• Title, Summary, Keyword: smut

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Distribution, Host Range and Disease Incidence of Smut Fungi in Korea, Japan, and China (한국, 일본 및 중국산.깜부기병균의 분포, 기주 및 발생 현황)

  • Lee, Wang-Hyu;Lee, Kui-Jae;Lee, Yong-Hoon
    • Research in Plant Disease
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.34-40
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    • 2002
  • Different types of smut fungi have been reported from different geographical places, depending on the distribution of host plant. Therefore, a survey was conducted to investigate the host plant of smut fungi and occurrence situations in three Asian countries. As a result 12 genera of 4 families and 19 species,24 families 87 genus and 191 species, and 12 families 140 species were occurred in Korea, Japan and China, respectively. Six genera(Enty-loma, Yilletia, Sorosporium, Sphacelotheca, Urocysitis, Ustilago) of korean smut fungi species were reported until 1998. In Japan, Ito reported for first time 14 genera and 140 species of smut fungi in 19361 and then were more described into 17 genera 114 species by Kaki hits a in 1984. Two genera (Schizonella and Namnfldtiomyces) and 8 species were newly listed, later by other researchers. In China, Ling reported that smut fungi classified into 14 genera, 109 species in 1953. In addition, Liroa, Glomosporium, Gahmphopora and Microbotryum genus including 49 species were recently reported, thus 18 genera and 158 families of smut fungi in China. These results suggest that the number of plant related with smut fungi is seemed to be more increase in future. Smut disease, occurred on the whole or part of plant and flower.

Evaluation of SMUT Properties according to Nb Content in the Pickling Process of Nuclear Fuel Cladding Tube (핵연료 피복관의 산세 공정 시 Nb 함량에 따른 SMUT 특성)

  • Moon, Jong Han;Lee, Young Jun;Lee, Jin Hang;Hong, Jong Won;Lee, Jong Hyeon
    • Korean Journal of Materials Research
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    • v.29 no.8
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    • pp.483-490
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    • 2019
  • Currently, the Korean nuclear industry uses ZIRLO as material for nuclear fuel cladding(zirconium alloy). KEPCO Nuclear Fuel is in the process of developing a HANA alloy to enable domestic production of cladding. Cladding manufacture involves multistage heat treatments and pickling processes, the latter of which is vital for the removal of defects and impurities on the cladding surface. SMUT that forms on the cladding surface during such pickling process is a source of surface defects during heat treatment and post-treatment processes if not removed. This study analyzes ZIRLO, HANA-4, and HANA-6 alloy claddings to extensively study the SEM/EDS, XRD, and particle size characteristics of SMUT, which are second phase particles that are formed on the cladding surface during pickling processes. Using the analysis results, this study observes SMUT formation characteristics according to Nb concentration in Zr alloys during the washing process following the pickling process. In addition, this study observes SMUT removal characteristics on cladding surfaces according to concentrations of nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid in the acid solution.

알루미늄 무질산 디스멋용액 연구

  • Go, Geum-Seok
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Surface Engineering Conference
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    • pp.127-127
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    • 2016
  • 일반적인 알루미늄 표면처리 방식중 De Smut 는 질산 50~60% 용액에 상온에서 수초에서 수분 침적으로 Smut가 거의 제거가 되므로 도금공정에서 문제가 되지않았다. 단지 NOx 의 발생으로 작업공간 에서의 환경이 열악해 질 수 있다는 것이 문제 였다, 그러나 환경문제에 있어서 정부의 질소 규제 가 시작 되면서 알루미늄을 재료로 표면처리 하는 업체 에서는 질산 사용이 곤란해 해졌다. 그러나 질산이 금속과 의 친화력은 스테인레스, 알루미늄, 등 많은 금속에서 소지금속의 용해를 방지 하면서 산화스케일( De Smut)을 제거하는 데 유용한 산이어서 아직도 이용되고 있는 실정이다. 본 연구에서 는 우선 스테인레스 강의 산세시 불산과 질산의 혼산을 사용 하는 것을 불산, 불화암모늄, 황산, 과산화 수소 혹은 불산, 염산, 과산화 수소 등으로 전환 사용 하는 것 에 착안 하여 황산, 과산화수소 시스템에서 혹은 불산, 황산, 과산화 수소, 등으로 Smut 제거가 가능 한지 알아보고 그 효과를 살펴보았다.

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Development of Nitric Acid Free Desmut Solution for the Aluminum Alloy in Alkaline Etching and Acid Desmut Processes (Aluminum 합금소재의 알칼리에칭 공정으로 발생한 Smut 제거를 위한 무질산 혼합산용액 개발)

  • Choo, Soo-Tae;Choi, Sang Kyo
    • Clean Technology
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.57-61
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    • 2003
  • A novel nitric acid-free desmut solution has been developed to remove smut, which is produced from a NaOH etching, on the surface of aluminum alloy metal in metal surface treatment processes. Comparing with the performance of 5% $HNO_3$ desmut solution, the mixed acid solution containing 2% $H_2O_2$, 0.5% HF, and 10% $H_2SO_4$ shows the same effect of smut removal for aluminum alloy samples of A16061 and A15052. To examine the surface alterations of the aluminum samples, in addition, the surface analysis is carried out with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA).

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Effects of Seed Disinfectant Treatments on Leaf Blight and Smut Disease in Coix lacryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen Stapf (율무 잎마름병과 깜부기병에 대한 종자소독 효과)

  • Chang, Seog-Won;Kim, Hee-Dong;Jeon, Dae-Hoon
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.79-82
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    • 2000
  • This study was carried out to investigate the effect of seed disinfectant on leaf blight and smut in adlay. Leaf blight and smut disease in adlay are known to be seed borne. Bjpolan's cojds, pathogen causing leaf blight in adlay, was detected from 32. 7 to 45. 7 % on seeds collected from adlay cultivated farms in Yonchon province. Periods of seed infestation are $0{\sim}7$ days on the variety 'yulmu 1' and $0{\sim}20$ days on 'Yonchon jaerae'. Distribution ratio of seed disinfestation periods was that no disinfestation, $1{\sim}5$days, $6{\sim}10$days and more 11days were 20%, 20%, 45% and 15%, respectively. Frudioxonil W. S. treatment was effective on inhibition of leaf blight and smut disease when treated with infested seeds ; that is, disease control values of the fungicide are 97 and 93.4 percentage, repectively.

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Control of Seed-borne Infection of Ustilago nuda and Pyrenophora graminea on Barley (맥류(麥類)에 발생(發生)하는 Ustilago nuda 및 Pyrenophora graminea에 대한 종자(種子) 소독(消毒)에 관한 연구(硏究))

  • Lee, Du-Hyung
    • The Korean Journal of Mycology
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.89-94
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    • 1980
  • Effects of seed disinfectants on loose smut (Ustilago nuda) and leaf stripe (Pyrenophora graminea) of barley were investigated in field tests. For these experiments, seed samples carrying natural infection of Ustilago nuda and Pyrenophora graminea were used and the following fungicides were used: Baytan, Baytan U, Benlate T, Busan 30, KAC-7703, P 242, Panoctine, Sisthane Ec, Sisthane Wp, Sisthane Ds, Sodium Omadine, Terracoat Zn, Vitathiram and Zinc Omadine, respectively. Results have shown that Sisthane and Benlate T have equal effect to Vitathiram against Ustil­ago nuda and Pyrenophora graminea. Baytan U was effective against loose smut but inferior to leaf stripe of barley. P 242 was effective against leaf stripe but inferior to loose smut of barley. Busan 30 have shown moderately inferior effect to Vitathiram against loose smut and leaf stripe of barley. A mild inhibition of seed germination and seedling growth of barley, naked barley and wheat seeds was observed when high concentration of Sisthane and Baytan U were treated in seedling box placed in green house conditions, but no symptom observed in field conditions.

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Incidence of Rice False Smut Caused by Ustilaginoidea virens in Different Geographic Regions and Cultivars, and Its Chemical Control (지역 및 품종에 따른 벼 이삭누룩병 발생과 약제방제 효과)

  • 심홍식;류재당;한성숙
    • Research in Plant Disease
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.102-106
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    • 2001
  • Currently the rice false smut caused by Ustilaginoidea virens (Cooke) Takah. has occurred widely in Korea. A survey on the disease incidence at rice fields in 8 inland provinces was carried out in 2000, showing that the disease occurred at 104 (7.5%) out of 1,152 rice fields examined, ranging from 1.5% to 13.7% in provincial average. It was found that the disease incidence was greatly affected by local weather conditions and rice cultivars. In case of the most susceptible cultivar Namchunbyeo, the disease incidence was only about 1.3% in Icheon, while it was over 20% in Namwon which had weather conditions of the shorter sunshine period (about 64%) and the higher amount of precipitation (about 130%) during the rice cultivation than Icheon. In Icheon, artificial inoculation of the pathogen failed to induce the disease, probably because of the weather conditions unfavorable to the disease development, which also suggests that its incidence may be dependent on the weather conditions. Susceptibility of rice cultivars to the disease varied greatly; eight resistant cultivars including Heukjinjubyeo were not damaged by the disease, but 2 cultivars including Geumnambyeo and Namchunbyeo were severely damaged, having more than 20% of the disease incidence. Among chemicals tested fur the control of the rice false smut tebuconazole WP showed the highest control efficacy of 83∼88% on cvs. Geumnambyeo and Namchunbyeo. Other chemicals such as azoxystrobin WP and ferimzone WP also effectively suppressed the disease development in the field trials.

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Smut Induction on Corn Seedlings by Indoculation of Sporidia and Teliospores of Ustilago maydis in Greenhouse Conditions (온실조건에서 Ustilago maydis의 소생자 및 동포자 접종에 의한 옥수수 유묘의깜부기병 발병유도)

  • 김충회;이현주
    • Korean Journal Plant Pathology
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.291-296
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    • 1996
  • 옥수수 유묘접종시 깜부기병이 가장 잘 발병하는 조건은 4엽기 옥수수묘를 10\ulcorner~10\ulcorner/ml 농도의 소생자 현탁액으로 경엽살포한 후 28~3$0^{\circ}C$의 습실상에서 24시간 둔 후 꺼내어 온실에 두었을 때였다. 유묘의 엽기가 이보다 어리거나 접종원 농도가 이보다 높을 때, 혹은 습실상내 처리기간이 길어지면 접종후 유묘의 이른 고사를 초래하였다. 또한 습실상의 온도가 낮아질수록 깜부기병의 발병정도도 감소하였다. 깜부기병의 발생은 소생자 현탁액의 경엽살포 및 줄기주사접종에 의해서는 가능하였지만 토양관주에 의해서는 발병하지 않았다. 소생자 현탁액은 별도의 영양원의 첨가 없이도 발병을 잘 유도하였다. 동포자 현탁액을 직접 경엽살포하거나 줄기주사접종하여도 발병하였으나 소생자 현탁액접종에 비하여 발병정도가 현저히 낮았다.

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