• Title, Summary, Keyword: soil-bound residues

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Uptake of the Residues of the Herbicide Bentazon in Soil by Soybean and Radish (토양중(土壤中) 제초제(除草劑) Bentazon 잔류물(殘留物)의 콩과 무우에 의한 흡수(吸收))

  • Lee, Jae-Koo;Cheon, Sam-Yeong;Kyung, Kee-Sung
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 1988
  • In order to clarify how much of the residues of Bentazon could be taken up by crops, soybean and radish were grown for 28 days in soils containing freshly treated $^{14}C-Bentazon$ and non-extractable soil-hound residues of $^{14}C-Bentazon.$ The results obtained are summarized as follows. 1. $^{14}CO_2$ evolution from $^{14}C$-Bentazon during the 6-month pre-incubation in soil was 14.79% relative to the applied radioactivity. 2. Mineralization of ^$^{14}C$-Bentazon in soil to $^{14}CO_2$ during 28 days of crop growing was much higher in the freshly treated soil than in the bound soil, and much higher in radish than in soybean. 3. The amounts of $^{14}C-Bentazon$ and its metabolites absorbed by soybean and radish were 45.41 and 21.48%, respectively, in freshly treated soil, whereas those were 3.92 and 1.23% in bound soil, respectively. The translocation ratios of radioactivity .from the root to the shoot were much higher in radish than in soybean, remarkably. 4. The uptake ratios of the freshly treated $^{14}C-Bentazon$ to the bound $^{14}C-Bentazon$ by soybean and radish were 12 : 1 and 17 : 1, respectively. 5. It was well verified that the presence of crops enhanced the mineralization to $^{14}CO_2$ and the transformation to polar metabolites of Bentazon.

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Formation of humus-bound residues in the course of BTX biodegradation in soil

  • Song, Hong-Gyu
    • Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.47-52
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    • 1997
  • To examine whether the xylene component of BTX (benzene, toluene, xylene) mixture is cometabolized and residues are produced in soil, $\^$14/C-labeled-0-xylene was added to sandy loam in combination with unlabeled benzene and toluene. After 4 weeks of incubation in a sealed system connected to an oxygen reservoir, 55.1% of the radiocarbon was converted to $\^$14/CO$\sub$2/, 3.0% was to 95.8% radiocarbon recovery. Biomass incorporation of o-xylene radiocarbon which was detected by fumigation/extraction was usually low (5.6%), but 32.1% radiocarbon became associated with soil humus. Most of the numus-bound radiocarbon was found in humin fraction. In addition to o-xylene, p-xylene and toluene also showed similar results. The evidence shows that some of their reactive methylcatechol biodegradation intermediates attach to the humic metrix in soil in preference to mineralization and biomass incorporation.

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Behaviour of the soil residues of the herbicide quinclorac in the micro-ecosystem (pot) (Micro-ecosystem(pot)중 제초제 quinclorac 토양잔류물의 행적)

  • Ahn, Ki-Chang;Kyung, Kee-Sung;Lee, Jae-Koo
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.2 no.3
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    • pp.96-106
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    • 1998
  • Rice plants were grown for 42 days in the specially made micro-ecosystem(pot) containing two different soils treated with fresh and 60-day-aged residues of [$^{14}C$]quinclorac, respectively, to elucidate the behaviour of the herbicide quinclorac residues in the soils. Amounts of $^{14}CO_{2}$ evolved from two soils treated with different residues with and without vegetation were all less than 2.2% of the total $^{14}C$, indicating that there was little microbial degradation of quinclorac in soil. $^{14}C$-Radioactivity absorbed and translocated into rice plants from soil A and B containing fresh quinclorac residues was 8.4 and 24.2%, respectively, of the originally applied $^{14}C$, while 5.5 and 17.7%, in aged residue soils. These results indicate that larger amounts of $^{14}C$ were absorbed by rice plants from soil B with less organic matter and clay than soil A, and the uptake of [$^{14}C$]quinclorac and its degradation products decreased with aging in soil. After 42 days of rice growing, 84.5 and 61.8% of the $^{14}C$ applied freshly to soil A and B, respectively, remained in soil, whereas, in the case of aged soils, 86.3 and 67.7% of the $^{14}C$ applied did. Meanwhile, without vegetation, more than 98.3% of the $^{14}C$ applied, in both fresh and aged residues, remained in soil, suggesting that quinclorac was relatively persistent chemically and microbiologically. Most of the non-extractable soil-bound residues of [$^{14}C$]quinclorac were incorporated into the organic matter and largely distributed in the fulvic acid portion.

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Behaviour of the soil residues of the bipyridylium herbicide, [$^{14}C$]paraquat in the micro-ecosystem (Micro-ecosystem중 bipyridylium 제초제 paraquat 토양잔류물의 행적)

  • Kwon, Jeong-Wook;Lee, Jae-Koo
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.66-77
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    • 1999
  • In order to elucidate the fate of the residues of the bipyridylium herbicide paraquat in soil, maize plants were grown for 4 weeks on the specially-made pots filled with two different types of soils containing fresh and 6-week-aged residues of [$^{14}C$]paraquat, respectively. The mineralization of [$^{14}C$]paraquat to $^{14}CO_{2}$ during the aging period and the cultivation period of maize plants amounted to $0.13{\sim}0.18%$ and $0.02{\sim}0.17%$, respectively, of the original $^{14}C$ activities. At harvest the roots and shoots contained less than 0.1% and 0.01% of the originally applied $^{14}C$ activities, respectively, whereas the $^{14}C$ activities remaining in soil were more than 97% in both soils. The water extractability of the soil where maize plants were grown for 4 weeks was less than 1.2% of the original $^{14}C$ activities. Most of the non-extractable soil-bound residues of [$^{14}C$]paraquat were incorporated into the humin fraction. Soil pHs during the aging of soil B and after cultivation in all treatments increased. The distribution of the $^{14}C$ activities in subcellular particles of the maize plant roots was the highest in the residue fraction(incompletely homogenized tissue). Dehydrogenase activities increased after vegetation, regardless of soil aging.

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Elucidation of the Behaviour of Pesticides in Soil and Plant by the $^{14}C-radiotracer$ (($^{14}C-$방사성 추적자에 의한 농약의 토양과 식물체내에서의 행적규명)

  • Kyung, Kee-Sung;Lee, Jae-Koo
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.309-318
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    • 1993
  • A few technical methods including lysimeter, micro-ecosystem and soil column experiments which have been used for elucidation of the behaviour of pesticide residues in soil by means of the $^{14}C-radiotracer$ were introduced. They are essential for the investigation of soil-bound residues of pesticides, and hence the continued development and support in this field are urgently required.

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Change in the non-extractable bound residue of TCAB as a function of aging period in soil (Aging 기간에 따른 TCAB의 추출불가 잔류물의 토양중 변화)

  • Lee, Jae-Koo;Kyung, Kee-Sung
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.149-157
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    • 1991
  • In order to elucidate the possible change in the non-extractable bound residue of TCAB(3,3' 4,4' - tetrachloroazobenzene) in soil as a function of aging period, uniformly ring-labelled $^{14}C-TCAB$ was treated to soil(organic matter : 1.8%), and aged for 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 months at $21{\pm}1^{\circ}C$, respectively. $^{14}CO_2$ evolution and volatilization loss during the aging were negligible. The amounts of non-extractable bound residue of TCAB increased gradually from 7.55% in 3-month aging to 19.32% in 15-month aging. Partition data suggested no formation of polar groups in the chemical structure of TCAB. Most of $^{14}C-radioactivity$ of bound residues was present in humin in the range of 50.52 to 58.93%. The fact that the number of microorganisms in soil decreased relative to the control suggested no chance of their involvement in the formation of non-extractable bound residues. Accordingly, the increase in the non-extractable bound residue of TCAB in soil with aging period is believed to be due to the transformation of the trans isomer to the cis one which is more polar and more adsorptive than the former.

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Extraction Method for Paraquat from Soil (토양중 Paraquat의 효과적인 추출방법)

  • Kwon, Jin-Wook;Kim, Yong-Se;Choi, Jong-Woo;Lee, Kyu-Seung
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.239-244
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    • 1997
  • To develope more effective extraction methods for paraquat in soil, some modification methods were accomplished in two different types of soil. For extraction of tightly bound-paraquat, conc. HCl 70ml were added with different shaking times, and then $H_2SO_4$ reflux were performed for an hour. In this case, 60 minutes shaking were optimum and recovery were increased more $1.09{\sim}1.50$ folds(84.0% in high clay contents soil, but 96.7% in low clay contents soil) and the long-time consuming step, filtration were easily done, with decreasing filtration time were shorter 4.6 folds(ca. $11{\sim}14min.$). than general paraquat analytical method(ca. $55{\sim}65min.$). And only $H_2O_2$ digestion with different volume and refluxing time resulted in recovery increasing. Nevertheless, considering analyst's safety, 30ml of $H_2O_2$ addition and 30 minutes reflux were regarded as optimum condition. Although, Kjeldahl digestion with $H_2O_2$ showed relatively high recovery, it is not significant statistically. For extraction of loosely bound-paraquat, 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, 10.0M of $NH_4Cl$ and of $CaCl_2$ compared with $1.5{\sim}24hr$ of different shaking time. There were no loosely bound residues of paraquat.

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Researches using radio-labelled Herbicide in Korea

  • Lee, Kyu-Seung
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.191-204
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    • 2008
  • The research results using radio-labelled herbicides performed by Korean researchers were reviewed. All the research works were used $^{14}C$-labelled chemicals and generally carried out to know the behavior of herbicides in soils and plants. The degradation, mineralization and bound-residues formation are the major concerning area in soil studies, and uptake, translocation, metabolism, selectivity and resistance are in plant studies. Also few papers covered synthesis, formulation and animal metabolism.

Researches Using Radio-labelled Insecticides in Korea

  • Lee, Kyu-Seung
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.351-363
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    • 2007
  • The scientific articles using radio labelled insecticides performed by Korean researchers were reviewed. The research works were divided into 4 categories such as soil, plant, animal and insect. All researches used $^{14}C$-labelled chemicals, and the $^{14}C$-carbofuran was widely used among them. Fate of insecticides, bound-residues and metabolic process were staple concerning area in soil study. And the uptake and translocation, metabolism and metabolites also a major interests in plant study. As well as the degradation, metabolic pathway and metabolites, and distribution of chemicals in animal tissue were another point of consideration in animal study. And finally, the penetration ratio into body and resistant mechanism were the major concerning views of study with insects.

Behaviour of the Soil Residues of the Acaricide-Insecticide, [$^{14}C$]Acrinathrin;II. Degradation in Soil (살비살충제 [$^{14}C$Acrinathrin 토양 잔류물의 행적 규명;II. 토양중 분해)

  • Lee, Jae-Koo;Kyung, Kee-Sung;Oh, Kyeong-Seok
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.202-212
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    • 1995
  • In order to elucidate the degrading characteristics of the pyrethroid acaricide-insecticide, acrinathrin in two different types of soils, Soil A(pH, 5.8; organic matter, 3.4%; C.E.C., 115 mmol(+)/kg soil; texture, sandy loam) and Soil B(pH, 5.7; organic matter, 2.0%; C.E.C., 71 mmol(+)/kg soil; texture, sandy loam), residualities of the non-labeled compound under the field and laboratory conditions, extractability with organic solvents and formation of non-extractable bound residues, and degradabilities of [$^{14}C$]acrinathrin as a function of aging temperature and aging period were investigated. The half lives of acrinathrin in Soil A treated once and twice were about 18 and 22 days and in Soil B about 13 and 15 days, respectively, in the field, whereas, in the laboratory, those in Soil A and B were about 36 and 18 days, respectively, suggesting that the compound would be non-persistent in the environment. The amounts of $^{14}CO_2$ evolved from [$^{14}C$]acrinathrin in Soil A and B during the aging period of 24 weeks were 81 and 62%, respectively, of the originally applied $^{14}C$ activity, and those of the non-extractable soil-bound residues of [$^{14}C$]acrinathrin were about 70% of the total $^{14}C$ activity remaining in both soils, increasing gradually with the aging period. Degradation of [$^{14}C$]acrinathrin in both soils increased with the aging temperature. Three degradation products of m/z 198(3-phenoxy benzaldehyde), m/z 214(3-phenoxybenzoic acid), and m/z 228(methyl 3-phenoxybenzoate) as well as an unknown were detected by autoradiography of acetone extracts of both soils treated with [$^{14}C$]acrinathrin and aged for 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 150 days, respectively, and the degradation pattern of acrinathrin was identical in both soils. Acrinathrin in soil turned out to be degraded to 3-phenoxybenzaldehyde cyanohydrin by hydrolytic cleavage of the ester linkage adjacent to the $^{14}C$ with a cyano group, the removal of hydrogen cyanide therefrom led to the formation of 3-phenoxybenzaldehyde as one of the major products, and the subsequent oxidation of the aldehyde to 3-phenoxybenzoic acid, followed by decarboxylation would lead to the evolution of $^{14}CO_2$.

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