• Title, Summary, Keyword: smeared crack

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A composite crack model for concrete based on meshless method

  • Lu, Xin-Zheng;Jiang, Jian-Jing;Ye, Lie-Ping
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.217-232
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    • 2006
  • A crack model for the fracture in concrete based on meshless method is proposed in this paper. The cracks in concrete are classified into micro-cracks or macro-cracks respectively according to their widths, and different numerical approaches are adopted for them. The micro-cracks are represented with smeared crack approach whilst the macro-cracks are represented with discrete cracks that are made up with additional nodes and boundaries. The widely used meshless method, Element-free Galerkin method, is adopted instead of finite element method to model the concrete, so that the discrete crack approach is easier to be implemented with the convenience of arranging node distribution in the meshless method. Rotating-Crack-Model is proved to be preferred over Fixed-Crack-Model for the smeared cracks of this composite crack model due to its better performance on mesh bias. Numerical examples show that this composite crack model can take advantage of the positive characteristics in the smeared and discrete approaches, and overcome some of their disadvantages.

2D evaluation of crack openings using smeared and embedded crack models

  • Gamino, Andre Luis;Manzoli, Osvaldo Luis;de Oliveira e Sousa, Jose Luiz Antunes;Bittencourt, Tulio Nogueira
    • Computers and Concrete
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    • v.7 no.6
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    • pp.483-496
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    • 2010
  • This work deals with the determination of crack openings in 2D reinforced concrete structures using the Finite Element Method with a smeared rotating crack model or an embedded crack model. In the smeared crack model, the strong discontinuity associated with the crack is spread throughout the finite element. As is well known, the continuity of the displacement field assumed for these models is incompatible with the actual discontinuity. However, this type of model has been used extensively due to the relative computational simplicity it provides by treating cracks in a continuum framework, as well as the reportedly good predictions of reinforced concrete members' structural behavior. On the other hand, by enriching the displacement field within each finite element crossed by the crack path, the embedded crack model is able to describe the effects of actual discontinuities (cracks). This paper presents a comparative study of the abilities of these 2D models in predicting the mechanical behavior of reinforced concrete structures. Structural responses are compared with experimental results from the literature, including crack patterns, crack openings and rebar stresses predicted by both models.

A smeared crack model for seismic failure analysis of concrete gravity dams considering fracture energy effects

  • Hariri-Ardebili, Mohammad Amin;Seyed-Kolbadi, Seyed Mahdi;Mirzabozorg, Hasan
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.48 no.1
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    • pp.17-39
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    • 2013
  • In the present paper, a coaxial rotating smeared crack model is proposed for mass concrete in three-dimensional space. The model is capable of applying both the constant and variable shear transfer coefficients in the cracking process. The model considers an advanced yield function for concrete failure under both static and dynamic loadings and calculates cracking or crushing of concrete taking into account the fracture energy effects. The model was utilized on Koyna Dam using finite element technique. Dam-water and dam-foundation interactions were considered in dynamic analysis. The behavior of dam was studied for different shear transfer coefficients considering/neglecting fracture energy effects. The results were extracted at crest displacement and crack profile within the dam body. The results show the importance of both shear transfer coefficient and the fracture energy in seismic analysis of concrete dams under high hydrostatic pressure.

Ultimate Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Shear Walls with Opening (개구부가 있는 철근콘크리트 전단벽의 극한해석)

  • Hu, Nam-Ryun;You, Young-Hwa;Kim, Woon-Hak
    • Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.195-205
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    • 2001
  • An analytical finite element approach to nonlinear behavior of reinforced concrete shear walls with opening under monotonic loading was presented in this paper. In order to achieve the objectives of present paper, the orthogonal anisotropic models for cracked reinforced concrete element based on smeared crack concept were used as the nonlinear material models of biaxial state of stress. The stiffness of cracked concrete was evaluated through the combined use of tension and compression stiffness models in and parallel directions of crack, respectively and shear transfer effect due to the aggregate interlocking at crack surface. The stress and strain of reinforcement in concrete was evaluated using the average stress and average strain relation with bond effect. based on smeared crack concept. The diagonal reinforcing bar was modeled using truss element with bond effect. A special significance of diagonal reinforcement near opening was given to the shear wall with opening and an effective distribution of diagonal reinforcement was presented in order to give an ultimate strength increment as well as a crack control.

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A Study on the Tensile Failure of a Notched Concrete (노치가 있는 콘크리트의 인장파괴 거동에 관한 연구)

  • 이준석;최일윤;엄주환;방춘석
    • Magazine of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.9 no.5
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    • pp.189-196
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    • 1997
  • 본 연구에서는 유한요소법을 이용한 콘크리트 인장균열의 발생 및 전파양상을 모형화하기 위하여 분산균열(smeared crack) 모델의 일종인 2차원 균질화된 균열(homogenized crack)모형을 제안하였다. 제안한 모형은 인장균열면을 따라 속도 불연속계(velocity discontinuity)를 도입하고 평형방정식 빛 적합방정식을 이용하여 인장균열을 포함한 콘크리트의 구성방정식을 유도할 수 있으며 인장균열이 소성연화거동을 하는 경우. 유한요소망내에서 객관성이 유지될 수 있음을 밝히기 위하여 1차원 영역내에서 엄밀해를 유도하였다. 제안한 모형을 이용한 1차원 또는 2차원 유한요소 해석은 기존의 노치를 포함한 콘크리트 시편에 대한 실험과 상응하는 결과를 보였을 뿐만 아니라 유한요소망의 객관성이 유지되고 있음을 밝혔다. 제안한 모형은 큰 어려움없이 3차원 영역으로 확대할 수 있을 것이며 이에 대한 추가적인 연구가 계속될 것이다.

Seismic fragility evaluation of arch concrete dams through nonlinear incremental analysis using smeared crack model

  • Moradloo, Javad;Naserasadi, Kiarash;Zamani, Habib
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.68 no.6
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    • pp.747-760
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    • 2018
  • In the present study, a methodology for developing fragilities of arch concrete dams to assess their performance against seismic hazards is introduced. Firstly, the probability risk and fragility curves are presented, followed by implementation and representation of the way this method is used. Amirkabir arch concrete dam was subjected to non-linear dynamic analyses. A modified three dimensional rotating smeared crack model was used to take the nonlinear behavior of mass concrete into account. The proposed model considers major characteristics of mass concrete. These characteristics are pre-softening behavior, softening initiation criteria, fracture energy conservation, suitable damping mechanism and strain rate effect. In the present analysis, complete fluid-structure interaction is included to account for appropriate fluid compressibility and absorptive reservoir boundary conditions. In this study, the Amirkabir arch concrete dam is subjected to a set of 8 three-component earthquakes each scaled to 10 increasing intensity levels. Using proposed nonlinear smeared crack model, nonlinear analysis is performed where the structure is subjected to a large set of scaled and un-scaled ground motions and the maximum responses are extracted for each one and plotted. Based on the results, fragility curves were plotted according to various and possible damages indexes. Discrete damage probabilities were calculated using statistical methods for each considered performance level and incremental nonlinear analysis. Then, fragility curves were constructed based on the lognormal distribution assumption. Two damage indexes were introduced and compared to one another. The results indicate that the dam has a proper stability under earthquake conditions at MCE level. Moreover, displacement damages index is more conservative and impractical in the fragility analysis than tensional damage index.

Development of Reinforced Concrete Shell Element with Drilling Rotational Stiffness (면내회전강성도를 갖는 철근콘크리트 쉘요소의 개발)

  • 김태훈;유영화;신현목
    • Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.11 no.6
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    • pp.47-56
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    • 1999
  • In this paper, a nonlinear finite element procedure is presented for the analysis of reinforced concrete shell structures. The 4-node quadrilateral flat shell finite element with drilling rotational stiffness is developed. The layered approach is used to discretize behavior of concrete and reinforcement through the thickness. Material nonlinearity is taken into account by comprising tensile, compressive and shear models of cracked concrete and a model of reinforcing steel. The smeared crack approach is incorporated. The steel reinforcement is assumed to be in a uniaxial stress state and to be a smeared in a layer. The proposed numerical method for nonlinear analysis of reinforce concrete shells will be verified by comparison with reliable experimental results.

Nonlinear Analysis of Reinforced and Prestressed Concrete Shells Using Layered Elements with Drilling DOF

  • Kim Tae-Hoon;Choi Jung-Ho;Kim Woon-Hak;Shin Hyun Mock
    • Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.645-654
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    • 2005
  • This paper presents a nonlinear finite element procedure for the analysis of reinforced and prestressed concrete shells using the four-node quadrilateral flat shell element with drilling rotational stiffness. A layered approach is used to discretize, through the thickness, the behavior of concrete, reinforcing bars and tendons. Using the smeared-crack method, cracked concrete is treated as an orthotropic nonlinear material. The steel reinforcement and tendon are assumed to be in a uni-axial stress state and to be smeared in a layer. The constitutive models, which cover the loading, unloading, and reloading paths, and the developed finite element procedure predicts with reasonable accuracy the behavior of reinforced and prestressed concrete shells subjected to different types of loading. The proposed numerical method fur nonlinear analysis of reinforced and prestressed concrete shells is verified by comparison with reliable experimental results.

Structural Behavior Analysis of Skew RC Slabs by p-Version Nonlinear Finite Element Model (p-Version 비선형 유한요소 모델에 의한 철근 콘크리트 경사 슬래브의 역학적 거동 해석)

  • Cho, Jin-Goo;Park, Jin-Hwan
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.47 no.5
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    • pp.17-26
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    • 2005
  • The objectives of this study are to determine the behavior of simply supported skew RC slabs subjected to a point load. The p-version nonlinear skew RC FE model has been used. Integrals of Legendre polynomials are used for shape functions with p-level varying from 1 to 10. In the nonlinear formulation of this model, the material model is based on the Kupfer's yield criterion, hardening rule, and crushing condition and layered model is used through the thickness. The cracking behavior is modeled by a smeared crack model and the fixed crack approach is adopted as the crack model. It is shown that the proposed model is able to adequately predict the deflection and ultimate load of nonlinear skew RC slabs with respect to steel arrangements and steel ratios.

Crack constitutive model for the prediction of punching failure modes of fiber reinforced concrete laminar structures

  • Ventura-Gouveia, A.;Barros, Joaquim A.O.;Azevedo, Alvaro F.M.
    • Computers and Concrete
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    • v.8 no.6
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    • pp.735-755
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    • 2011
  • The capability of a multi-directional fixed smeared crack constitutive model to simulate the flexural/punching failure modes of fiber reinforced concrete (FRC) laminar structures is discussed. The constitutive model is implemented in a computer program based on the finite element method, where the FRC laminar structures were simulated according to the Reissner-Mindlin shell theory. The shell is discretized into layers for the simulation of the membrane, bending and out-of-plane shear nonlinear behavior. A stress-strain softening diagram is proposed to reproduce, after crack initiation, the evolution of the normal crack component. The in-plane shear crack component is obtained using the concept of shear retention factor, defined by a crack-strain dependent law. To capture the punching failure mode, a softening diagram is proposed to simulate the decrease of the out-of-plane shear stress components with the increase of the corresponding shear strain components, after crack initiation. With this relatively simple approach, accurate predictions of the behavior of FRC structures failing in bending and in shear can be obtained. To assess the predictive performance of the model, a punching experimental test of a module of a façade panel fabricated with steel fiber reinforced self-compacting concrete is numerically simulated. The influence of some parameters defining the softening diagrams is discussed.