• Title/Summary/Keyword: sodium salts

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The Influence of Sodium Salt on the Polyester Dyeing (Sodium Salt가 폴리에스테르 염색에 미치는 영향)

  • 이범훈;정재윤;정성훈
    • Textile Science and Engineering
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    • v.38 no.9
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    • pp.453-459
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    • 2001
  • Color strength is reduced by hydrolysis, reduction or oxidation of disperse dyes during the polyester dyeing process. This discoloration is caused by dyeing conditions such as temperature, pH of the dye bath and the chemical reactions of the dispersing agents, etc. Chemical reduction of certain azo disperse dyes results in lower color yield. To prevent reduction of disperse dyes, sodium salts were added as weak oxidants to the dye bath for polyester fiber. Dyeing was carried out with four commercial azo or anthraquinone disperse dyes in the presence of sodium salts(NaCl, NaBr, NaI). The effects of sodium salts on color strength and fastness are discussed. In the case of azo disperse dyes, color yield increases as the concentration of sodium salts increases.

Effects of Various Salts on the Reheating Behavior of Retrograded Rice Starch and Cooked Rice

  • Han, Sung-Hee;Kim, Bo-Reum;Lee, Seog-Won;Rhee, Chul
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.157-164
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    • 2011
  • The influence of sodium salts and chlorides at various concentrations (0.05, 0.10, 0.50, and 1.00%) on the reheating behavior of retrograded rice starch and cooked rice was investigated. The degree of gelatinization of the all retrograded rice starch gels and the cooked rice containing sodium salts and chlorides increased after reheating compared to the starches without salt. Gelatinization also showed an increasing trend as the concentration of sodium salts and chlorides increased. The increase of gelatinization after reheating the samples containing sodium salts and chlorides was greater than 38.0%. The reheated retrograded rice starch and cooked rice containing $Na_3PO_4$ showed the lowest set back value and retrogradation rate constant. Among all the samples, the cooked sample containing $Na_3PO_4$ showed the highest increment of gelatinization after reheating. Also, this same sample showed the lowest retrogradation degree.

Evaluation of Antibacterial and Therapeutic Effects of a Sodium salts Mixture against Salmonella typhimurium in Murine Salmonellosis (나트륨 염 복합조성물의 마우스 살모넬라증에 대한 항균 및 치료효과)

  • Lee, Yeo-Eun;Cha, Chun-Nam;Park, Eun-Kee;Kim, Suk;Lee, Hu-Jang
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.222-226
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    • 2011
  • Salmonellosis is a major bacterial zoonosis that causes self-limited enteritis to fatal infection in animals and food-borne infection and typhoid fever in humans. Multidrug-resistant strains of Salmonella spp. has increased over the last several decades and recently causes more serious problems in public health. The present study was investigated bacteriocidal effects of sodium chlorate, sodium azide, sodium cyanide, and sodium salts mixture containing sodium chlorate, sodium azide, and sodium cyanide on infection with S. typhimurium in macrophage RAW 264.7 cells, and antibacterial effects of sodium salts mixture for murine salmonellosis. In infection assay of S. typhimurium in RAW 264.7 cells, bacterial survival rates within macrophage in all treated groups was significantly reduced comparing to that of the control group with the passage of incubation time. Administration of sodium salts mixture showed a therapeutic effect for S. typhimurium infected ICR mice. The mortality of mice treated with sodium salts mixture was 70% until 12 days, while that of control mice was 100% until 9 days after S. typhimurium infection. The results of this study strongly indicate that sodium salts mixture has a potency treatment for murine salmonellosis.

Effect of High Concentrations of Sodium or Chloride Salts in Soil on the Growth of and Mineral Uptake by Tomatoes (토양에의 고농도 Na 및 Cl 염류가 토마토의 생육 및 무기성분 흡수에 미치는 영향)

  • 강경희;권기범;최영하;김회태;이한철
    • Journal of Bio-Environment Control
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.121-126
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    • 2002
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effect of high concentration of sodium salts and chlorides in soil on the growth of tomato and the uptake of minerals. The growth inhibition rates of plant height and dry weight were different depending on salts, but they were not related to the electric conductivities (EC) and acidities (pH) in the soil solution. The orders of growth inhibition were Cl, SO$_4$, CO$_3$, PO$_4$>NO$_3$ in the sodium salts series, and Na, K, Mg, NH$_4$>Ca in the chlorides. The growth inhibition rates of the sodium salts series tended to be larger than those of the chloride series. Yield was lower 30%~10% in the sodium salt and chloride series than in the control. Chlorophyll content, photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance were lower in the sodium salts and chloride series than in the control. Mineral concentration was lower in sodium salts and chlorides than in control. The nitrate absorption was inhibited in all salts except for NaNO$_3$ and NH$_4$Cl, and specially in NaCl and Na$_2$SO$_4$ treatments of the sodium salts and in KCl treatment of chloride series. K concentration was reduced NaCl and Na$_2$SO$_4$ treatments compared with the other salts. In the sodium salt series, calcium and magnesium concentration were decreased antagonistically when sodium concentration was increased.

Immobilization of sodium-salt wastes containing simulated 137Cs by volcanic ash-based ceramics with different Si/Al molar ratios

  • Sun, Xiao-Wen;Liu, Li-Ke;Chen, Song
    • Nuclear Engineering and Technology
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    • v.53 no.12
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    • pp.3952-3965
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    • 2021
  • In this study, volcanic ash was used as raw material to prepare waste forms with different silicon/aluminum (Si/Al) molar ratios to immobilize sodium-salt waste (SSW) containing simulated 137Cs. Effects of Si/Al molar ratios (3:1 and 2:1) and sodium salts on sintering behavior of waste forms and immobilization mechanism of Cs+ were investigated. Results indicated that the main mineral phase of sintered waste-form matrixes was albite, and the formation of major phases was found to depend on Si/Al molar ratios. Si/Al molar ratio of 2 was favorable for the formation of pollucite, and the formation and crystallization of mineral phases were also decided based on physicochemical characteristics of sodium salts. Furthermore, product consistency test results indicated that the immobilization of Cs+ was related to Si/Al molar ratio, types of sodium salts, and glassy phase. Waste forms with Si/Al molar ratio of 2 exhibited better ability to immobilize Cs+, whereas the influence of sodium salts and glassy phases on the immobilization of SSW showed more complicated relationship. In waste forms with Si/Al molar ratio of 2, Cs+ leaching concentrations of samples containing Na2B4O7·10H2O and NaOH were low. Na2B4O7·10H2O easily transformed into liquid phase during sintering to consequently achieve low temperature liquid-phase sintering, which is beneficial to avoid the volatilization of Cs+ at high temperature. Results clearly reveal that waste forms with Si/Al molar ratio of 2 and containing Na2B4O7·10H2O show excellent immobilization of Cs+.

Studies on the Heat Resistance of Bacterial Amylase (part 1) -Effect of Calcium and Sodium Salts- (세균(細菌) amylase 의 내열성(耐熱性)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究) (제(第) 1 보(報)) -Calcium 및 Sodium 염(鹽)의 영향 (影響)에 대(對하)여-)

  • Park, Yoon-Choong;Lee, Han-Chang;Lee, Suk-Kun
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.9
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    • pp.105-109
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    • 1968
  • 1. The optimum temperature of amylase activity produced by Bacillus subtilis var. M-181 was $50^{\circ}C$, and its activity was lost by heating to $70^{\circ}C$, 10 minutes without addition of salts. 2. Addition of sodium salts effects for heat resistance of the amylase affected differently by kinds of the salt. Among organic sodium salts monosodium glutamate, sodium acetate as sodium propionate affected on heat resistance of the amylase relatively better effects. 3. Addition of 10mg of sodium sulfate per ml of enzyme solution $({D_{30}}^{40^{\circ}}\;1250/ml)$, showed maximum affect on the neat resistance. 4. Coexistence of calcium acetate and sodium acetate, affected on the hear resistance, remarkably.

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Transdermal Permeation-enhancing Activities of some Inorganic Anions

  • Ko, Young-Il;Kim, Sung-Su;Han, Suk-Kyu
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.231-236
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    • 1995
  • Effects of sodium salts of various monovalent inorganic anions on transdermal permeation of salicylic acid were investigated. In in-vitro experiment using a Franz-type diffusion cell and excisicylic acid were investigated. In-vitro experiment using a Franze-type diffusion cell and excised mouse skin, the permeation-enhancing activities of the sodium salts of inoraganic anions were rougly proportional to lyotropic Hofmeister serlling abilities of the anions l F/sup -/

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Synthesis of Some Phosphated Fatty acyl Derivatives of Mannitol and Their Evaluation

  • Jain, Sanjay;Tripathi, Meena;R.K.Uppadhyay;D.V.Kohli
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.233-235
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    • 1989
  • Sodium salts of phosphated capric and myristic acyl derivatives of mannitol were prepared and evaluated for surface activity, foam characteristics and emulsifying properties. Triacyl mannitols of cappric and myristic acid have better emulsifying property than the corresponding di and monocompounds.

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