• Title, Summary, Keyword: slaughter season

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Contribution analysis of carcass traits and seasonal effect on auction price for Hanwoo steers

  • Kang, Tae Hun;Cho, Seong-Keun;Seo, Jakyeom;Kim, Myunghoo;Kim, Byeong-Woo
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.46 no.3
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    • pp.461-469
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    • 2019
  • The aim of this study was to analyze the contribution of carcass traits (backfat thickness, eye muscle area, carcass weight and marbling score) and the season at slaughter to the price (auction and market) using squared semi-partial correlation. The season at slaughter (summer expressed as season_2, autumn as season_3, and winter as season_4) were added into the estimation as dummy variables, and spring was set as a default variable. In this study, the carcass grades of 22,298 Hanwoo steers slaughtered from 2012 to 2017 were used to performmultiple regression analysis. The rankings of the contribution of the carcass traits and the seasons at slaughter to the auction prices were in the order of marbling score (68.63%), season_4 (11.88%), backfat thickness (10.45%), eye muscle area (6.11%), season_3 (2.19%), season_2 (0.45%) and carcass weight (0.28%). (R-square of the regression = 0.4101). The rankings of the contribution to the total prices were in the order of carcass weight (51.74%), marbling score (32.12%), season_4 (6.04%), backfat thickness (5.54%), eye muscle area (3.22%), season_3 (1.14%), and season_2 (0.19%). (R-Square of the regression = 0.6486). As a result, season_3 and season_4 had a negative effect on the auction price and total price. Because of seasonal event such as Korean Thanksgiving Day and Korean New Year's Day on season_3 and season_4, much supply was needed to meet the high demand. Thus, the seasonal effect at slaughter could be another factor to be cosideredin when considering of slaughter or breeding.

The Effect of Slaughter Season on the Fatty Acid Profile in Four Types of Fat Deposits in Crossbred Beef Bulls

  • Sobczuk-Szul, Monika;Wronski, Marek;Wielgosz-Groth, Zofia;Mochol, Magdalena;Rzemieniewski, Arkadiusz;Nogalski, Zenon;Pogorzelska-Przybylek, Paulina;Purwin, Cezary
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.275-281
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    • 2013
  • The objective of this study was to determine the effect of slaughter season on the fatty acid profile in four types of fat deposits in crossbred (Polish Holstein Friesian Black-and-White${\times}$Limousine) beef bulls. The percentage share of fatty acids was determined by gas chromatography and were divided into the following categories of fatty acids: saturated (SFAs), unsaturated (UFAs), monounsaturated (MUFAs), polyunsaturated (PUFAs), desirable hypocholesterolemic (DFAs) and undesirable hypercholesterolemic (OFAs), n-3 and n-6. Perinephric fat was characterized by the highest SFA concentrations (59.89%), and subcutaneous fat had the highest MUFA content (50.63%). Intramuscular fat was marked by a high percentage share of PUFAs and the highest PUFA/SFA ratio. The slaughter season had a significant effect on the levels of C18:3, C20:4 ($p{\leq}0.01$) and conjugated linoleic acid ($p{\leq}0.05$). There was an interaction between the slaughter season and fat type for the content of C20:4 ($p{\leq}0.01$) and C20:5 ($p{\leq}0.05$). The results of this study show that beef from cattle slaughtered in the summer season has a higher nutritional value and more health-promoting properties.

Epidemiological study of pulmonary lesions and diseases in slaughter cattle

  • Rahman, Akma;Nooruddinm, M.;Begum, N.;Rahman, M.S.;Lee, John-Hwa
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.81-88
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    • 2003
  • A cross-sectional epidemiological study using a multistage sampling strategy in slaughter cattle in Mymensingh, Bangladesh was conducted during September 2001 to April 2002 to study distributions and risk factors of specific pulmonary lesions and diseases. The pulmonary lesions and diseases were diagnosed on the basis of macroscopic and microscopic pathological and parasitological findings. The frequency distribution of pulmonary lesions and diseases in slaughter cattle was found to vary among categories of the study variables. The risk factors identified on statistical basis were male cattle and ${\leq}3$ years old cattle and summer in congestion, slightly thin physical condition and summer season in pulmonary emphysema, slightly thin physical condition in parasitic bronchitis as well as female cattle, autumn and rainy seasons in pulmonary hydatidosis. The population impact and etiologic significance of summer season on pulmonary congestion and emphysema was more important than that of adult male cattle. The population impact and etiologic significance of autumn season on pulmonary hydatidosis was more important than that of female cattle during rainy season. Population impact of slightly thin cattle on parasitic bronchitis was poor.

The Effects of Pre-slaughter Stress and Season on the Activity of Plasma Creatine Kinase and Mutton Quality from Different Sheep Breeds Slaughtered at a Smallholder Abattoir

  • Chulayo, A.Y.;Muchenje, V.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.26 no.12
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    • pp.1762-1772
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    • 2013
  • The objective of the current study was to determine the effect of pre-slaughter stress, season and breed on the activity of plasma creatine kinase (CK) and the quality of mutton. One hundred and seventy-three (173) castrated sheep from Dormer (DM), South African Mutton Merino (SAMM), Dorper (DP) and Blackhead Persian (BP) sheep breeds were used in the study. The animals were grouped according to age-groups as follows: Group 1 (6 to 8 months), Group 2 (9 to 12 months) and Group 3 (13 to 16 months). Blood samples were collected during exsanguinations using disposable vacutainer tubes for CK analysis. Representative samples of the Muscularis longissimuss thoracis et. lumborum (LTL) were collected from 84 castrated sheep, of different breeds (28 per breed) 24 h after slaughter. The following physico-chemical characteristics of mutton were determined; meat pH ($pH_{24}$), color ($L^*$, $a^*$ and $b^*$), thawing and cooking losses and Warner Braztler Shear Force (WBSF). The activity of plasma CK was significantly higher (p<0.001) in summer ($1,026.3{\pm}105.06$) and lower in winter ($723.3{\pm}77.75$). There were higher values for $L^*$ ($33.7{\pm}0.94$), $b^*$ ($11.5{\pm}0.48$) and WBSF ($29.5{\pm}1.46$) in summer season than in winter season; $L^*$ ($29.4{\pm}0.64$), $b^*$ ($10.2{\pm}0.33$) and WBSF ($21.2{\pm}0.99$). The activity of plasma CK was influenced by the type of breed with Dormer having the highest (p>0.001) levels ($1,358.6{\pm}191.08$) of CK. South African Mutton Merino had higher values for $pH_{24}$ ($5.9{\pm}0.06$), $L^*$ ($34.2{\pm}0.97$), $b^*$ ($12.2{\pm}0.50$) and WBSF ($26.8{\pm}1.51$) and Blackhead Persian had higher values ($35.5{\pm}2.17$) for cooking loss (CL%) than the other breeds. Computed Principal Component Analyses (PCA) on the activity of plasma CK and physico-chemical characteristics of mutton revealed no correlations between these variables. However, positive correlations were observed between $pH_{24}$, $L^*$, $a^*$, $b^*$, CL% and WBSF. Relationships between pre-slaughter stress, CK activity and physico-chemical characteristics of mutton were also observed. It was therefore concluded that although mutton quality and creatine kinase were not related, pre-slaughter stress, season and breed affected the activity of creatine kinase and mutton quality.

Analysis of the influence of sex, slaughter season, and feeding system on carcass traits in Hanwoo

  • Kim, Gye-Woong;Kim, Ji-Hyuk
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.375-383
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    • 2017
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effects of sex, environmental factors, and feeding system on the carcass traits of Hanwoo (Korean Native Cattle). Data were collected from 7,866 heads slaughtered in Chungnam province during one-year period. Using the collected carcass traits data which greatly influence a Hanwoo's carcass grade, the effects of sex class, slaughter season, and feeding system were estimated. Backfat thickness of steers was significantly higher than that of bulls (p < 0.05). Marbling score was also the highest in steers when compared with cows and bulls (p < 0.05). Live weight and carcass weight were significantly higher in winter than in summer (p < 0.05). However, backfat thickness was significantly lower in summer than in other seasons (p < 0.05). Marbling score was higher in spring and fall than in summer and winter (p < 0.05). In terms of feeding systems, TMR (Total mixed ration) and TMF (Total mixed fermentation feed) fed groups showed the highest carcass grade (p < 0.05). However, the group fed TMR and formula feed at the final fattening period showed the lowest performance (p < 0.05) and it is assumed that some stress was associated to the feed change. The results reconfirm that castration may be recommended in order to improve meat quality and marbling scores in bulls. There was no consistent trend of seasonal effects of slaughter on carcass traits although some traits were significantly affected. Regarding the feeding system, either TMR or TMF can be supplied to achieve high feed efficiency and good carcass characteristics in Hanwoo.

Carcass Traits Determining Quality and Yield Grades of Hanwoo Steers

  • Moon, S.S.;Hwang, I.H.;Jin, S.K.;Lee, J.G.;Joo, S.T.;Park, G.B.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.16 no.7
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    • pp.1049-1054
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    • 2003
  • A group of Hanwoo (Korean cattle) steers (n=14,386) was sampled from a commercial abattoir located in Seoul over one year period (spring, summer, autumn and winter) and their carcass traits were collected. Carcass traits assessed by an official meat grader comprised degree of marbling, meat color, fat color, texture and maturity for quality grade, and back fat thickness, ribeye area and carcass weight for yield grade. A heavier carcass with a higher marbling score, more red meat color and white fat color received better quality grade (p<0.05). Regression analysis showed that the marbling score was the strongest attribute (partial $R^2=0.88$) for quality grade. Lighter carcasses with a thinner back fat and larger ribeye area received higher yield grade score. The back fat thickness was the most negative determinant of yield grade (Partial $R^2=-0.66$). The slaughter season had a little effect on quality and yield grades. As slaughter weight increased, back fat thickness and ribeye area increased linearly, whereas marbling score reached its asymptotic level at approximately 570 kg. As a consequence, quality grade showed a considerable improvement up to 570 kg, but increases in slaughter weight afterward showed a little benefit on quality grade. There was a clear curvilinear relationship between slaughter weight and yield grade in that the yield grade reached its highest point at approximately 490 kg and decreased afterward. These results suggested that 570kg at the age of 24 months might be the economic slaughter weight for quality grade but 490 kg for yield grade.

Effect of Carcass Traits on Carcass Prices of Holstein Steers in Korea

  • Alam, M.;Cho, K.H.;Lee, S.S.;Choy, Y.H.;Kim, H.S.;Cho, C.I.;Choi, T.J.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.26 no.10
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    • pp.1388-1398
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    • 2013
  • The present study investigated the contribution of carcass traits on carcass prices of Holstein steers in Korea. Phenotypic data consisted of 76,814 slaughtered Holsteins (1 to 6 yrs) from all over Korea. The means for live body weight at slaughter (BWT), chilled carcass weight (CWT), dressing percentage (DP), quantity grade index (QGI), eye muscle area (EMA), backfat thickness (BF) and marbling score (MS), carcass unit price (CUP), and carcass sell prices (CSP) were 729.0 kg, 414.2 kg, 56.79%, 64.42, $75.26cm^2$, 5.77 mm, 1.98, 8,952.80 Korean won/kg and 3,722.80 Thousand Korean won/head. Least squares means were significantly different by various age groups, season of slaughter, marbling scores and yield grades. Pearson's correlation coefficients of CUP with carcass traits ranged from 0.12 to 0.62. Besides, the relationships of carcass traits with CSP were relatively stronger than those with CUP. The multiple regression models for CUP and CSP with carcass traits accounted 39 to 63% of the total variation, respectively. Marbling score had maximum economic effects (partial coefficients) on both prices. In addition, the highest standardized partial coefficients (relative economic weights) for CUP and CSP were calculated to be on MS and CWT by 0.608 and 0.520, respectively. Path analyses showed that MS (0.376) and CWT (0.336) had maximum total effects on CUP and CSP, respectively; whereas BF contributed negatively. Further sub-group (age and season of slaughter) analyses also confirmed the overall outcomes. However, the relative economic weights and total path contributions also varied among the animal sub-groups. This study suggested the significant influences of carcass traits on carcass prices; especially MS and CWT were found to govern the carcass prices of Holstein steers in Korea.

Genetic Analysis of Ultrasound and Carcass Measurement Traits in a Regional Hanwoo Steer Population

  • Hwang, Jeong Mi;Cheong, Jae Kyoung;Kim, Sam Su;Jung, Bong Hwan;Koh, Myung Jae;Kim, Hyeong Cheol;Choy, Yun Ho
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.457-463
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    • 2014
  • Ultrasound measurements of backfat thickness (UBF), longissimus muscle area (ULMA) and marbling score (UMS) and carcass measurements of carcass weight (CW), backfat thickness (BF), longissimus muscle area (LMA), and marbling score (MS) on 7,044 Hanwoo steers were analyzed to estimate genetic parameters. Data from Hanwoo steers that were raised, finished in Hoengseong-gun, Gangwon-do (province) and shipped to slaughter houses during the period from October 2010 to April 2013 were evaluated. Ultrasound measurements were taken at approximately three months before slaughter by an experienced operator using a B-mode real-time ultrasound device (HS-2000, FHK Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) with a 3.5 MHz linear probe. Ultrasound scanning was on the left side between 13th rib and the first lumbar vertebrae. All slaughtering processes and carcass evaluations were performed in accordance with the guidelines of beef grading system of Korea. To estimate genetic parameters, multiple trait animal models were applied. Fixed effects included in the models were: the effects of farm, contemporary group effects (year-season at the time of ultrasound scanning in the models for UBF, ULMA, and UMS, and year-season at slaughter in the models for CW, BF, LMA, and MS), the effects of ultrasound technicians as class variables and the effects of the age in days at ultrasound scanning or at slaughtering as linear covariates, respectively for ultrasound and carcass measures. Heritability estimates obtained from our analyses were 0.37 for UBF, 0.13 for ULMA, 0.27 for UMS, 0.44 for CW, 0.33 for BF, 0.36 for LMA and 0.54 MS, respectively. Genetic correlations were strongly positive between corresponding traits of ultrasound and carcass measures. Genetic correlation coefficient between UBF and BF estimate was 0.938, between ULMA and LMA was 0.767 and between UMS and MS was 0.925. These results suggest that ultrasound measurement traits are genetically similar to carcass measurement traits.

Bruising in Slaughter Cattle and Its Relationship with Creatine Kinase Levels and Beef Quality as Affected by Animal Related Factors

  • Mpakama, T.;Chulayo, A.Y.;Muchenje, V.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.27 no.5
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    • pp.717-725
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    • 2014
  • The objective of the study was to determine the effects of animal related factors on bruising in slaughter cattle, creatine kinase (CK) and beef quality. Three hundred and twenty one cattle from three breeds (108 Bonsmara, 130 Beefmaster and 83 Brahman) were used in this study. The animals were grouped as follows: Group 1 (16 months old), Group 2 (18 months old) and Group 3 (24 months old). At exsanguinations, blood samples for CK determination were collected using disposable vacutainer tubes. Muscularis longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) was collected 24 h after slaughter to determine the colour ($L^*$, $a^*$, and $b^*$) and ultimate pH ($pH_u$) of beef. Breed, sex and age had significant effects (p<0.05) on bruising score, CK levels and beef quality. Bonsmara breed had the highest (80%) bruising score percentage, CK ($705.3{\pm}80.57U/L$) and $pH_u$ ($6.3{\pm}0.05$) values while the Bonsmara had the highest $L^*$ ($24.8{\pm}0.78$) $a^*$ ($17.5{\pm}0.53$) and $b^*$ ($12.8{\pm}0.53$) values. Higher CK levels were also observed in winter compared to summer, spring and autumn respectively. Therefore, animal factors (sex, breed and animal age at slaughter) contribute to the development of bruises and have an effect on the levels of CK and meat quality. It was also concluded that there is no significant relationship between meat parameters (L,* $a^*$, and $b^*$) and CK levels.

Transport losses in finisher pigs: impact of transport distance and season of the year

  • Voslarova, Eva;Vecerek, Vladimir;Passantino, Annamaria;Chloupek, Petr;Bedanova, Iveta
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.119-124
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    • 2017
  • Objective: The death of animals during transport for slaughter is a major factor indicating the level of welfare in transported animals. The aim of this study was to assess mortality related to the commercial transport of finisher pigs for slaughter in the Czech Republic. Methods: The inspectors of the State Veterinary Administration of the Czech Republic recorded the numbers of finisher pigs transported to processing plants in the Czech Republic for slaughter and the mortality in these pigs in relation to transport in the period from 2009 to 2014. Results: Our results show that the likelihood of death losses in transported pigs increases with increasing transport distance. The transport-related mortality ranged from 0.049% in pigs transported for distances below 50 km to 0.145% in pigs transported for distances exceeding 300 km. The impact of external air temperature on the transport-related mortality found in our study clearly shows that current transport practices fail to ensure the welfare of pigs transported under other than moderate weather. Particularly cold temperatures below $-2^{\circ}C$ were associated with increased death losses in winter transport. Conclusion: Despite a decreasing trend in the mortality of finisher pigs transported for slaughter in Europe, our study suggests that current transport conditions are not efficient at ensuring the welfare of pigs during transport for longer distances and the protection of pigs against the negative impact of extreme ambient temperatures. Further research should focus on developing practical guidelines to improve the welfare of pigs in transit accordingly.