• Title, Summary, Keyword: sodium intake

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Calcium Status and Bone Mineral Density by the Level of Sodium Intake in Young Women (성인 여성의 나트륨 섭취수준과 칼슘 영양상태 및 골밀도)

  • Yoon, Jin-Sook;Lee, Mi Jung
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.125-133
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    • 2013
  • Previous studies have shown that sodium excretion is positively related to calcium excretion in the urine. As excessive sodium intake is a common nutritional problem in Korea, we intended to investigate associations among sodium intake levels and calcium status, evaluated by 24 hour recall method and urinary excretion, and bone status. We collected dietary information for non-consecutive three days from 139 young adult women 19~29 years. After classifying the subjects into 4 groups based on the dietary sodium levels by daily total sodium intake (mg) and sodium density (sodium intake per 1000 kcal energy intake), we compared the bone status, nutrient intakes, urinary calcium and sodium excretions. The results showed a positive association between total daily sodium intake and intake of other nutrients. However, no significant differences in nutrients intakes were observed among subject groups classified by sodium density levels. There were no significant differences of bone density among groups by total daily sodium intake as well as by sodium density. While total daily sodium intake showed significantly positive relationship with urinary sodium (p < 0.05) and calcium (p < 0.05), sodium density was not related to urinary excretion of calcium and sodium. Our results suggested that promoting balanced meals providing appropriate amounts of energy intake is the essential component of nutrition education for improving calcium status of young Korean women with excessive sodium intake.

A Study on the Food Intake Sodium and Potassium Intakes and Urinary Excretion of Preschool Children in Pusan (부산지역 학령전 아동의 식품섭취와 나트륨, 칼륨의 섭취 및 소변중 배설실태에 관한 연구)

  • 임화재
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.33 no.6
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    • pp.647-659
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    • 2000
  • o assess the food intake and the sodium and potassium intakes and urinary excretion of preschool children in Pusan and to evaluate the relationship among variables dietary behaviors food and nutrient intake and 24hr urinary sodium and potassium excretion were measured with 97 subjects. The mean sodium and potassium intakes were 1890. 1mg(82,2meq) and 1479.7mg(37.8meq) respectively. The mean potassium intake(p<0.05) and density(p<0.01) were significantly low at the group who had food intake pattern absen of fruit and daily groups. The mean urinary sodium and potassium excretion were 735.3mg(32.0meq) and 418.7mg(10.7meq) respectively. The mean sodium intake(p<0.01) and urinary excretion were 735.3mg(32.0meq) and 418.7mg(10.7meq) respectively. The mean sodium intake(p<0.01) and urinary excretion (p<0.001, p<0.001) energy intake(p<0.01) sodium intake and density (p<0.001, p<0.05) the food number and intake frequency of vegetable group consumed (p<0.01, p<0.01) dietary frequency score(p<0.05) and negative correlations with the food number and frequency of dairy group consumed (p<0.05 p<0.05) The urinary potassium excretion showed positive correlations with height and weight(p<0.05, p<0.01) urine volume and urinary creatinie excretion(p<0.01 p<0.001) potassium intake(p<0.05) food number and intake frequency of dairy group consumed (p<0.05, p<0.001). Based on the results urinary sodium excretion was related to age sodium intake and food intake of vegetable and dairy group and urinary potassium excretion was related to potassium intake and food intake of dairy group. So nutritional education is needed in order to decrease sodium intake especially from food intake of vegetable group when preschool children have less food intake of diary group,.

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Salt Preference and Sodium Intake among Pregnant Women (임부의 염분 기호도와 식이섭취, 소디움 섭취 실태)

  • Im, Mi Jeung;Cho, Dong Sook
    • Korean Journal of Women Health Nursing
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.297-307
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: This study was to estimate salt preference and sodium intake of pregnant women, and identify the relationship between salt preference and sodium intake. Methods: Research design was a cross sectional correlational survey with 197 pregnant women who visited outpatient clinics for antenatal care. The sodium intake levels were estimated by the amounts of sodium intake using the 24-hour recall method and sodium concentration in spot urine. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, t-test, ANOVA and Pearson's correlation. Results: Sodium intake using 24-hour recall method was $3,504{\pm}1,359mg$. Sodium intake levels had statistically significant differences depending on income. The average amount of sodium in spot urine was $2,882{\pm}878mg/day$. Sodium excretion levels had statistically significant differences depending on whether participants had preexisting hypertension in their family history and Body Mass Index (BMI) pre-conception. Salt preference was $62.61{\pm}20.96$ out of 180 points. Salt preference had significant differences depending on income, parity, gestational age, BMI pre-conception and showed negative correlation with sodium quantity in spot urine. Conclusion: Sodium intake in pregnant women recommended by World Health Organization recommended is 175%. Salt preference was not significantly different between sodium intake levels, however it was negatively correlated with sodium quantity in spot urine among pregnant women.

Survey on Nutrition Knowledge, Food Behaviors, and Food Frequency of Sodium Intake in Korean University Students (대학생의 나트륨 관련 영양지식과 식행동 및 나트륨 급원식품 섭취빈도 조사)

  • Pak, Hee-Ok;Hong, Myung-Sun;Sohn, Chun-Young
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.12-19
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    • 2015
  • This study was performed for the purpose of establishing proper dietary behaviors and improving sodium intake status by investigating nutrition knowledge, dietary behaviors, and food intake frequency related to sodium in 398 university students living in Gyeonggi-do and Incheon. Female students showed a higher rate of eating out more than five times a week as well as daily snack intake than male students. Female students showed a higher score for sodium-related nutrition knowledge than male students, whereas male students showed higher sodium intake than female students. Subjects who showed a higher frequency of eating out and snack intake also showed a higher salt intake ratio and sodium-related nutrition knowledge. Subjects with higher scores related to sodium-related nutrition knowledge showed a higher low salt intake ratio and incidence of low sodium food intake. From this research, depending on the level of nutrition knowledge related to sodium university students showed differences in dietary behavior related to sodium intake. This result would be helpful to develop lower sodium training materials specific to low sodium food selection tips, reading nutrition labels, and so on.

A Study on the Calcium and Sodium Intakes and Urinary Calcium Excretion of Adults in Busan (부산지역 일부 성인들의 칼슘 및 나트륨의 섭취와 소변중 칼슘배설실태에 관한 연구)

  • Lim, Hwa-Jae
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.215-226
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    • 2011
  • The purpose of this study was to assess calcium and sodium intakes and urinary excretion of adults in Busan and to evaluate the relationship between urinary calcium excretion (UCa) and the status of anthropometric, blood pressure, urine analysis, and nutrient intake of subjects. Nutrient intake by 24 hr recall, 24 hr urinary calcium and sodium excretion (UNa) were measured with 87 adults aged 20-59 yrs (42 men and 45 women). The mean calcium intake was 88.0% for men and 103.0% for women of Recommended Intake. The mean sodium intake was 283.4% for men and 250.5% for women of Adequate Intake (AI). The mean 24hr UCa was 127.4 mg in men and 107.3 mg in women. The mean 24 hr UNa was 3650.6mg in men and 3276.4mg in women. The intake and urinary excretion of calcium and sodium were not significantly different by gender. UCa showed significantly positive correlations with sodium intake and UNa in men (p < 0.001, p < 0.05) and women (p < 0.001, p < 0.001) and with age, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and sodium density in women (p < 0.05, p < 0.05, p<0.01). The UCa/creatinine showed significantly positive correlations with age, sodium intake, sodium density, and UNa in women (p < 0.05, p < 0.01, p < 0.01, p < 0.01). When UCa was stratified into quartile (Q1-Q4), age, SBP, UCa, UNa, sodium intake, and AI percentage of sodium (p < 0.01, p < 0.05, p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p < 0.001) were significantly higher in Q4. The mean intake and AI percentage of sodium in Q4 were 4768.8mg and 329.0. Based on the results, UCa was related to age, SBP, UNa, and sodium intake. Therefore, nutritional education of decreasing sodium intake for decreasing UCa is needed.

A Cohort Analysis on Sodium and Sodium-calorie Intake with the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (국민건강영양조사를 활용한 나트륨 섭취량과 열량 대비 나트륨 섭취량에 대한 코호트 분석)

  • Yang, Sung-Bum
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.98-104
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    • 2020
  • The purpose of this study was to analyze a cohort, age, and time effects on sodium and sodium-calorie intake using the 2007~2017 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). For analysis, we have constructed cohort panel data that combine KNHANES data in a time series. The age effect gradually increased from age 45~49 and then decreased afterwards. The time effect showed an increase in average sodium intake until 2010 followed by a subsequent decrease. The cohort effect showed that the sodium intake was the highest for the War of Liberation 1946~1953, and that the younger the latter, the lower the sodium intake. According to a cohort analysis, the younger the generation, the lower the sodium intake compared to the calorie intake, according to the baby boomers. Based on the results of this study, efforts should be made to educate and promote the dieting and providing low-salt meals to reduce sodium intake by generation. An analysis of the health hazards including sodium by generation and age is thought to enable the establishment relevant policies.

A Study on the Calcium and Sodium Intakes and Urinary Calcium Excretion of Preschool Children in Busan (부산지역 학령전 아동의 칼슘 및 나트륨의 섭취와 소변중 칼슘배설상태에 관한 연구)

  • 임화재
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.34 no.7
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    • pp.786-796
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    • 2001
  • To assess calcium and sodium and urinary excretion of preschool children in Busan and to evaluate the relationship of intakes of food and nutrient with urinary calcium excretion, calcium and sodium food frequencies of 25 common foods affecting intakes of calcium and sodium per week, nutrient intake by 24hr recall and 24hr urinary calcium and sodium excretion were measured with 97 preschool children. The mean calcium intake was 436.11mg and below RDA. The mean sodium intake was 1890.11mg. The mean urinary calcium and sodium excretion were 42.88mg and 735.25mg respectivery. The mean urinary calcium/creatinine ratio was 0.20. The urinary calcium excretion showed positive significant correlations with weight, intake frequency of pizza consumed per week and urinary sodium excretion (p<0.05, p<0.05, p<0.001). The urinary calcium excretion per milligram of creatinine showed positive significant correlations with intake frequencies of pizza and common squid consumed per week(p<0.01, p<0.05) and negative correlation with intake frequencies of pizza and common squid consumed per week(p<0.01, p<0.05) and negative correlation with age(p<0.05). No significant relations were found between urinary calcium and intakes of calcium, protein and phosphorus. Urinary sodium was found to be the most important determinant of urinary calcium excretion. Intake frequency of pizza consumed per week was found to be the most important determinant of urinary calcium excretion per milligram of creatinine. Based on the results, urinary calcium excretion was related to intake frequency of pizza consumed per week and urinary sodium excretion. Low calcium intake and increase of calcium loss in the urine potentiated by sodium intake during growth may reduce peak bone mass. So nutritional education is needed in order to increase calcium intake and decrease sodium intake, especially from food like pizza.

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Estimation of Sodium Intake of Adult Female by 24-Hour Urine Analysis, Dietary Records and Dish Frequency Questionnaire (DFQ 55) (24시간 소변 분석, 식사기록법 및 음식섭취빈도조사에 의한 여자 성인의 나트륨 섭취량 조사)

  • Shin, Eun-Kyung;Lee, Hye-Jin;Lee, Jung-Jeung;Ann, Moon-Young;Son, Sook-Me;Lee, Yeon-Kyung
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.43 no.1
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    • pp.79-85
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    • 2010
  • This study assesses the sodium intake of adults by 24-hour urine analysis, dietary records review and a food intake questionnaire. Subjects were 236 adult female in Daegu. The results are summarized as follows: Sodium intake as indicated by the 24-hour urine analysis was $5,805.4\;{\pm}\;3836.8\;mg$. This was significantly higher than intake indicated by dietary records ($4415.4\;{\pm}\;1935.1\;mg$) and the dish frequency questionnaire (DFQ 55) ($4293.5\;{\pm}\;1526.5\;mg$). The results of the 24-hour urine analysis and DFQ 55 showed that sodium intake was higher for the 65-to-74-year-old age group than for other age groups (p < 0.05, p < 0.05). Review of dietary records to examine typical sodium intake by food groups showed that 53.7% of the sodium consumed by subjects in all age groups came from seasonings and spices ($2399.0\;{\pm}\;1526.5\;mg$). The analysis of sodium intake by food groups using DFQ 55 showed 34.2% of their sodium came from consumption of kimchi (p < 0.001) and kimch, soup, stew and fish jorim accounted for 57.8% of total sodium intake. The results indicate positive correlation between age and sodium intake, as shown by the 24-hour urine analysis and food intake questionnaire (p < 0.05). Therefore, these results would be valuable as basic data for planning nutrition education for sodium intake reduction.

Dietary sodium intake in young Korean adults and its relationship with eating frequency and taste preference

  • Shim, Eugene;Ryu, Ha-Jung;Hwang, Jinah;Kim, Soo Yeon;Chung, Eun-Jung
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.192-198
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    • 2013
  • Dietary sodium intake is considered one of the major causal factors for hypertension. Thus, to control the increase of blood pressure and reduce the risk of hypertension-related clinical complications, a reduction in sodium intake is recommended. The present study aimed at determining the association of dietary sodium intake with meal and snack frequency, snacking time, and taste preference in Korean young adults aged 20-26 years, using a 125-item dish-frequency questionnaire. The mean dietary sodium intakes of men and women were 270.6 mmol/day and 213.1 mmol/day, which were approximately 310% and 245% of the daily sodium intake goal for Korean men and women, respectively. Dietary sodium intake was positively correlated with systolic blood pressure in the total group, and BMI in the total and men-only groups. In the total and men-only groups, those who consumed meals more times per day consumed more dietary sodium, but the number of times they consumed snacks was negatively correlated with dietary sodium intake in the total, men-only, and women-only groups. In addition, those who consumed snacks in the evening consumed more sodium than those who did so in the morning in the men-only group. The sodium intake was also positively associated with preference for salty and sweet taste in the total and women-only groups. Such a high intake of sodium in these young subjects shows that a reduction in sodium intake is important for the prevention of hypertension and related diseases in the future.

Development and Evaluation of Validity of Dish Frequency Questionnaire (DFQ) and Short DFQ Using Na Index for Estimation of Habitual Sodium Intake (나트륨 섭취량 추정을 위한 음식섭취빈도조사지와 Na Index를 이용한 간이음식섭취빈도조사지의 개발 및 타당성 검증에 관한 연구)

  • Son, Sook-Mee;Huh, Gwui-Yeop;Lee, Hong-Sup
    • Korean Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.10 no.5
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    • pp.677-692
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    • 2005
  • The assessment of sodium intake is complex because of the variety and nature of dietary sodium. This study intended to develop a dish frequency questionnaire (DFQ) for estimating the habitual sodium intake and a short DFQ for screening subjects with high or low sodium intake. For DFQ112, one hundred and twelve dish items were selected based on the information of sodium content of the one serving size and consumption frequency. Frequency of consumption was determined through nine categories ranging from more than 3 times a day to almost never to indicate how often the specified amount of each food item was consumed during the past 6 months. One hundred seventy one adults (male: 78, female: 93) who visited hypertension or health examination clinic participated in the validation study. DFQ55 was developed from DFQ112 by omitting the food items not frequently consumed, selecting the dish items that showed higher sodium content per one portion size and higher consumption frequency. To develop a short DFQs for classifying subjects with low or high sodium intakes, the weighed score according to the sodium content of one protion size was given to each dish item of DFQ25 or DFQ14 and multiplied with the consumption frequency score. A sum index of all the dish items was formed and called sodium index (Na index). For validation study the DFQ112, 2-day diet record and one 24-hour urine collection were analyzed to estimate sodium intakes. The sodium intakes estimated with DFQ112 and 24-h urine analysis showed $65\%$ agreement to be classified into the same quartile and showed significant correlation (r=0.563 p<0.05). However, the actual amount of sodium intake estimated with DFQ112 (male: 6221.9mg, female: 6127.6mg) showed substantial difference with that of 24-h urine analysis (male: 4556.9mg, female: 5107.4mg). The sodium intake estimated with DFQ55 (male: 4848.5mg, female: 4884.3mg) showed small difference from that estimated with 24-h urine analysis, higher proportion to be classfied into the same quartile and higher correlation with the sodium intakes estimated with 24-h urine analysis and systolic blood pressure. It seems DFQ55 can be used as a tool for quantitative estimation of sodium intake. Na index25 or Na index14 showed $39\~50\%$ agreement to be classified into the same quartile, substantial correlations with the sodium intake estimated with DFQ55 and significant correlations with the sodium intake estimated with 24-h urine analysis. When point 119 for Na index25 was used as a criterion of low sodium intake, sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value was $62.5\%,\;81.8\%\;and\;53.2\%$, respectively. When point 102 for Na index14 was used as a criterion of high sodium intake, sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value were $73.8\%,\;84.0\%,\;62.0\%$, respectively. It seems the short DFQs using Na index 14 or Na index25 are simple, easy and proper instruments to classify the low or high sodium intake group.