• Title, Summary, Keyword: solution processing

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THE CHANGE OF FILM CHARACTERISTICS ACCORDING TO THE PROCESS OF USING TIME OF PROCESSING SOLUTION (현상액의 사용 시일 경과에 따른 필름 특성의 변화)

  • Chung Moon Sung;Chung Hyun Dae
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Maxillofacial Radiology
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.128-136
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    • 1992
  • This study was undertakened to investigate the change of image characteristics on dental films according to the process of using time of processing solution in automatic processor. Base + fog density, film density and subject contrast were measured with the digital densitometer, the pH of developing and fixing solution were measured with Digital pH / ION Meter. The following results were obtained: 1. Base + fog density was increased with the process of using time of the processing solution and was over the maximum permissible base + fog density 0.25 from the 3rd day. 2. Film density was increased with the process of using time of the processing solution. 3. Subject contrast was decreased with the process of using time of the processing solution. 4. The pH of the developing solution was decreased with the process of using time, the pH of the fixing solution was increased.

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A DENSITOMETRIC STUDY OF THE DENTAL FILMS IN COMBINATION WITH VARIABLE PROCESSING SOLUTIONS (현상법 현상액에 따른 필름특성에 관한 연구)

  • Kim Ho Cheol;Park Jae Kwan
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Maxillofacial Radiology
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.197-207
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    • 1987
  • This study was undertaken to investigate the relationships between film and processing solution at different processing temperatures. Three kinds of periapical film were used for this study. They included EP-2l film, DF-58, and A film Each film was processed by automatic film processor with RD-Ⅲ X-dol 90, and A processing solutions at 68° 74° 80° 86° and 92°F. Film density was measured with the densitometer, and base plus fog density, film relative speed, film contrast, and subject contrast were evaluated. The following results were obtained; 1. As the processing temperature was increased, base plus density was increased. Inadequate base plus fog densities were obtained with three films in combination with three processing solutions at 92°F. 2. Lowest base plus fog densities were obtained with A film, followed in ascending order by EP-21, and DF-58 film in combination with A or RD-Ⅲ processing solutions. The sequence of base plus fog densities was in ascending order by EP-21, A, and DF-58 film in combination with X-dol 90 processing solution. 3. The sequence of film relative speed values was in ascending order of EP-21, A, and DF-58 film in combination with A and RD-Ⅲ processing solutions, respectively. 4. As the processing temperature was increased, film contrast values was increased. The sequence of film contrast values was in descending order solution. The sequence of film contrast values was in descending order of EP-2l, DF-58, and A film in combination with RD-Ⅲ, X-dol 90 processing solution at 80°F. 5. As the processing temperature was increased, subject contrast was increased. The sequence of subject contrast was in descending order of A, X-dol 90, and RD-Ⅲ processing solution in combination with three films at 80°F. The sequence of subject contrast was in descending order of EP-21, A, and DF-58 film in combination with A processing solution at different processing temperatures.

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A Study of Custom Embroidered Souvenir Manufacturing System Development (맞춤형 자수기념품 제작시스템 개발에 관한 연구)

  • Jang, Saeyeob;Kim, Taejoo;Shin, Junhee;Jeong, Eunjin
    • Journal of Institute of Convergence Technology
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.45-49
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    • 2013
  • Instant custom embroidered souvenir manufacturing system was studied. Recently customers want to get individually specialized souvenir. We present a modular manufacturing system and implementation of image processing, conversion of punching data. The manufacturing system consist of main module, photographing module and U/I module. We can change the system easily through modularization. Image Processing was necessary for making punching data. We developed sketch typed image processing and image processing which used brightness. Brightness type is suitable for instant embroidered souvenir. This study showed that fusion of embroidery technology and image processing technology can make a new business successfully.

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Soft Solution Processing : Low-Energy Direct Fabrication of Advanced Inorganic Materials

  • Masahiro Yoshimura;한규승;Wojciech Suchanek
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.20 no.8
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    • pp.875-878
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    • 1999
  • A new concept ??soft solution processing?? has been introduced to fabricate advanced solid state materials in an economical, environmentally friendly, and energy and material efficient way. The prepared films show the desired and prospective properties despite of low temperature synthesis and no post-synthesis annealing. Successful examples demonstrate that soft solution processing is capable of preparing advanced materials with planned properties through the easy control of reaction conditions in a suitable aqueous solution in a single synthetic step without huge energy consumption and without any sophisticated equipment.

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A Tabu Search Method for K-anonymity in database privacy protection

  • Run, Cui;Kim, Hyoung-Joong
    • Proceedings of the Korea Information Processing Society Conference
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    • pp.990-992
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    • 2011
  • In this paper, we introduce a new Tabu method to get K-anonymity character in database information privacy protection. We use the conception of lattice to form the solution space for K-anonymity Character and search the solution area in this solution space to achieve the best or best approach modification solution for the information in the database. We then compared the Tabu method with other traditional heuristic method and our method show a better solution in most of the cases.

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Design of Distributed Computer Systems Using Tabu Search Method (Tabu 탐색 기법을 이용한 분산 컴퓨팅 시스템 설계)

  • Hong, Jin-Won;Kim, Jae-Yearn
    • Journal of the Society of Korea Industrial and Systems Engineering
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    • v.18 no.36
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    • pp.143-152
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    • 1995
  • This paper determines the allocation of computers and data files to minimize the sum of processing and communication costs which occur in processing jobs at each node. The problem of optimally configuring a distributed computer system belongs to the class of NP-Complete problems and the object function of this paper is nonlinear function and is hard to solve. This paper seeks the solution of distributed processing system by Tabu Search. Firstly, it presents the method of generating the starting solution proper to the distributed processing system. Secondly, it develops the method of searching neighborhood solutions. Finally, it determines the Tabu restriction appropriate to the distributed processing system. According to the experimental results, this algorithm solves a sized problems in reasonable time and is effective in the convergence of the solution. The algorithm developed in this paper is also applicable to the general allocation problems of the distributed processing system.

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Wet-Chemically Prepared NiO Layers as Hole Transport Layer in the Inverted Organic Solar Cell

  • Lim, Dong-Chan;Kim, Young-Tae;Shim, Won-Hyun;Jang, A-Young;Lim, Jae-Hong;Kim, Yang-Do;Jeong, Yong-Soo;Kim, Young-Dok;Lee, Kyu-Hwan
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.1067-1070
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    • 2011
  • We have demonstrated that solution-based fabrication of NiO films as HTL can be used for the construction of IOSCs. Type of solvent of NiO-solution, and annealing procedure of the active layers were optimized for obtaining a PCE of 3% of IOSC. The photovoltaic performance of NiO-based device is comparable to that of the same type of solar cell using PEDT:PSS instead of NiO. These solution-based processes can be a promising method for a mass production OSCs under ambient condition.

Spectroscopic and Electrochemical Study on the Citrate-based CuNi Codeposition (구연산 기반 구리-니켈 합금도금에 대한 분광학적/전기화학적 특성 연구)

  • Lee, Joo-Yul;Yim, Seong-Bong;Kim, Man;Jeong, Yong-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.117-123
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    • 2011
  • We investigated the spectroscopic and electrochemical properties of the citrate-based CuNi solution at different solution pH and analyzed various surface properties of CuNi codeposition layer. By combining UV-Visible spectroscopic data with potentiodynamic polarization curves, it could be found that the complexation of $Ni^{2+}$-citrate pair was completed at lower solution pH than $Cu^{2+}$-citrate pair and was affected by the coexistent $Cu^{2+}$ ions, while the complexation between $Cu^{2+}$ ions and citrate was not sensitive to the presence of $Ni^{2+}$ ions. Also, the electron transfer from cathode to $Cu^{2+}$-citrate and$Ni^{2+}$-citrate was hindered by strong complexation between $Cu^{2+}/Ni^{2+}$ ions and citrate and so apparent codeposition current densities were reduced as the solution pH increases. CuNi codeposited layers had a higher Cu content when they were prepared at high pH solution due to the suppression of Ni deposition, and when codeposition was executed in an agitated condition due to the acceleration of mass transfer of $Cu^{2+}$ ions in the solution. Actually, solution pH had little effect on the surface morphology and deposits orientation, but greatly influenced the corrosion resistance in 3.5% NaCl solution by modifying the chemical composition of CuNi layers and so pH 3 was expected as the most suitable solution pH in the viewpoint of corrosion coatings.

Investigation of the Effect of Solution Acidity and Organic Additives on the Electrodeposition of Trivalent Chromium Ions (3가크롬 이온의 전착 반응에 용액 산도 및 유기물 첨가제가 미치는 영향 연구)

  • Lee, Joo-Yul;Van Phuong, Nguyen;Kang, Dae-Keun;Kim, Man;Kwon, Sik-Chol
    • Journal of the Korean institute of surface engineering
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    • v.43 no.6
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    • pp.297-303
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    • 2010
  • The effect of solution acidity and organic additives, polyethylene glycol (PEG), on the trivalent chromium electroplating was systematically investigated in the view point of electroreduction of trivalent chromium ions and solution stability. It was found that solution acidity controlled at pH 2.5 showed the widest current range for bright electrodeposits in the presence of PEG additives, which reduced the local current intensification at high current densities. Through complex interaction between PEG additives and hydrogen ion, that is, solution acidity, electrode potential was moved in the negative direction in the bulk solution, while it shifted in the positive when electric potential was scanned. In conjunction with electrochemical quartz crystal microbalance (EQCM), it was found that PEG additives had a role in promoting the electron transfer to trivalent chromium ion complexes in bulk solution and their adsorption at the electrode surface as well as interfering with hydrogen ion reduction process below pH 2.5. The PEG additives developed the nodular morphology during electroreduction of trivalent chromium ions with the increase of solution acidity and enhanced its current efficiency by maintaining the consumption of complexant, formic acid, at low speed.

Optimization of Processing Conditions of Chinese Smoke-cured Bacon (Larou) with a New Natural Coating Solution during Storage Period

  • Liu, Na;Zhu, Qiujin;Zeng, Xuefeng;Yang, Bowen;Liang, Meilian;Deng, Li;He, Laping;Liang, Cai;Zhang, Ruping;Zhou, Juan
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.38 no.3
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    • pp.636-652
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    • 2018
  • The study aims to determine the optimum sterilization rate and water activity of Chinese traditional smoke-cured bacon product (Larou) in the preservation with natural coating solution. With the response surface methodology (RSM), we analyzed 3 factors of processing conditions (the concentration of lysozyme, concentration of sodium alginate, and concentration of chitosan) and 2 response factors (sterilization rate and water activity). Sterilization rate and water activity of Larou were largely affected by the concentration of lysozyme, concentration of sodium alginate, and concentration of chitosan. The final optimum concentrations of lysozyme, sodium alginate, and chitosan were 0.09, 1.40, and 1.60% and realized the high sterilization rate. Water activity of sliced Larou was significantly correlated with the sterilization rate. Low-field nuclear magnetic resonance analysis verified the optimum processing conditions. The coating resulted in 99.69% rate of reducing bacteria after 30-day storage. The data of the total number of colony, peroxidation value, moisture content, pH, and sensory evaluation provided the theoretical basis for extending the shelf life of Chinese traditional smoke-cured bacon product (Larou) with natural coating solution.