function. This study also provided Reference-Sizes and Growth-Allowance Measures for each sizing system to help pattern drafting and clothing construction of the uniform manufacturers. The cover ratio of sizing system proposed by this study was higher when compared with that of the National Agency for Technology and Quality and uniform manufacturing companies, Thus, the result of this study is expected to make up the current sizing system of the school uniform.

A Methodology for Developing a Korean Apparel Sizing System by Body Types (한국인의 의복 제작을 위한 체형별 사이징 체계 개발)

  • Seong, Deok-Hyun;Jung, Eui S.;Cho, Yong-Ju
    • Journal of the Ergonomics Society of Korea
    • /
    • v.24 no.4
    • /
    • pp.31-37
    • /
    • 2005
  • Resulting anthropometric data recently measured and cataloged through 5th national anthropometric survey that is called Size Korea is highly useful in clothing industries. This study aims at suggesting a statistical methodology for apparel sizing that reflects recent changes in Korean anthropometry and improves customer fitness. Based on previous research on body types such as triangular, rectangular, inverted body types, etc., factors that represent human sizes were extracted and then clustered into groups by their body types. These body type-based groups with respect to the factors obtained yielded a sizing system of which the interval of each factor is of equi-distance by their factor scores. However, each interval of the sizing system is non-linear in terms of individual anthropometric variables. The sizing system being proposed in this study was compared to that of KS K 0050 and had a broader coverage for the Korean population surveyed. The apparel sizing scheme is expected to improve customer fitness when applied to garment sizing and to provide more information on what percentage of population is included in each classification.

A Comparative Study on the Sizing Systems of the Infants and Children's Swim-suit (유유아 수영복의 치수체계 비교 연구)

  • Yi Kyong-Hwa;Jung Hae Sun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
    • /
    • v.29 no.1
    • /
    • pp.1-12
    • /
    • 2005
  • This study was to suggest a feasible sizing system of infants and children's swim-suits. The basic body dimensions were selected after surveying the swimsuit manufacturers. The control dimensions and the secondary dimensions were taken from the 1997 National Anthropometric Survey data for the establishment of the sizing system. While in the current market swimsuit sizes were generally measured by the hip circumference for boys, and the bust and hip circumference for girls, the height was selected in this study as the control dimension because the height is well recognized by the customers and the KS standards specify the height to be the control dimension for infant's and children's wear. In the new sizing system of this study, the height was a control dimension, and hip was selected as a secondary dimension for boys. and bust and hip were selected as secondary dimensions for girls. Conclusively, in this study we suggest 12 sizes in case of 5cm height interval by the KS sizing system and 7 sizes in case of loom height interval by the current market sizing system, based on the height as a control dimension, for a standard swim-suit sizing system for infants and children.

The Upper Garment Sizing Systems according to Somatotype of Elderly Men (노년남성의 체형별 상의 치수 체계)

  • Kim Su Hyeon;Lee Jeong Ran
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
    • /
    • v.29 no.1
    • /
    • pp.157-166
    • /
    • 2005
  • The purpose of this study was to establish the upper garment sizing systems for elderly men. These were on the basis of classification of 294 elderly men's somatotypes aged between 60 and 80 with the extent of drop value and analysis of the sizing systems of men's wear companies. The results were as follows: First, the sizing systems of men's wear companies were established with priority given to the young and the middle whose heights were taller than the elderly. There was no sizing system only for elderly men in men's wear companies. Secondly, as the height range increased, the size of chest and waist proportionally increased; however, the waist sizes were limited to somewhat small size ranges. So the sizing systems of men's wear companies had difficulty in covering up the developed-waist somatotype of the elderly. Thirdly, only 1 company out of 10 established the sizing system according to the somatotype. Lastly, the total numbers of size which were established by this study according to somatotype were 40; 18 sizes were set for type A, 10 for type Y, and 12 for type B. The standard sizes were 97-88-165 for type A,94-79-165 for type Y, and 97-94-165 for type B.

Influence of the Viscosity of Surface Sizing Starch Solutions on Surface Sizing Effect of Linerboard (표면사이징용 전분의 점도 특성이 라이너지의 표면사이징 효과에 미치는 영향)

  • Jeong, Young Bin;Lee, Hak Lae;Youn, Hye Jung;Jeong, Kwang Ho;Ryu, Hoon
    • Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
    • /
    • v.44 no.5
    • /
    • pp.54-62
    • /
    • 2012
  • The main role of surface sizing of linerboard is to improve surface and strength properties. Since surface sizing solution is applied on once dried web, substantial amount of drying energy is required. Saving of the drying energy associated with surface sizing can be made by increasing the solids content of the starch solution in size press. Therefore, it is highly desirable to develop low viscosity starches for surface sizing. A low viscosity oxidized starch was prepared and compared its effect of surface sizing with a conventional oxidised starch. Results showed increase in solids content of the starch solution decreased evaporation energy and drying time. Low viscosity starch penetrated deeper into paper and this improve various mechanical properties of linerboard.

A Study on Optimization of Components Sizing for 4×4 Series Hybrid Electric Propulsion Systems (4륜구동 직렬형 하이브리드 전기추진시스템의 구성품 용량 최적화 연구)

  • Jang, Myeong-Eon;Jeong, Soon-Kyu;Han, Kyu-Hong;Yeo, Seung-Tai
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Military Science and Technology
    • /
    • v.17 no.2
    • /
    • pp.159-166
    • /
    • 2014
  • The study is conducted on the subject of optimization of components sizing for series hybrid electric propulsion systems. The components sizing of series type hybrid system is very important because each component of series type is larger than the corresponding component of the parallel type or series-parallel type. If the components sizing is greater or less than what is required to this system, the performance of the system is getting worse. The methodology for the sizing of a driving motor is introduced based on the foundation of determined system configuration and performance target. And the sizing of an engine/generator and a battery is achieved based on simulation results using Dynamic Programming. It is possible to find the optimal sizing of these components by comparing fuel efficiency of hybrid electric propulsion system for 8 driving cycles.