• Title, Summary, Keyword: somatic modulation

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The Downregulation of Somatic A-Type $K^+$ Channels Requires the Activation of Synaptic NMDA Receptors in Young Hippocampal Neurons of Rats

  • Kang, Moon-Seok;Yang, Yoon-Sil;Kim, Seon-Hee;Park, Joo-Min;Eun, Su-Yong;Jung, Sung-Cherl
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.135-141
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    • 2014
  • The downregulation of A-type $K^+$ channels ($I_A$ channels) accompanying enhanced somatic excitability can mediate epileptogenic conditions in mammalian central nervous system. As $I_A$ channels are dominantly targeted by dendritic and postsynaptic processings during synaptic plasticity, it is presumable that they may act as cellular linkers between synaptic responses and somatic processings under various excitable conditions. In the present study, we electrophysiologically tested if the downregulation of somatic $I_A$ channels was sensitive to synaptic activities in young hippocampal neurons. In primarily cultured hippocampal neurons (DIV 6~9), the peak of $I_A$ recorded by a whole-cell patch was significantly reduced by high KCl or exogenous glutamate treatment to enhance synaptic activities. However, the pretreatment of MK801 to block synaptic NMDA receptors abolished the glutamate-induced reduction of the $I_A$ peak, indicating the necessity of synaptic activation for the reduction of somatic $I_A$. This was again confirmed by glycine treatment, showing a significant reduction of the somatic $I_A$ peak. Additionally, the gating property of $I_A$ channels was also sensitive to the activation of synaptic NMDA receptors, showing the hyperpolarizing shift in inactivation kinetics. These results suggest that synaptic LTP possibly potentiates somatic excitability via downregulating $I_A$ channels in expression and gating kinetics. The consequential changes of somatic excitability following the activity-dependent modulation of synaptic responses may be a series of processings for neuronal functions to determine outputs in memory mechanisms or pathogenic conditions.

Mitochondrial DNA Somatic Mutation in Cancer

  • Kim, Aekyong
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.235-242
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    • 2014
  • Cancer cells are known to drastically alter cellular energy metabolism. The Warburg effect has been known for over 80 years as pertaining cancer-specific aerobic glycolysis. As underlying molecular mechanisms are elucidated so that cancer cells alter the cellular energy metabolism for their advantage, the significance of the modulation of metabolic profiles is gaining attention. Now, metabolic reprogramming is becoming an emerging hallmark of cancer. Therapeutic agents that target cancer energy metabolism are under intensive investigation, but these investigations are mostly focused on the cytosolic glycolytic processes. Although mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation is an integral part of cellular energy metabolism, until recently, it has been regarded as an auxiliary to cytosolic glycolytic processes in cancer energy metabolism. In this review, we will discuss the importance of mitochondrial respiration in the metabolic reprogramming of cancer, in addition to discussing the justification for using mitochondrial DNA somatic mutation as metabolic determinants for cancer sensitivity in glucose limitation.

The effect of temporomandibular joint movement on tinnitus (턱의 운동이 이명에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Jeong-Mo;Kim, Tae Su;Nam, Eui-Cheol
    • Journal of Oral Medicine and Pain
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    • v.38 no.4
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    • pp.333-338
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: A growing number of studies have been providing evidence for neural connections between the auditory and somatosensory systems that might be a critical part of the mechanisms underlying certain forms of tinnitus. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) movements on tinnitus. Methods: One hundred sixty-three tinnitus patients participated in this study. All patients underwent a thorough audiological examination including pure-tone audiometry, tinnitus handicap inventory, and evaluation of tinnitus loudness, frequency and severity on a visual analog scale. Somatic testing consisting of nine forceful jaw muscle contractions was performed to evaluate the effect of TMJ movements on modulation of tinnitus. Results: 66.9% of patients had unilateral tinnitus. Somatic testing modulated tinnitus loudness in 125 ears (57.6 %) of 217 ears tested. An increase in tinnitus loudness was observed more often than a decrease. Loudness was most commonly increased by opening and clenching jaw. Tinnitus could be induced by opening, clenching and deviating jaw to the left. Conclusion: Our study showed evidence that TMJ movements may aggravate and even evoke tinnitus and somatic testing can be used for evaluating if stimulation of the TMJ induces or aggravates tinnitus.

The Effects of Dietary Enzyme Mixture Reinforced with ${\beta}$-Glucanase Activity on Mini Production and the Change of Somatic Cell Count in Lactating Dairy Cows (사료내 ${\beta}$-glucanase 활성 강화 고역가 복합효소제 첨가급여가 착유우의 유생산 및 체세포수 변화에 미치는 영향)

  • Joo, Eun-Jung;Jeong, Su-Jin;Yoon, Byung-Seon;Nam, Ki-Taek;Choi, Il-Shin;Ahn, Jong-Ho;Hwang, Seong-Gu
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.231-241
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    • 2004
  • In recent years, many researches are actively undertaken for environmental-friendly animal production according to the increased understanding about food safety because of the outbreak of various diseases such as mad cow disease, Foot and mouth disease and Poultry Influenza virus. However, high quality(higher safety)- animal production may not be successful without increasing of disease resistance of animal and the improvement of feeding environment. To increase the disease resistance is able to be accomplished by stimulating the immune function. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of enzyme mixture reinforced with ${\beta}$-glucanase activity which degrade polysaccharide to release ${\beta}$-glucan known as stimulator of immune function on the change of milk production and somatic cell count. After 12weeks of experimental feeding, milk production tended to be increased and somatic cell count was decreased from average $227{\times}10^4$ to $37.1{\times}10^4$. Milk protein and solid-fat content were tended to increase but milk fat showed decreasing tendency by the feeding of enzyme mixture. All together, it has been suggest6d that the improvement of high quality milk production may be possible through the dietary addition of immune modulating enzyme mixture in lactating dairy cows.

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The Circadian Rhythm Variation of Pain in the Orofacial Region

  • Kim, Moon Jong;Chung, Jin Woo;Kho, Hong-Seop;Park, Ji Woon
    • Journal of Oral Medicine and Pain
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.89-95
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    • 2015
  • All living organisms have a biological clock that orchestrates every biological process and function, and this internal clock operates following a circadian rhythm. This biological clock is known to influence various clinical indicators such as blood pressure and body temperature. Also, the fluctuation of signs and symptoms of diseases including pain disorders are affected by circadian rhythm. It has been reported that the pain intensity of various somatic and neuropathic pain disorders show unique pain patterns that depend on the passage of time. The generation of pain patterns could be explained by extrinsic (e.g., physical activity, tactile stimulation, ambient temperature) and also intrinsic factors (neural and neuroendocrine modulation) that are related to the circadian rhythm. It is important to recognize and identify the individual pain pattern in pain therapy to approve treatment outcome. Moreover, chronotherapeutics which considers pain patterns and pharmacokinetics in context of the circadian rhythm could produce greater analgesia in response to medication. However, only a limited number of studies handle the issue of pain patterns according to circadian rhythm and chronotherapeutics in the orofacial region. The present review intends to reflect on the most recent and relevant data concerning the bidirectional relation between pain disorders of the orofacial region and circadian patterns.

Impulse Trafficking in Neurons of the Mesencephalic Trigeminal Nucleus

  • Saito, Mitsuru;Kang, Young-Nam
    • International Journal of Oral Biology
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.113-118
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    • 2006
  • In the primary sensory neuron of the mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus (MTN), the peripheral axon supplies a large number of annulospiral endings surrounding intrafusal fibers encapsulated in single muscle spindles while the central axon sends only a few number of synapses onto single ${\alpha}-motoneurons({\alpha}-MNs)$. Therefore, the ${\alpha}-{\gamma}$ linkage is thought to be very crucial in the jaw-closing movement. Spike activity in a ${\gamma}-motoneuron\;({\gamma}-MN)$ would induce a large number of impulses in single peripheral axons by activating many intrafusal fibers simultaneously, subsequently causing an activation of ${\alpha}-MNs$ in spite of the small number of synapses. Thus, the activity of ${\gamma}-MNs$ may be vital for modulation of jaw-closing movements. Independently of such a spindle activity modulated by ${\gamma}-MNs$, somatic depolarization in MTN neurons is known to trigger the oscillatory spike activity. Nevertheless, the trafficking of these spikes arising from the two distinct sources of MTN neurons is not well understood. In this short review, switching among multiple functional modes of MTN neurons is discussed. Subsequently, it will be discussed which mode can support the ${\alpha}-{\gamma}$ linkage. In our most recent study, simultaneous patch-clamp recordings from the soma and axon hillock revealed a spike-back-propagation from the spike-initiation site in the stem axon to the soma in response to a somatic current pulse. The persistent $Na^+$ current was found to be responsible for the spike-initiation in the stem axon, the activation threshold of which was lower than those of soma spikes. Somatic inputs or impulses arising from the sensory ending, whichever trigger spikes in the stem axon first, would be forwarded through the central axon to the target synapse. We also demonstrated that at hyperpolarized membrane potentials, 4-AP-sensitive $K^+$ current ($IK_{4-AP}$) exerts two opposing effects on spikes depending on their origins; the suppression of spike initiation by increasing the apparent electrotonic distance between the soma and the spike-initiation site, and the facilitation of axonal spike invasion at higher frequencies by decreasing the spike duration and the refractory period. Through this mechanism, the spindle activity caused by ${\gamma}-MNs$ would be safely forwarded to ${\alpha}-MNs$. Thus, soma spikes shaped differentially by this $IK_{4-AP}$ depending on their origins would reflect which one of the two inputs was forwarded to the target synapses.

Effects of Electrical Stimulation of the Caudal Ventrolateral Medulla on the Activity of Dorsal Horn Neurons of the Spinal Cord in the Cat (복외측 하부연수의 전기자극이 고양이의 척수후각세포의 활성에 미치는 영향)

  • 최윤정;고광호;오우택
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.37-43
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    • 1993
  • Electrical or chemical stimulation of many areas in the brainstem modulates activity of dorsal horn neurons (DHN). This is known to be mediated by a population of bulbospinal neurons. Yet, little is known about responses of DHNs to stimulation of the caudal ventrolateral medulla (CVLM). Thus, the purpose of the present study is to see if there is any change in activity of DHNs when CVLM is stimulated electrically. Thirty-one DHNs were recorded from dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Fourteen DHNs (45%) were classified as wide dynamic range neurons and 9 (19%) were high threshold cells, and 4 (13%) and 4 (13%) were deep and low threshold neurons, respectively. Among 31 neurons tested for responses to stimulation of CVLM, 21 DHNs (68%) were inhibited by the electrical stimulation of CVLM ($200{\mu}A,\;100{\mu}s$ duration, 100 Hz), and 9 cells (39%) did not show any change in neuronal activity. One neuron was excited by the stimulation. The electrical stimulation of CVLM not only inhibited spontaneous activity of DHNs but also inhibited evoked responses of DHNs to somatic stimulation in the receptive field. These data suggest that CVLM is one of the pain-modulatory areas that control transmission of ascending information of noxious input to the brain from the spinal cord.

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Facilitation of Afferent Sensory Transmission in the Cuneate Nucleus of Rat during Locomotor Movement

  • Shin, Hyung-Cheul;Park, Hyoung-Jin;Jin, Byung-Kwan;Chapin, John K.
    • The Korean journal of physiology & pharmacology
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.99-103
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    • 1994
  • Single neuronal activities were recorded in the cuneate nucleus of awake rats during rest and running behavior. Movement-induced changes in somatic sensory transmission were tested by generating post-stimulus time histograms of these neurons' responses to stimulation through eleetrodes chronically implanted under the skin of the forepaw, during control resting behavior and during two standardized speeds of locomotor movement: slow (1.0 steps/s), fast (2.0 steps/s). The magnitudes of firing during these responses were measured and normalized as percentage increases over background firing. The averaged evoked unit responses were facilitated by $+59.3{\pm}12.5%\;and\;+25.6{\pm}5.4%$ (SEM) as compared with resting behavior, during slow and fast movement respectively. This is to be compared with the movement-induced sensory suppressions observed previously in the ventrobasal thalamus $(-31.0%{\pm}1.9%)$ and in the primary somatosensory cortex $(-71.2%{\pm}3.8%)$ of slowly running rats. These results suggest that afferent somatosensory information may be uniquely modulated at each sensory relay, such that it may be facilitated at brainstem level and then subjected to suppression at higher somatosensory nuclei during movement.

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Localization of the Neurons Projecting to the Gallbladder Meridian (족소양담경(足少陽膽經)에서 투사(投射)되는 신경원(神經元)의 표지부위(標識部位)에 대한 연구(硏究))

  • Ryuk Sang-Won;Lee Kwang-Gyu;Lee Sang-Ryoung;Kim Jum-Young;Lee Chang-Hyun;Lee Bong-Hee
    • Korean Journal of Acupuncture
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.101-121
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    • 2000
  • The purpose of this morphological studies was to investigate the relation to the meridian, acupoint and nerve. The common locations of the spinal cord and brain projecting to the the gallbladder, GB34 and common peroneal nerve were observed following injection of transsynaptic neurotropic virus, pseudorabies virus(PRV), into the gallbladder, GB34 and common peroneal nerve of the rabbit. After survival times of 96 hours following injection of PRV, the thirty rabbits were perfused, and their spinal cord and brain were frozen sectioned($30{\mu}m$). These sections were stained by PRV immunohistochemical staining method, and observed with light microscope. The results were as follows: 1. In spinal cord, PRV labeled neurons projecting to the gallbladder, GB34 and common peroneal nerve were founded in thoracic, lumbar and sacral spinal segments. Densely labeled areas of each spinal cord segment were founded in lamina V, VII, X, intermediolateral nucleus and dorsal nucleus. 2. In medulla oblongata, The PRV labeled neurons projecting to the gallbladder, GB34 and common peroneal nerve were founded in the A1 noradrenalin cells/C1 adrenalin cells/caudoventrolateral reticular nucleus, rostroventrolateral reticular nucleus, medullary reticular nucleus, dorsal motor nucleus of vagus nerve, nucleus tractus solitarius, raphe obscurus nucleus, raphe pallidus nucleus, raphe magnus nucleus, gigantocellular nucleus, lateral paragigantocellular nucleus, principal sensory trigeminal nucleus and spinal trigeminal nucleus. 3. In Pons, PRV labeled neurons were parabrachial nucleus, Kolliker-Fuse nucleus and cochlear nucleus. 4. In midbrain, PRV labeled neurons were founded in central gray matter and substantia nigra. 5. In diencephalon, PRV labeled neurons were founded in lateral hypothalamic nucleus, suprachiasmatic nucleus and paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus. 6. In cerebral cortex, PRV labeled neuron were founded in hind limb area.This results suggest that PRV labeled common areas of the spinal cord projecting to the gallbladder, GB34 and common peroneal nerve may be first-order neurons related to the somatic sensory, viscero-somatic sensory and symapathetic preganglionic neurons, and PRV labeled common area of the brain may be first, second and third-order neurons response to the movement of smooth muscle in gallbladder and blood vessels.These PRV labeled neurons may be central autonomic center related to the integration and modulation of reflex control linked to the sensory system monitoring the internal environment, including both visceral sensation and various chemical and physical qualities of the bloodstream. The present morphological results provide that gallbladder meridian and acupoint may be related to the central autonomic pathways.

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Central Localization of Neurons Projecting to the Uterus and Sanyinjiao(Sp6) (자궁과 삼음교에서 투사하는 충추신경계내 신경원의 표지영역에 관한 연구)

  • 이창현;강윤석;이광규;이상룡;육상원
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.31-40
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    • 2001
  • This experimental studies was to investigate location of labeled neurons in CNS following injection of pseudorabies virus(PRV), Bartha strain, into the uterus and Sanyinjiao(Sp6) of rats. After survival times of 4-5 days following the injection of PRV, the rats were perfused, and their brain and spinal cord were frozen sectioned($30\mu\textrm{m}$). These sections were stained by PRV immunohistochemical staining methods, and observed with light microscope. The results were as follows: 1. In the spinal cord, overlap areas of PRV labeled neurons projecting to uterus and Sp6 were observed in lamina VII, IX and X areas of cervical segments. In thoracic segments, overlap areas were observed in lamina IV, VII, X and intermediolateral n.. In lumbar segments, overlap area of PRV labeled neurons were observed in lamina I, V-VII, IX, X and intermediolateral n.. In sacral segments, overlap areas of PRY labeled neurons were observed in lamina N, V, VII, X and sacral parasympathetic n.. 2. In the brain, overlap areas of PR V labeled neurons projecting to the uterus and Sp6 were observed in lateral paragigantocellular n., rostroventrolateral reticular n., raphe obscurus n., raphe pallidus n., raphe magnus n., locus coeruleus n., Barrington's n., A5 cell group, central gray n., paraventricular hypothalamic n. and arcuate n. This results suggest that overlap areas of PRV labeled neurons of the spinal cord projecting to the uterus and Sp6 might be the first-order neurons related to the viscera-somatic sensory and sympathetic preganglionic neurons. PRV labeled neurons of the brain may be the second and third-order neurons response to the movement of smooth muscle of uterus. These PRV labeled neurons may be central autonomic center related to the integration and modulation of reflex control linked to the sensory and motor system monitoring the internal environment. These overlap areas of spinal cord and brainmay be related to autonomic centers related to regulation of uterus.

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