• Title, Summary, Keyword: sizing development

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Effect of Spreading of Neutral Sizing Agent, Alkylketene Dimer, on Sizing Development

  • Seo Won-Sung;Shin Jong-Ho;Cho Nam-Seok
    • Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
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    • v.37 no.5
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2005
  • The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of spreading behavior of the sizing agents (AKD or dialkyl ketone) on the sizing development of AKD-sized paper. There was a direct relationship between the spreading behavior of the sizing agents and their melting points. Both AKD and dialkyl ketone showed no substantial spreading until the temperature reaches to their melting points. Consequently, dialkyl ketone did not provide sizing development when the paper was heat-treated below $75^{\circ}C$, while AKD provided sizing effect even the paper heated at $50^{\circ}C$. The ketone, however, provided rather higher sizing effect than that of AKD, when the paper was heat-treated over $100^{\circ}C$. This result means that the ketone also gives sizing development to paper, moreover the ketone could give higher sizing effect to paper than AKD when it was melted and well spreaded on the fiber surface. While the ketone introduced to papers from hydrolyzed AKD emulsion could not contribute to sizing development.

A Study on Optimization of Components Sizing for 4×4 Series Hybrid Electric Propulsion Systems (4륜구동 직렬형 하이브리드 전기추진시스템의 구성품 용량 최적화 연구)

  • Jang, Myeong-Eon;Jeong, Soon-Kyu;Han, Kyu-Hong;Yeo, Seung-Tai
    • Journal of the Korea Institute of Military Science and Technology
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.159-166
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    • 2014
  • The study is conducted on the subject of optimization of components sizing for series hybrid electric propulsion systems. The components sizing of series type hybrid system is very important because each component of series type is larger than the corresponding component of the parallel type or series-parallel type. If the components sizing is greater or less than what is required to this system, the performance of the system is getting worse. The methodology for the sizing of a driving motor is introduced based on the foundation of determined system configuration and performance target. And the sizing of an engine/generator and a battery is achieved based on simulation results using Dynamic Programming. It is possible to find the optimal sizing of these components by comparing fuel efficiency of hybrid electric propulsion system for 8 driving cycles.

Development of Synthetic Sizing Agent Using Recycling Polyethylene Terephthalate and its Sizing Efficiency (Part 2) - Sizing efficiency of modified PET - (재활용 PET를 활용한 합성 사이즈제 개발 및 종이의 내수성 부여에 관한 연구 (제2보) - 개질 PET의 내수특성 평가 -)

  • Park, Jae-Seok;Kim, Hyoung-Jin
    • Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
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    • v.42 no.2
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    • pp.95-101
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    • 2010
  • For the development of higher-sizing performance of paper, a sizing agent using recycled PET was synthesised. Polyester resin was extracted from wasted PET by subcritical hydrolysis and finally modified to synthetic sizing agent by mixing water-disperse PET with triphenyl phosphite(TPP). The modified PET was considered as an internal sizing agent in different wet-end papermaking conditions. The optimum condition in sizing efficiency was obtained in initial pH of 6.5 in case of rosin+alum system, and 7.5 in case of rosin+alum+PET system, respectively, and in addition amount of PET 3%. The sizing efficiency was also closely related according to the fiber properties of wet-end slurry, such as virgin fibres from UKP and recycled fibres from KOCC. The application of modified PET was good in strength improvement of paper, specially in tensile strength.

The Influence of Paper Stock Type on Characteristics of Sizing (지료조성에 따른 종이의 사이징 특성)

  • Cheong Sang Jin;Kim Bong Yong
    • Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.11-20
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    • 2005
  • This study was carried out to investigate the influence of paper stock type and heat treatment on sizing effect. Various types of pulps were used to make handsheets sized internally with AKD(alkyl ketene dimer) and externally with CMC(carboxyl methyl cellulose). Most of the handsheets were treated with heat by dry oven $(100^{\circ}C,\;30min)$ to evaluate the effect of heat treatment on sizing development. Internal sizing development of newsprint was very bad, but the effect of heat treatment was much higher than those of NBKP, BCTMP. In case of surface sizing, newsprint was more effective compared to the other pulps. Considering above mentioned results, it seems that internal sizing slows down water into paper by molecular diffusion much more than capillary penetration, but surface sizing slows down capillary penetration. With regard to density, a higher thickness sheets showed high heat treatment effect on sizing, therefore it assumed that heat treatment effect on sizing had very close relationship with sheet density.

Theoretical Study of Coherent Acoustic Inverse Method for Bubble Sizing in Bubbly Water

  • Choi, Bok-Kyoung;Yoon, Suk-Wang
    • The Journal of the Acoustical Society of Korea
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    • v.15 no.4E
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    • pp.3-8
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    • 1996
  • The bubble size distribution is critical information to understand sound propagation and ambient noise in the ocean. To estimate the bubble size distribution in a bubbly water, the sound attenuation has been only in the conventional acoustic bubble sizing method without considering the sound speed variation. However, the effect of the sound speed variation in bubbly water cannot be neglected because of its compressibility variation. The sound attenuation is also affected by the sound speed variation. In this paper, a coherent acoustic bubble sizing inverse technique is introduced as a new bubble sizing technique with considering sound speed variation as well as the sound attenuation. This coherent sizing method is theoretically verified with the bubble distribution functions of single-size, Gaussian, and power-law functions. Its numerical test results with the coherent acoustic bubble sizing method show good agreement with the given bubble distributions.

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Automatic Color Recognition System for Stockigt Sizing Test (II) - Application of the automatic recognition principle of red coloration for developing the novel automatic system - (스테키히트 시험용 자동발색인지 시스템 개발을 위한 기초 연구(II) -자동 발색 인지 원리를 적용한 발색 자동인지시스템-)

  • Kim, Jae-Ok;Kim, Chul-Hwan;Park, Chong-Yawl;Kwon, Oh-Chul
    • Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.73-81
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    • 2005
  • Stockigt sizing test, which is readily affected by individual tester's bias as well as testing conditions in recognizing red coloration, had to be modified to improve its reliability and reproducibility. The novel testing system with the automatic recognizing program of red coloration was developed with the auxiliary equipments including an automatic liquid dispenser and a specimen shifter. The analysis program used a hue value of a droplet image in recognizing a point of time on red coloration instead of RGB values that are not similar to human perception of color. Hue was more sensitive in recognizing the red coloration of a droplet than the other two factors, Saturation and Value. During the test, the program records the time consumed up to a specific hue value of a droplet on a specimen. Differently from the conventional test, the automatic test could obtain a reliable and reproducible sizing degree with a minor error. Furthermore, the Stockigt sizing degree measured by the automatic system showed great correlations with contact angle and Hercules sizing degree. It means that such great correlations will contribute to the development of an integrated measuring system capable of predicting contact angle, surface tension, surface energy and Hercules sizing degree of paper and paperboards through the Stbckigt sizing test. It was meaningful to note that the automatic system for Stbckigt sizing test might be able to used to predict contact angle, Hercules and Cobb sizing degree, based upon the high correlation coefficients.

The Optimal Sizing and Efficient Driving Scheme of Series HEV (직렬형 HEV의 최적 용량산정과 효율적 운전방안)

  • 허민호
    • Proceedings of the KIPE Conference
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    • pp.651-656
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    • 2000
  • This paper describes the optimal sizing of each component using computer simulation and presents the efficient operating scheme of series HEV using hardware simulator the equivalent system. As the sizing method of components have been experimental and empirical it is needed to spend much time and development cost. however the results of computer simulation will set the optimal sizing of components in short time. There are two type of driving control power-tracking mode and load-levelling mode in series HEV. This paper presents that series HEV be operated in the load-levelling mode which is more efficient that power-tracking mode.

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Structural Sizing for Optionally Piloted PAV Preliminary Design (유무인 겸용 개인항공기(OPPAV) 개념설계를 위한 구조물 사이징)

  • Kim, Sung Joon;Lee, Seung-gyu
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Aviation and Aeronautics
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.83-89
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    • 2020
  • Personal air vehicle (PAV) is considered by aviation engineers as a solution to provide fast urban mobility. The purpose of designing a optionally piloted PAV (OPPAV) is to provide an individual air vehicle. The airframe structure is designed with high strength carbon fiber composite to reduce the aircraft weight. This paper presents an overview of sizing process for OPPAV at the conceptual design level. It consists of load analysis, structural sizing and development of efficient design allowable values for composite material. The weight is estimated based on sizing process, including strength and stiffness requirements. The objective of this study is to present a overview of structural sizing procedure and fast tool for preliminary design phases.

Preliminary Design Program Development for Gas Turbine Combustor (가스터빈 연소기 기본 설계 프로그램 개발)

  • Kim, Daesik;Kim, Jinah;Jin, You In
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Combustion
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.27-34
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    • 2015
  • The objective of the current study is to introduce detailed process for a preliminary combustor design, and to develop a computer code for it. The program includes various empirical and semi-empirical methodologies for diffuser deign, combustor sizing, air distribution, and sub-component design such as primary and secondary zones. Using the developed program, the combustor sizing results are shown from an assumption of simple annual combustor cycle analysis. Two options are employed, 1) pressure loss approach, and 2) velocity assumption approach. Design results show that there are no significant differences in combustor sizing between two design options. Further code improvement is required for performance and emission evaluations of the designed combustor.

Preliminary Design Program Development for Aircraft Gas Turbine Combustors : Part 1 - Combustor Sizing (항공용 가스터빈 연소기 기본 설계 프로그램 개발 : Part 1 - 연소기 크기 결정)

  • Kim, Daesik;Ryu, Gyong Won;Hwang, Ki Young;Min, Seong Ki
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Combustion
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.54-60
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    • 2013
  • This paper shows a general development process for aircraft gas turbine combustors. As a first step for developing the preliminary combustor design program, several combustor sizing methodologies using reference area concepts are reviewed. There are three ways to determine the reference area; 1) combustion efficiency approach, 2) pressure loss approach, 3) velocity assumption approach. The current study shows the comparisons of the calculated results of combustor reference values from the pressure loss and velocity assumption approaches. Further works are required to add iterative steps in the program using more reasonable values of pressure loss and velocities, and to evaluate the sizing results using data for actual combustor performance and sizes.