• Title/Summary/Keyword: solid substrate fermentation

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A Study on the Reduction of Gossypol Levels by Mixed Culture Solid Substrate Fermentation of Cottonseed Meal

  • Zhang, Wenju;Xu, Zirong;Sun, Jianyi;Yang, Xia
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.19 no.9
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    • pp.1314-1321
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    • 2006
  • The objective of this work was to study the effect of mixed culture solid substrate fermentation of C. tropicalis ZD-3 with A. niger ZD-8 on detoxification of cottonseed meal (CSM), and to investigate the effect of fermentation period, proportion of CSM in substrate, sodium carbonate, minerals and heat treatment on the reduction of free gossypol levels during mixed culture solid substrate fermentation of CSM. Experiment 1: Three groups of disinfected CSM substrate were incubated for 48 h after inoculation with either of the fungi C. tropicalis ZD-3, A. niger ZD-8 or mixed culture (C. tropicalis ZD-3 with A. niger ZD-8). One non-inoculated group was used as the control. Levels of initial and final free gossypol (FG), CP and in vitro CP digestibility were assayed. The results indicated that mixed culture fermentation was far more effective than single strain fermentation, which not only had higher detoxification rate, but also had higher CP content and in vitro digestibility. Experiment 2: CSM substrates were treated according to experimental variables including fermentation period, proportion of CSM in substrate, sodium carbonate, minerals and heat treatment, Then, the treated CSM substrates were inoculated with mixed culture (C. tropicalis ZD-3 with A. niger ZD-8) and incubated at $30^{\circ}C$ for 36 h in a 95% relative humidity chamber. After fermentation ended, FG and CP content of fermented CSM substrate was assayed. The results showed that the appropriate fermentation period was 36 h, and the optimal proportion of CSM in substrate was 70%. Addition of sodium carbonate to CSM substrate was beneficial for fermentative detoxification. Heat treatment could facilitate fermentative detoxification, and supplementation with minerals was instrumental in reducing gossypol levels during mixed culture solid substrate fermentation of CSM.

Production of Protein-bound Polysaccharides by Solid-substrate Fementation of Lentinus edodes (표고버섯의 고체배양에 의한 단백 다당류 생산)

  • 박경숙
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.11 no.6
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    • pp.667-672
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    • 1998
  • The possibility of solid-substrate fermentation of Lentinus edoes for the productin of protein-boud polysaccharides (PBP) was studied. Zeolite and orchid-pot soil were used as solid materials for the culture because of the desirable physical properties. Sucrose and starch were good carbon sources for the production of PBP by the solid-substrate fermentatin of L. edodes. Among the nitrogen source, bactosoyton was very effective for the PBP production. The optimum pH for solid-substrate fementation for the production of PBP was at pH of 5.5. The PBP production reached to 5∼5.5mg per 100g solid-substrate.

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Response Surface Optimization of Fermentation Parameters for Citric Acid Production in Solid Substrate Fermentation (고체발효에서 반응표면분석법을 이용한 구연산 생산 최적화)

  • Kim, Jin-Woo
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.50 no.5
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    • pp.879-884
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    • 2012
  • In this present study, Aspergillus niger NRRL 567 was cultivated on an inert support material and the effects of various fermentation parameters including temperature, nutrient solution pH, inoculation level, and moisture content were observed and optimized by one-factor-at-a-time (OFAT) and response surface methodology (RSM), sequentially. It was found that the incubation temperature of $30^{\circ}C$ with 75% moisture content, nutrient solution pH of 7.1 and inoculation level of $4.0{\times}10^6$ spores/ml were the most favorable. Again, fermentation parameters were optimized using RSM. The determined optimum condition is $26.5^{\circ}C$, pH 9.9, 75.1%, and $6.0{\times}10^6$ spores/ml. Under this optimized condition, A. niger NRRL 567 produced 118.8 g citric acid/kg dry peat moss at 72 hr. Maximum citric acid production of optimized condition by RSM represented a 1.6-fold increase compared to that obtained from control experiment.

Effect of Buffers on Citric Acid Production by Aspergillus niger NRRL 567 in Solid Substrate Fermentation (Aspergillus niger NRRL 567을 이용한 고체배양에서 완충용액이 구연산 생산에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Jin-Woo
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.50 no.5
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    • pp.874-878
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    • 2012
  • In the submerged fermentation of fungi, it was known pH had significant effect on the citric acid production. Various growth conditions were applied with different buffer on citric acid production by Aspergillus niger NRRL 567 grown on peat moss to find the optimum pH and most effective buffer solution. The initial pHs of different buffer solutions significantly influenced on the citric acid production and A. niger NRRL 567 produced citric acid more efficiently at high pHs. A phosphate buffer and a carbonate buffer with pH 8.6 and pH 10.0 were identified as suitable buffer solutions for citric acid production. The maximal citric acid production of 564.3 g/kg solid substrate was achieved employing carbonate buffer at pH 10.0.

Solid Substrate and Submerged Culture Fermentation of Sugar Cane Bagasse for the Production of cellulase and Reducing Sugars by a Local Isolate, Aspergillus terreus SUK-1

  • Wan Mohtar, Yusoff;Massadeh, Muhannad Illayan;Kader, Jalil
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.10 no.6
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    • pp.770-775
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    • 2000
  • Several process parameters were studied to ascertain the effect on degradation of sugar cane bagasse in relation to the production of cellulase enzyme and reducing sugars by Solid Substrate Fermentation (SSF) and Submerged Culture Fermentation (SCF) of Aspergillus terreus SUK-1. The effect of air-flow rate (0-1.3 v/v/m), of different ratios of substrate weight to liquid volume (1:6, 1:10, 1:20, and 1:30 w/v, g/ml), scale-up effect (10, 20, and 100 times of 1:10 ration, w/v) and the effect of temperature (30, 40, 50, and $60^{\circ}C$) in SSF were studied. Air-flow rate of 1.0 v/v/m gave the highest enzyme activity (FPase 0.25 IU/ml, CMCase 1.24 IU/ml) and reducing sugars concentration (0.72 mg/ml). Experiment using 1:10 ratio (w/v) was found to support maximum cellulase activity (FPase 0.58 IU/ml, CMCase 1.97 IU/ml) and reducing sugar concentration (1.23 mg/ml). Scaling-up the ratio of 1:10(w/v) by a factor of 20 gave the highest cellulase activity (FPase 0.71 IU/ml, CMCase 2.25 IU/ml) and reducing sugar concentration (3.67 mg/ml). The optimum temperature for cellulase activity and reducing sugar production was $50^{\circ}C$(FPase 0.792 IU/ml, CMCase 2.25 IU/ml and 3.85 mg/ml for reducing sugar concentration). For SCF, the activity of cellulase enzyme and reducing sugar concentration was found to be lower than that obtained for SSF. The highest cellulase activity obtained in SCF was 50% lower than the highest cellulase activity in SSF, while for reducing sugar concentration, the highest concentration obtained in SCF was 90% lower than that obtained in SSF.

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Effects of Fermentation Parameters on Cellulolytic Enzyme Production under Solid Substrate Fermentation (농부산물을 이용한 고체발효에서 발효조건이 목질계 분해 효소 생산에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Jin-Woo
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.52 no.3
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    • pp.302-306
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    • 2014
  • The present study was carried out to optimize fermentation parameters for the production of cellulolytic enzymes through solid substrate fermentation of Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger grown on wheat straw. A sequential optimization based on one-factor-at-a-time method was applied to optimize fermentation parameters including temperature, pH, moisture content and particle size. The results of optimization indicated that $40^{\circ}C$, pH 7, moisture content 75% and particle size between 0.25~0.5 mm were found to be the optimum condition at 96 hr fermentation. Under the optimal condition, co-culture of T. reesei and A. niger produced cellulase activities of 10.3 IU, endoglucanase activity of 100.3 IU, ${\beta}$-glucosidase activity of 22.9 IU and xylanase activity of 2261.7 IU/g dry material were obtained. Cellulolytic enzyme production with optimization showed about 72.6, 48.8, 55.2 and 51.9% increase compared to those obtained from control experiment, respectively.

Production of protein-bound polysaccharides by solid-state fermentation of Coriolus versicolor (구름버섯의 고체발효에 의한 단백다당류 생산)

  • Park, Kyung-Sook;Park, Shin;Jung, In-Chang;Ha, Hyo-Cheol;Kim, Seon-Hee;Lee, Jae-Sung
    • The Korean Journal of Mycology
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.184-189
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    • 1994
  • The possibility of solid-substrate fermentation of Coriolus versicolor for the production of protein-bound polysaccharides(PBP) was studied. Zeolite and orchid-pot soil were used as solid materials for the culture because of the desirable physical properties. Glucose, sucrose and starch showed to be good carbon sources for the production of PBP by the solid-substrate fermantation of C. versicolor. Among the nitrogen sources, bactosoyton and peptone were very effective for the PBP production. The optimum pH for solid-substrate culture for the production of PBP was at the range of 5-6. The yields of PBP reached to 5-6 mg per 100 g solid-substrate.

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Evaluation of Multi-microbial Probiotics Produced by Submerged Liquid and Solid Substrate Fermentation Methods in Broilers

  • Shim, Y.H.;Shinde, P.L.;Choi, J.Y.;Kim, J.S.;Seo, D.K.;Pak, J.I.;Chae, B.J.;Kwon, I.K.
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.521-529
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    • 2010
  • Two experiments were conducted to evaluate multi-microbe submerged liquid (SLF) and solid substrate (SSF) fermented probiotic products in broilers. The SLF and SSF probiotics were comprised of Lactobacillus acidophilus ($1.1{\times}10^9$ and $4{\times}10^8$ cfu/g), Bacillus subtilis ($1.1{\times}10^9$ and $4{\times}10^9$ cfu/g), Saccharomyces cerevisiae ($1.5{\times}10^7$ and $1.0{\times}10^4$ cfu/g) and Aspergillus oryzae ($2.6{\times}10^7$ and $4.3{\times}10^7$ cfu/g), respectively. In Exp. 1, 640 day-old Ross chicks were allotted to 4 treatments, each comprising 4 replicates (40 chicks/replicate). The basal diet was prepared without any antimicrobials (negative control, NC), and 20 mg/kg avilamycin (positive control, PC), 0.3% SLF and 0.3% SSF probiotics were added to the basal diets as treatments. Birds fed PC and SSF diets showed improved (p<0.001) overall weight gain and F/G than birds fed NC and SLF diets; whereas, birds fed SLF diet had better weight gain and F/G than birds fed NC diet. Retention of CP was higher (p<0.05) in birds fed the SSF diet than birds fed PC, SLF and NC diets. Birds fed the SLF diet tended to have higher (p<0.10) cecal total anaerobic bacteria than birds fed PC and NC diets; whereas, lesser cecal coliforms were noticed in birds fed PC, SLF and SSF diets than birds fed the NC diet. In Exp. 2, 640 day-old Ross chicks were randomly allotted to 4 treatments in a $2{\times}2$ factorial arrangement. Each treatment had 4 replicates (40 chicks/replicate). Two different multi-microbe probiotic products (0.3% SLF or SSF) each with two different antibiotics (10 mg/kg colistin, or 20 mg/kg avilamycin) were used as dietary treatments. Birds fed the SSF diet had greater weight gain (p<0.001), better F/G (p<0.05), greater retention of energy (p<0.001) and protein (p<0.05), and lesser cecal Clostridium (d 35) than birds fed SLF diet. Birds fed the colistin-supplemented diet had less (p<0.01) cecal coliforms when compared with birds fed the avilamycin diet. Additionally, birds fed the avilamycin diet had greater energy retention (p<0.05) than birds fed the colistin diet. Thus, the results of this study suggest the multi-microbe probiotic product prepared by a solid substrate fermentation method to be superior to the probiotic product prepared by submerged liquid fermentation; moreover, feeding of probiotics with different antibiotics did not elicit any interaction effect between probiotic and antibiotic.