• Title, Summary, Keyword: small breed dogs

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Gait analysis in clinically healthy small to toy breed dogs using a pressure plate

  • Hwang, Yawon;Kim, Dongwook;Kim, Gonhyung
    • Journal of Biomedical and Translational Research
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.93-96
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    • 2017
  • Locomotion can be investigated using visual locomotion scoring or computer-assisted techniques such as force plates or pressure plates. Although visual locomotion scoring is inexpensive, it is subjective and depends on observers. Conversely, computer-assisted techniques are objective and more sensitive than visual assessment. Many studies of gait in large breed dogs have been conducted using these techniques; however, there have been few investigations of small to toy breed dogs. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to conduct gait analysis in small to toy breed dogs and to suggest normal reference ranges for clinical application. Twenty healthy dogs with no lameness or orthopedic pain weighing from 2 kg to 12 kg were used. The dogs were divided into two groups according to their weight, after which gait analysis was conducted using a pressure plate. The pressure force ratio between the forelimb and hindlimb was significantly lower in group 2 (mean 4.2 kg) than group 1 (mean 10.4 kg), while the stance time ratio between the forelimb and hindlimb tended to increase in group 2, but there was no significant difference. Other numerical values in group 2 tended to decrease, with some significant differences being observed. Overall, the results suggest that there are different gait features in small to toy breed dogs when compared with middle and large breed dogs.

Evaluation of Diseases Affecting Hindlimb Lameness in Domestic Small Breed Dogs

  • Kim, Dongwook;Hwang, Yawon;Yoo, Seungwon;Oh, Hyejong;Kim, Gonhyung
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.37 no.6
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    • pp.297-300
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    • 2020
  • Lameness is a variation of normal gait in an animal, and it means that one or more limbs cannot be used correctly to allow the animal to walk. In the usual context, the incidence of hindlimb lameness in dogs is most likely the result of trauma, joint diseases, and/or congenital diseases. Generally speaking, the factors influencing hindlimb lameness include the animal's specific breed, size, weight, and whether it engages in frequent or strenuous activities. Many studies have investigated the incidence of lameness of large breed dogs, as compared to small breed dogs. Considering that many domestic dogs are small breeds, the lameness of small breed dogs with a high population in Korea was evaluated. The major causes of hindlimb lameness were found to be joint, musculoskeletal, and neurological abnormalities and the most were identified as joint diseases. Among the joint diseases, it was noted that a patellar luxation was the most common, of which the grade 3 medial patellar luxation was the highest rated type of joint disease noted.

Ultrasonographic evaluation of skin thickness in small breed dogs with hyperadrenocorticism

  • Heo, Seonghun;Hwang, Taesung;Lee, Hee Chun
    • Journal of Veterinary Science
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.840-845
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    • 2018
  • The purpose of this study was to propose a standard for differentiation between normal dogs and patients with hyperadrenocorticism (HAC) by measuring skin thickness via ultrasonography in small breed dogs. Significant changes in skin thickness of patients treated with prednisolone (PDS) or patients with HAC treated with trilostane were evaluated. Skin thickness was retrospectively measured on three abdominal digital images obtained from small breed dogs weighing < 15 kg that underwent abdominal ultrasonography. Mean skin thickness of normal dogs was $1.03{\pm}0.25mm$ (mean ${\pm}$ SD). Both the HAC and PDS groups showed significantly thinner skin than that in the normal group. Seven of the 10 HAC patients treated with trilostane had increased skin thickness. The area under the curve value of 0.807 was based on the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve for differentiating normal dogs from HAC patients. Sensitivity was 76% and specificity was 73% when skin thickness was less than the 0.83 mm cutoff value. In conclusion, measurement of skin thickness in small breed dogs by using ultrasonography is likely to provide clinical information useful in differentiating HAC patients from normal dogs. However, exposure to PDS, trilostane, and other conditions may have a significant effect on skin thickness.

Evaluation of Autoligation Technique for Castration in Small Breed Dogs

  • Kim, Jong-In;Jeong, Soon-Wuk
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.75-81
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    • 2020
  • The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of autoligation techniques for castrating healthy male small breed dogs. Forty dogs were divided into four groups, with 10 in each group, based on maturity and the surgical technique used: 1) immature dogs aged less than 1 year, with autoligation of the spermatic cord via a scrotal approach (SAL) as the surgical technique (SAL-IM); 2) mature dogs aged 1 year or older, with the same SAL surgical technique (SAL-M); 3) immature dogs aged less than 1 year, with double ligation of the spermatic cord with an absorbable suture via a prescrotal approach (PDL) as the surgical technique (PDL-IM); and 4) mature dogs aged 1 year or older, with the same PDL surgical technique (PDL-M). The effectiveness of the surgical technique was evaluated by comparing the operating time and complications between these four groups. The significant decreases in operating times were found in SAL-IM and SAL-M compared with those of PDL-IM and PDL-M (p < 0.01 and p < 0.01). Regardless of maturity, the SAL surgical technique reduced operating time by approximately 69.5% compared with the PDL surgical technique. When the complication severities were scored, the results showed no significant differences among the four group. The autoligation technique for castration in healthy male small breed dogs is considered to be effective because the operating time consuming is less than conventional techniques.

Laparoscopic Cryptorchidectomy in Small Breed Dogs (소형견종에서 실시한 복강경 잠복고환 절제술)

  • Park, Jiyoung;Jeong, Seong Mok
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.61-65
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    • 2014
  • The study aimed at determining the feasibility of three portal totally Laparoscopic cryptorchidectomy in small breed dogs. Four right sided and one left sided abdomen retained testicles in five dogs weighing 2.2~8.7 kg were retrieved successfully. Pampiniform plexus and vas deference were ligated and transected with Hem-o-lock/monopolar electrocauterization (1/5), or ultrasonic scalpel (4/5) and the latter provided more easy, quick and safe hemostasis and transection. The resected testis was easily removed through a insertion site. Mean surgical time was $19.9{\pm}15.2$ minutes and when the abdominal cavity was explored again, there were no major complications. The patient recovered favorably without unwilling events. This is the case report of laparoscopic cryptorchidectomies in small breed dogs weigh less than 10 kg. Laparoscopic cryptorchidectomy could be considered as an alternative in small animal surgery.

Intra-uterine Insemination with Frozen Canine Semen Using Vaginal Endoscope (개에서 동결정액의 경관내 주입을 통한 인공수정)

  • 정동희;최윤주;임상현;김용준
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.44-47
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    • 2001
  • Semen were collected from 9 male dogs and frozen by liquid nitrogengas. Frozen semen were thawed at 7$0^{\circ}C$ for 8 seconds. About $2{\timss}10^8$ sperm per insemination were inseminated to 10 bitches (3 Retrievers, 4 Chihuahuas, 1 Yorkshire Terriers, 1 Maltese, and 1 Poodle) at three and six days after the estimated peak of luteinizing hormone. For small breed dogs, uretero-renoscope (Kahl Storz, Germany, 12.5 Fr) was used for trans-cervical insemination, whereas cystoscope(Kahl Storz, Germany, 22Fr) was used for large breeds (Retrievers). Pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasonography at 30 days after insemination. All of 3 Retrievers (100.0%) and 3 bitches of 7 small breed dogs (42.9%) were conceived (60.0% in total). This result indicated that trans-cervical insemination using endoscope is an effective method for AI with frozen semen not only for large breed dogs such as Retriever but also for small breeds.

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Comparison of hematological and serum biochemical parameters among small breed dogs (국내 반려견의 품종에 따른 혈구 및 생화학 수치 비교 연구)

  • Kim, Eunju;Choe, Changyong;Yoo, Jae Gyu;So, Kyoung-Min;Jung, Younghun;Cho, Ara;Kim, Suhee;Oh, Sang-Ik;Do, Yoon Jung
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
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    • v.41 no.1
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    • pp.1-8
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    • 2018
  • Hematological and serum biochemical analyses are routinely used to screen dogs for disease and monitor their clinical progression. These values in dogs may be affected by internal factors, such as breed and age, and external factors like environment, diet, and lifestyle. Apparently, subclinical breed-related variations in hematologic and serum biochemical results have been characterized for Bernese Mountain dogs, Alaskan Malamutes, English Setters, and Golden Retrievers. It is possible that some breed-related differences in clinical pathology analyses may reflect evidence of underlying disease and impact clinical decision plan. In this study, we estimated hematologic and serum biochemical parameters in small breed dogs and compared among four different breed dogs. Blood samples were collected from 38 domestic dogs that were 10 Beagles, 9 Malteses, 10 Poodles, and 9 Miniature Schnauzers. In terms of RBC count, Beagle ($7.2{\pm}0.24{\times}10^3cells/{\mu}L$) showed significantly (P<0.05) higher count than other breeds (Maltese, $6.51{\pm}0.25{\times}10^3cells/{\mu}L$; Poodle, $6.35{\pm}0.24{\times}10^3cells/{\mu}L$; and Miniature Schnauzer, $6.35{\pm}0.25{\times}10^3cells/{\mu}L$). For MCV, Miniature Schnauzer ($67.05{\pm}0.84fl$) results were significantly (P<0.05) higher than Beagle with $64.33{\pm}0.8fl$. For cholesterol value, Beagle ($163.3{\pm}9.15mg/dl$) had significantly (P<0.05) higher values than Miniature Schnauzer with $119.12{\pm}9.64mg/dl$. There was no statistically difference among breeds in terms of enzyme markers of liver diseases. In conclusion, data obtained from this study may be valuable as breed-related variability for interpretation of the results in hematologic and serum biochemical analysis among four small breed dogs.

Evaluation of an arthroscopic stifle lever for stifle joint distraction in toy breed dogs

  • Park, Ji Yong;Jeong, Bum Soo;Roh, Yoon Seok;Jeong, Seong Mok;Lee, Hae Beom
    • Journal of Veterinary Science
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.693-698
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    • 2018
  • Arthroscopy has become an attractive modality in the diagnosis and treatment of joint diseases in toy breed dogs. However, the application of arthroscopy is limited by small joint space. Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of a stifle lever for joint distraction during stifle arthroscopy in toy breed dogs. Paired stifles (n = 32 each) collected from 16 cadavers of toy breed dogs were randomly assigned to one of two groups: the stifle lever group or the external manipulation group. All stifles underwent arthroscopic cranial cruciate ligament transection, and the visualization of the medial meniscus was evaluated. Medial meniscal release (MMR) was then performed. Following arthroscopic examination, the success rates of MMR and damages of tibial and femoral cartilages were evaluated. Visualization of the medial meniscus was significantly better, and meniscal probing was significantly easier, in the stifle lever group than in the external manipulation group (p = 0.001). There were no significant differences between groups for MMR success or articular cartilage damage. Using the stifle lever on arthroscopic examination improved visualization and probing on the medial meniscus in toy breed dogs. The stifle lever can be used as a good modality in assessing medial meniscal pathology in toy breed dogs.

Clinical Results of Distal Femoral Osteotomy for Treatment of Grade 4 Medial Patella Luxation with Concurrent Distal Femoral Varus in Small Breeds Dogs: 13 Cases

  • Roh, Yoon-Ho;Jung, Jin-Ho;Lee, Je-Hun;Jeong, Jae-Min;Jeong, Seong Mok;Lee, HaeBeom
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.135-140
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    • 2020
  • The purpose of this study was to determine the outcome of distal femoral osteotomy for distal femoral varus and medial patellar luxation (MPL) grade 4 in small-breed dogs. Radiographs and medical records were reviewed to collect data and plan the surgery in small-breed dogs with MPL grade 4. Computed tomography (CT) imaging was also performed in cases of severe bone deformities. Signalment, weight, medial patellar luxation and lameness grade, radiographic bone union, complications, pre- and postoperative femoral varus angle, passive range of motion, static weight bearing distribution and visual analogue scale scores were recorded. Thirteen corrective distal femoral osteotomies were performed with ancillary and additional procedures in 9 dogs; 4 dogs had staged bilateral procedures; and four stifles were suspected to have partial or complete rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament. One stifle underwent patellar groove replacement. The mean ± SD pre- and postoperative femoral varus angles were 109.15°± 3.71° and 96.30°± 2.97°, respectively. Significant improvements in passive range of motion, thigh circumference and visual analogue scale (VAS) scores were observed. There was no reluxation of the patella. This study suggests that distal femoral osteotomy with traditional and additional procedures provided satisfactory outcomes in patient healing and functional recovery in small-breed dogs with excessive femoral varus angles.

Fibrocartilaginous Embolic Myelopathy in Two Small Breed Dogs (소형견에서 섬유연골 색전성 척수증 2례)

  • Lim Ji-Hey;Jung Chang-Su;Byeon Ye-Eun;Kim Wan-Hee;Lee Young-Won;Kweon Oh-Kyeong
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.218-221
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    • 2006
  • This report described clinical findings and Magnetic resonance image (MRI) results in two small breed dogs with fibrocartilaginous embolism (FCE). They were admitted with asymmetric acute-onset tetra/paraparesis with superficial pain sensation. In addition, there were no back pain and no progression of clinical signs. Cerebrospinal fluid and laboratory findings were evaluated. MRI revealed a similar focal intramedullary lesion of hyperintensive signals on T2-weighted images. Based on these findings, it was diagnosed as fibrocartilaginous embolic myelopathy in those two dogs.