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Water and Sodium Balance of Body Fluid (체액의 수분 및 나트륨 균형)

  • Kim, Ji-Hong
    • Childhood Kidney Diseases
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.111-119
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    • 2010
  • The maintenance of the osmolality of body fluids within a very narrow physiologic range is possible by water balance mechanisms that control the intake and excretion of water. Main factors of this process are the thirst and antidiuretic hormon arginine vasopressin (AVP), secretion regulated by osmoreceptors in the hypothalamus. Body water is the primary determinant of the osmolality of the extracellular fluid (ECF), disorders of body water homeostasis can be divided into hypo-osmolar disorders, in which there is an excess of body water relative to body solute, and hyperosmolar disorders, in which there is a deficiency of body water relative to body solute. The sodium is the predominant cation in ECF and the volume of ECF is directly proportional to the content of sodium in the body. Disorders of sodium balance, therefore, may be viewed as disorders of ECF volume. This reviews addresses the regulatory mechanisms underlying water and sodium metabolism, the two major determinants of body fluid homeostasis for a good understanding of the pathophysiology and proper management of disorders with disruption of water and sodium balance.

Sodium and Potassium Balance and Their Relation to Nutrient Intakes in Young Adult Men and Women

  • Kim, Eun-Young;Choi, Mi-Kyeong
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.24-29
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    • 2010
  • This study was conducted to investigate sodium and potassium balances, as well as correlations among the relating factors in adult males and females. We collected blood, urine and feces samples as well as a dietary intake survey from 50 subjects. Then, we analyzed the sodium and potassium contents in blood, urine and feces, and evaluated their state of balance. The average ages of the study targets were 24.7 years old for males and 22.8 years old for females. The daily energy intake by the males was 1733.4 kcal and by the females was 1570.3 kcal. Sodium intakes were 138.3 mEq and 127.5 mEq for males and females, respectively. Potassium intakes were 43.1 mEq and 49.3 mEq, respectively. The daily excretions of sodium through urine were 136.6 mEq by males and 97.0 mEq by females and the excretions through feces were 2.2 mEq and 2.0 mEq, respectively. The daily excretions of potassium through urine were 20.2 mEq and 16.5 mEq by males and females respectively, and the excretions through feces were 7.7 mEq and 7.5 mEq male to female. The retention rates of sodium were 11.7% and 14.1% male to female, respectively, and the apparent absorption rates were 98.5% and 97.8%. Additionally, the retention rates of potassium were 32.9% and 39.8% and the apparent absorptions were 81.9% and 81.3%, both male and female. It was noted that, overall, the sodium intake of adult males and females is still higher than the recommended daily sodium intake, while the potassium intakes and excretions were found to be lower. Based on the results of this study, nutritional guidance and education is recommended to encourage decreased sodium intake and increased potassium intake, according to recommended standards.

Effect of Dietary Fibers on Changes of Blood Pressure and Na Balance in Sponteneous Hypertensive Rats (식이섬유의 종류가 자연적 고혈압 유발 백서의 혈압 변화 및 Na 흡수에 미치는 영향)

  • Choe, Myeon;Tae, Weon-Chan;Kim, Jong-Dai
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.40-47
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    • 1991
  • To investigate a possible effect of pectinate(apple and carrot) and alginate (tangle or green laver) on blood pressure and sodium retention, male spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR) were assigned to 5 different experimental groups and fed diets containing 5% dietary fiber and 1% NaCl for 3 weeks. Dietary fibers were provided from one of the followings : cellulose, freeze dried apple, carrot, tangle(Undardia pinnatifda) or green laver(Monostroma nitidium). Fecal sodium excretion did not change significantly among the groups, however, urinary sodium excretion was increased in groups fed either carrot. tangle or green laver compared to group fed cellulose. Sodium balance was also negative in groups fed either carrot, tangle or green laver. most effectively in green laver group. Blood pressure of groups fed apple. carrot. tangle or green laver were decreased, especially those of group fed tangle, compared to those of group fed cellulose. Dietary fiber containing alginate. such as tangle and green laver, might have cellular binding capacity to sodium so that increased urinary sodium excretion and decreased blood pressure occur.

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The Effect of Dietary Sodium on Calcium Metabolism in Healthy Young Adult Women (한국 성인 여자에 있어서, 나트륨 섭취 수준이 체내 칼슘대사에 미치는 영향)

  • 김양애
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.246-257
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    • 1987
  • The present study was conducted to examine the effect of an increased level of dietary sodium on calcium excretion in 8 health young adult Korean women on a controlled diet. After adaptation period of 2 days, each subject received 2811.8$\pm$68.1 mgNa(day during the initial period of 5 days (low sodium period) and 6417.1$\pm$248.6mgNa(day during the following period of 5 days (high sodium period). Calcium intake was 593.7$\pm$15.7 mg Ca/day during the low sodium period of 596.1$\pm$25.1 Ca/day duing the high sodium period. When the low sodium period is compared with the high soidum period, the results were as following. 1) Mean urinary sodium excretion was significantly higher during the high sodium period (5760.1$\pm$156.5mg0 than during the low sodium period (2272.2$\pm$108.6mg)(P<0.001). Fecal sodium excretion of the high sodium period was also significantly higher than that of the low sodium period(P<0.001). Mean value of sodium balance during the high sodium period was higher than that of the low sodium period . However, the difference was not significant. 2) Mean urinary calcium excretion was significantly higher during the high sodium period than during the low sodium period ; mean value of the low sodium period was 124.7$\pm$11.3mg and that of the high sodium period was 202.6$\pm$17.2mg)P<0.001). Fecal calcium excretion was higher during the high sodium period (284.9$\pm$31.0mg) than during the low sodium period (253.9$\pm$15.3mg0, but there was no significance. Mean value of calcium balance during the high sodium period was significantly lower than that of the low sodium period(P<0.001). The above results show that high sodium intake increases calcium excretion as well as sodium excretion.

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The effect of Ca Supplementatin on the Metabolism of Sodium and Potassium and Blood Pressure in College Women (칼슘보충이 여대생의 나트륨, 칼륨 대사 및 혈압에 미치는 영향)

  • 김희선
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.32-39
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    • 1997
  • This study was desiged to investigate the effects of calcium supplementation on the metabolism of sodium and potassium and blood pressure in seven healthy college women, aged from 19 to 21 years old. For this purpose, metabolic studies were conducted for two weeks. During the first week, the subjects ate experimental diet of which nutrients composition was similar to their usual intake. And during the consecutive second week, they ate the same experimental diet supplemented with 500mg or calcium daily. The results were summarized as follows : 1) Urinary excretion of sodium was significantly increased(p<0.05), but fecal excretion and retention of it was not affected by supplementary intake of calcium. 2) Potassium balance was not changed after additional intake of calcium. 3) Serum sodium and potassium level decreased significantly(p<0.05), but aldosterone and renin levels in serum were not changed by additional intake of calcium. 4) Systolic blood pressure(SBP) was not affected, but diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was significantly decreased (p<0.05) by supplementation of calcium. The above results showed that daily supplementary intake of calcium can be effective to decrease diastolic blood pressure through inducing the change of sodium metabolism in young women eating usual Korean diets.

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A Study on Intake/excretion of Sodium and Calcium in Korean Children (일부 한국인 아동의 나트륨과 칼슘 섭취 및 배설에 관한 연구)

  • 이경화
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.28 no.8
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    • pp.749-758
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    • 1995
  • In this study, the food intake, feces and urine of 16 primary school age boys and girls were collected and intake and excretion of sodium and calcium were measured. The boys and girls were 8-12 years old and measurement continued for four weeks during which they maintained their normal living pattern and body weight. Each boy's and girl's daily intake and excretion of sodium and calcium were measured and apparent digestibility and balance were also studied. The results were as follows. 1) Mean daily intake of sodium was 8.52$\pm$0.38g for the boys and 7.31$\pm$0.44g for the girls. The mean value in males was significantly higher than that in females(p<0.05). Mean daily in take of calcium was 411.0$\pm$16.0mg for the boys and 356.5$\pm$15.4mg for the girls. The mean value in males was significantly higher than that in females(p<0.01). 2) Mean daily fecal loss and apparent digestibility of sodium was 0.32$\pm$0.04g and 96% for the boys and 0.52$\pm$0.07g and 93% for the girls. The fecal loss mean value in males was significantly lower than that in females(p<0.05). Mean daily fecal loss and apparent digestibility of calcium was 299.8$\pm$8.3mg and 29% for the boys and 194.1$\pm$14.3mg and 46% for the girls. The fecal loss mean value in males was significantly higer than that in females(p<0.01). 3) Mean daily urinary loss of sodium was 6.55$\pm$0.50g and showed the positive balance of 1.65g for the boys and 5.67$\pm$0.20g and showed the positive balance of 1.12g for the girls. The urinary loss mean values of the two groups were not significantly different. Mean daily urinary loss of calcium was 42.8$\pm$5.1mg and showed the positive balance of 79.4mg for the boys and 25.0$\pm$1.64mg and showed the positive balance of 137.4mg for the girls. The urinary loss mean value in males was significantly higer than that in females(p<0.01).

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Growth and Nutrient Utilization in Buffalo Calves Fed Ammoniated Wheat Straw Supplemented with Sodium Sulphate

  • Nair, P.V.;Verma, A.K.;Dass, R.S.;Mehra, U.R.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.325-329
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    • 2004
  • Ten male buffalo calves (aged 6-8 months, average body wt. $88.5{\pm}0.5kg$) were divided into two groups of five animals in each. All the animals were fed on urea-ammoniated wheat straw (4% urea, 50% moisture) along with concentrate mixture (50:50 on DM basis). In addition animals in group II were given sodium sulphate to see the effect of sulphur on the utilization of nitrogen added through urea-ammoniation. This feeding practice continued for a period of 120 d, during which fortnightly body weights were taken to assess their growth rate. A metabolism trial was conducted after 90 days of feeding to know the digestibility of nutrients and their balance. Results revealed no significant difference in the intake of DM and other nutrients in two groups. The digestibility of DM, OM, EE, NDF, ADF and cellulose was alike in animals fed ammoniated straw and ammoniated straw+sodium sulphate supplemented group, whereas the digestibilities of CP and hemicellulose was significantly (p<0.01) more in group I and II respectively. There was no significant difference in intake of nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus in 2 groups. Similarly, the balance of these 3 nutrients was positive and statistically alike in two groups. Intake and excretion of sulphur through faeces and urine was significantly (p<0.01) more in group II than in group I. Inspite of higher excretion of sulphur through faeces and urine in group II, the sulphur balance was significantly (p<0.05) more in group II than in group I, probably due to significantly (p<0.01) higher intake of sulphur in this group. There was no significant difference in total body weight gain or average daily gain between two groups, indicating that addition of sodium sulphate did not have any positive effect on these parameters. Similarly the intake of DM, DCP and TDN were also alike in two groups. The DCP and TDN values of the two diets were 8.0, 60.4 and 6.8, 56.6% respectively. Feeding cost/unit gain was alike in both the groups.

Pathophysiology and management of disorders in water metabolism (수분 대사 장애 질환의 병태 생리와 치료)

  • Kim, Dong Un
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.50 no.5
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    • pp.430-435
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    • 2007
  • Even though we drink and excrete water without recognition, the amount and the composition of body fluid remain constant everyday. Maintenance of a normal osmolality is under the control of water balance which is regulated by vasopressin despite sodium concentration is the dominant determinant of plasma osmolality. The increased plasma osmolality (hypernatremia) can be normalized by the concentration of urine, which is the other way of gaining free water than drinking water, while the low plasma osmolality (hyponatremia) can be normalized by the dilution of urine which is the only regulated way of free water excretion. On the other hand, volume status depends on the control of sodium balance which is regulated mainly by renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, through which volume depletion can be restored by enhancing sodium retention and concomitant water reabsorption. This review focuses on the urine concentration and dilution mechanism mediated by vasopressin and the associated disorders; diabetes insipidus and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion.

Effects of Dojuksan on the Renal Function in Rats (導赤散이 白鼠 腎臟機能에 미치는 影響)

  • Yun, Hyun-ja;Yun, Young-gap;Kang, Sun-soo
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology and Dermatology
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.53-66
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    • 1999
  • This study has been carried out to investigate the effects of Dojuksan on the renal functions and internal secretion system, as water balance, urine volume, urinary excretion of sodium and potassium, free water clearance, urinary excretion of creatinine, plasma levels of artrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), plasma levels of aldosterone and plasma renin activity, comparing experimental group which Dojuksan water extract were administrated with control group. Sprague-Dawley rats, about 200-250 g, were used for this experiment. The results of this study were as follows: 1. Water balance decreased significantly after the administration of Dojuksan water extract. 2. Urine volume increased significantly after the administration of $100{\mu}l$ Dojuksan water extract per 100g rat. 3. Urinary excretion of sodium increased significantly but urinary excretion of potassium did not change after the administration of Dojuksan water extract. 4. Free water clearance decreased significantly after the administration of Dojuksan water extract 5. Urinary excretion of creatinine increased significantly after the administration of Dojuksan water extract 6. Plasma renin activity did not change after the administration of Dojuksan water extract 7. Plasma levels of artrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) did not change after the administration of Dojuksan water extract 8. Plasma levels of aldosterone decreased significantly after the administration of 200 ${\mu}Dojuksan water extract per l00g rat The results suggest that Dojuksan increase the urinary excretion of sodium. and thus reduce the water balance, which resulted from suppression of sodium reabsorption into renal tubule by increasing glomerular filtration rate and decreasing aldosterone.

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Influence of Varying Level of Sodium Bicarbonate on Milk Yield and Its Composition in Early Lactating Nili Ravi Buffaloes

  • Sarwar, M.;Shahzad, M. Aasif;Nisa, Marhr-un
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.20 no.12
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    • pp.1858-1864
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    • 2007
  • Influence of varying level of sodium bicarbonate (SB) supplementation on milk yield and its composition was examined in a randomized complete block design in early lactating Nili Ravi buffaloes during summer. Four iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric diets were formulated. The diet 0B contained 0 while LB, MB and HB diets contained 0.50, 1.0 and 1.50% SB levels, respectively. The diets were randomly allotted to twenty buffaloes, five in each group. A linear increase in nutrient and water intake was recorded with increasing SB level. Buffaloes fed MB and HB diets showed higher nitrogen balance than those fed 0B and LB diets. A significant increase in blood pH and serum bicarbonate was noticed with increasing SB level. Urine pH increased significantly with increased SB level. A linear increase in milk yield was also noticed with increasing SB level. Milk fat% increased significantly in buffaloes fed MB and HB diets compared with those fed 0B and LB diets. Buffaloes fed HB diet had higher conception rate and less services per conception than those fed 0B diet. This study indicated that a high SB diet not only increased dry matter and water intake, milk yield, milk fat% but also increased conception rate in early lactating buffaloes during summer.