• Title/Summary/Keyword: soybean curd

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Isoflavone Contents in Some Varieties of Soybean and on Processing Conditions (콩의 종류와 가공 조건에 따른 isoflavone의 함량 변화)

  • 문보경;전기숙;황인경
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.527-534
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    • 1996
  • enistein (G), and daidzein (D), the major isoflavones, were analyzed in 14 varieties of Korean soybean and various processed soybean products by using high performance liquid chromatography. Isoflavone contents (G+D) were greatly variable among varieties ranged from 308.2 $\mu\textrm{g}$/g to 1,134.2 $\mu\textrm{g}$/g and highest in Danyopkong and Jinpumkong. Among hypocotyl, cotyledon and hull of soybean the concentration of the isoflavone (G+D) in the hypocotyl was highest ranged from 2,971.7 $\mu\textrm{g}$/g to 5,704.9 $\mu\textrm{g}$/g. The distributions of genistein and daidzein were also different in hypocotyl, cotyledon and hull. Higher ratio of daidzein to genistein (D/G) was found in the hypocotyl (4-12) compared to cotyledon and hull (0.1-4). Isoflavone (G+D) contents of soymilks (Sinpaldal#2, Eunhakong) prepared at 16 hour hydration were decreased to 1.1-1.2 times compared with that at 8 hour hydration. Commercial soymilks contained much lower isoflavone (G+D) than laboratory soymilks. Soybean curd (Eunhakong) prepared with MgCl$_2$ showed higher isoflavone (G+D) contents than that with CaSO$_4$. But these values of two different soybean curds made at laboratory were similar to those of 3 commercial curds. The concentration of the isoflavones in soybean sprout separated with 3 parts revealed highest in the head and lowest in the stem. Compared with non-fermented soybean foods the fermented soybean produfts, Kochujang and soybean paste, Duen Jang, showed very low contents of isoflavone (G+D),2.8-3.0 $\mu\textrm{g}$/g, 35.9-63.6 $\mu\textrm{g}$/grespectively.

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Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activities of Rhubarb Extracts on Putrefactive Microorganisms Related to Soybean Curd (Doobu) (두부 부패 미생물에 대한 대황(Rhubarb) 추출물의 항균 활성 평가)

  • Kim, Chul-Jai;Suh, Hee-Ji;Chung, Hee-Sook
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Culture
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.225-231
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    • 2006
  • 대황(Rhubarb)은 중국과 일본에서 혈액 순환제, 진통제, 신장치료제 등으로 전통적으로 사용되고 있는 약용식물이다. 이 연구에서는 한국산 R. undulatum L.의 뿌리 추출물, 미국산 R. rhabarbarum L.과 중국산 R. palmatum L.의 줄기 추출물의 두부 부패에 관여하는 미생물에 대한 항균 활성을 평가하였다. Rhubarb의 최적 추출을 위해서 각각 50%, 70%, 80% 에탄올을 용매로 사용하였으며, 항균 활성은 Kirby-Bauert test, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)과 minimum bactericide concentration (MBC)에 의해서 평가되었다. Kirby-Bauert test 결과, R. undulatum L.의 뿌리 추출물은 대부분 두부 부패균에 대해서 항균 활성을 가지는 것으로 나타났으며, R. rhabarbarum L.의 줄기 추출물의 경우는 $20{\mu}g/disc$의 농도에서는 항균 활성이 거의 나타나질 않았으나, 고농도로 갈수록 높은 항균 활성을 나타내었다. 또한 R. palmatum L.의 줄기 추출물은 고농도로 갈수록 항균 활성이 높아졌으나, Pseudomonas aeruginosa에 관해서는 항균 활성이 나타나지 않았다. MIC와 MBC에 의한 항균 활성 평가실험에서는, 세 종류의 rhubarb 추출물 중에서 phenolic 화합물이 가장 많이 함유되어 있는 R. undulatum L.의 뿌리 추출물보다 R. rhabarbarum L.의 줄기 추출물이 MIC와 MBC 값이 낮았다. 이는 phenolic 화합물의 양 이외에 낮은 pH가 항균 활성에 영향을 준 것으로 판단된다. 본 연구를 통해서 rhubarb 추출물은 두부 부패에 관여하는 미생물에 대해서 항균 활성을 가지는 것으로 나타났으며, 천연 항균제로써 식품에 적용 가능성이 있는 것으로 평가되었다. 87.1%이었으며, 아침을 매일 먹는 채식남학생은 78.8%, 비채식남학생은 33.3%, 채식여학생 47.1%, 비채식여학생 39.6%이었다. 또한 식사의 양은 과식한다는 응답이 채식남학생 24.2%, 비채식남학생 38.1%, 채식여학생은 29.4%, 비채식여학생 40.6%으로 비책식군의 과식율이 높았다. 5. 식품 섭취빈도는 두부 및 콩제품을 매일 섭취하는 경우는 채식남학생 54.6%, 비채식남학생 16.7%, 채식여학생은 38.2%, 비채식여학생이 16.8%이었다. 우유 및 유제품을 매일 섭취하는 경우는 채식남학생 6.1%, 비채식남학생 33.3%, 채식여학생 14.7%, 비채식여학생은 21.8%이었으며, 녹차, 커피 등 차를 마시지 않는다는 비율은 채식남학생 69.7%, 비채식남학생 28.6%, 채식여학생 29.4%, 비채식여학생 25.7%이었다. 인스턴트 식품을 매일 섭취한다는 응답율이 채식남학생 9.1%, 비채식남학생 21.4%, 채식여학생은 17.7%, 비채식여학생은 14.9%이었다. 6. 운동, 체중 조절 등에 대한 조사 결과 항상 운동을 하는 경우는 채식남학생 30.3%, 비채식남학생 28.6%, 채식여학생 14.7%, 비채식여학생 18.8%이었으며 운동시간은 $1{\sim}2$시간 하는 경우는 채식남학생 30.3%, 비채식남학생 38.1%, 채식여학생은 8.8%, 비채식여학생은 17.8%이었다. 체중에 만족하는 정도를 보면 채식남학생 57.6%, 비채식남학생 23.8%, 채식여학생은 23.5%, 비채식여학생은 15.8%가 만족한다고 하였다. 체중 조절 경험에서 경험이 있는 경우가 채식남학생 3.0%, 비채식남학생 31.0%, 채식여학생은 23.5%, 비채식여학생 31.7%이었다. 7. 골밀도 BQI값과와 몇가지 요인의 상관관계를 살펴보았을때, 채식남학생은 영양보충제의 섭취와 유의적인 양의 상관관계를, 해조류의 섭취정도와 유의적인 음의 상관관계를 나타내었다.

On-site Output Survey and Feed Value Evaluation on Agro- industrial By-products (농산업부산물들에 대한 배출 현장 조사 및 사료적 가치 평가)

  • Kwak, W. S.;Yoon, J. S.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.251-264
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    • 2003
  • This study was conducted to make on-site survey on the output pattern and utilization situation of 19 by-products selected, to evaluate their nutritional characteristics, to find out a reliable index with which digestion of by-products can be predicted on the basis of chemical compositions analyzed and to diagnose the risk of using book values in the absence of the actual values analyzed for diet formulation. Production and utilization situations of by-products were quite various. Nutritionally, fruit processing by-products such as apple pomace (AP), pear pomace (PP), grape pomace (GP), and persimmon peel (PSP), and bakery by-products (BB) were classified as energy feeds. Soybean curd meal (SCM), animal by- products such as blood (BD), feather meal (FM) and poultry by-products (PB), and activated milk processing sludge (AMS) were classified as protein feeds. Soy hulls (SH), spent mushroom compost (SMC), barley malt hulls (BMH), waste paper (WP) and broiler litter (BL) were classified as roughage. Rumen contents (RC) and restaurant food waste (FW) were nutritionally analogous to complete diets for cattle and swine, respectively. Compared to soybean meal (SBM), BD and FM contained high (P<0.05) levels of amino acids and barley malt sprouts (BMS), AMS and FW contained low (P<0.05) levels of amino acids. Enzymatic (pepsin) digestibilities of proteinaceous feeds ranged between 99 and 66%. In vitro DM digestibility was high (P<0.05) in the order of FW, BB, AP, SH, PP, PSP, BMH, BMS, SCM, GP, RC, PB, BL, WP, SMC, AMS, FM and BD. In vitro DM digestibility had the highest correlation (r=0.68) with nonfibrous carbohydrate among chemical components. Differences between analyzed values of chemical components and book values were considerable. Caution is required in using book values when large amount of by-products are used in diets.

한국농촌의 식품금기에 관한 연구

  • 모수미
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.733-739
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    • 1966
  • A 371 agricultural households from 26 different communities in South Korea was subjected on a study of food taboos in January of 1966. To the pregnant women, those to whom a high protein diet is particurally important, as many as 14 different kinds of foods, mostly portein rich foods, were avoided to eat. It is believed that if duck is eaten while pregnant her baby may walk like a duck in later life. Some mother have a strong aversion to the rabbit meat that her unborn baby must be a harelip. It is feared to eat chicken, shark or carp by the pregnant mother for her baby may get a gooseflesh appearance, or fish scale-like skin in later life. It is thought that if mother eats soup made of meat borns, especially chicken bones, a disfigured baby may be born. Some area informed that if mother eats crab meat her future baby will always bubble. To the child-bearing mothers 13 different kinds of foods were avoided to eat. Some believe that if raddish kimchi, soybean curd, squash are eaten while dilivery that mother may get dental decay or to lose all her teeth. Other think that highly spiced raddish kimchi cause delivery difficult. To the lactating mothers 7 different items of foods were not recommended to eat. It is a common belief that eating green vegetables, especially fresh lettuce, are restricted that her baby may stool greenish. It is said that eating ginsen-chicken soup, or ginsen tea during lactating reduces breast milk secretion. To the weaning babies 7 different kinds of foods were prohibited to fee. Eggs are not eaten because mothers think her babies will start to talk very late. Eight different items of foods in cases of gastro-intestinal diseases, 5 items for liver disease, 7 items for high blood pressure as well as for paralysis were respectively restricted. It is said that meats including pork, beef, and chicken are neither desirable for the patients of high blood pressure nor those of paralysis. To the measles children 10 varieties of foods were restricted. Especially soybean products and meats were not encouraged to use for avoiding asecond attack of measles. For the common cold 8 different kinds of foods were aversed and men think that eating of soup of undria delays a recovery. For the tuberculosis 4 kinds of foods were prohibited to eat. It is said that wine, red pepper and ginsen will stimulate lung bleeding. Many mothers had a strong aversion to fermented shrimp and fish in case of style. and 5 different items of foods were restricted. In case of menstration not so many foods were restricted as other cases, but meat soup is not eaten in this condition in some areas. Majority of food taboos in Korean villages are neither based on tribal nor religious factors. But no one knows how, since what ages, from where, these food taboos have been transmitted and spread over the country. This survey found a great variety of food taboos, aversions, traditional beliefs and prohibitions latent unknown reseasons, or non-scientific conceptions, or completely different ideas from the modern medical aspect, or somewhat fallacious and superstitious beliefs. For the vascular disease contrasting approach were found between modern the oritical therapy and popular remedy among the rural populations who largely depend on the eastern medication. Further scientific study on either side should be done to lead the patient proper way. Many restricted foods such as rabbit, duck, chicken and fish are best resources of protein rich foods which are available in the village. Emphasis should be laid upon breaking down fallacious and supersititious food taboos through the extended nutrition education activities in order to improve food habit and good eating pattern for healthier and stronger generations of Korea.

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Microbiological Quality and Safety During Delivery of Food Ingredients Supplied to Elementary Schools : Vegetables and Processed Food (학교급식에 공급되는 식재료의 유통단계별 미생물 평가 -채소류, 가공식품-)

  • Kim, Yun-Hwa;Jun, So-Yun;Ryu, Kyung;Lee, Yeon-Kyung
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.17 no.5
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    • pp.586-594
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    • 2010
  • We evaluated changes in the microbiological quality and safety of food items (vegetables, seaweed, and processed food) supplied to elementary school food services to evaluate the distribution/delivery system. Pretreated vegetables, seaweed, and processed food were delivered to schools in refrigerated (${\leq}10^{\circ}C$) vans that made several delivery stops before arriving at the schools. During the distribution stage, total plate and coliforms counts were: bellflower roots $7.6{\times}10^5-6.7{\times}10^6$ and $5.8{\times}10^4-5.2{\times}10^5$ CFU/g; blanched bracken $4.5{\times}10^3-2.1{\times}10^5$, $5.0{\times}10^3-1{\times}10^4$ CFU/g; onion $1.2{\times}10^4-1.4{\times}10^4$, $5.0{\times}10$ CFU/g; soybean sprouts $9.6{\times}10^4-6.3{\times}10^7$ and $1.1{\times}10^3-1.2{\times}10^7$ CFU/g; soybean curd < $10-9.7{\times}10^5$ and < $10-2.3{\times}10^5$ CFU/g; and starch jelly < $10-3.8{\times}10^3$ and <10 CFU/g. Bacillus cereus < $10-4.1{\times}10^2$ CFU/g, Escherichia coli $1.0{\times}10-2.0{\times}10$ CFU/g, and Staphylococcus aureus $1.3{\times}10^2-4.1{\times}10^2$ CFU/g were detected on peeled bellflower, whereas B. cereus < $10-4.1{\times}10^2$ CFU/g, Listeria monocytogenes $1.0{\times}10-4.5{\times}10^2$ CFU/g, and S. aureus $1.8{\times}10^2-4.5{\times}10^2$ CFU/g, were detected on soybean sprouts. Most food items were double-wrapped in vinyl and placed in corrugated cardboard boxes prior to delivery, but the boxes, when placed in vans, were not segregated from other food items being delivered to schools and other destinations.

Relation between Health Status and Intake of Soy Isoflavone among Adult Women in Seoul (서울 거주 성인 여성의 대두 이소플라본 섭취와 건강과의 관련성)

  • Lee, Min-June;Sohn, Chun-Young;Park, Ok-Jin
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.218-230
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    • 2010
  • This study was conducted to survey isoflavone intake among adult women in menopause with diseases such as metabolic syndrome and osteoporosis and to analyze the relationship between each of these chronic diseases followed by isoflavone intake and the related health risk index. The average age of the subjects was 49.97 years old, while that of the pre-menopausal subjects was 45.14 years, and the post-menopausal subjects was 55.99 years. The average body mass index (BMI), waist-hip circumference, body fat percentage, blood pressure, blood sugar and blood lipid content of the post-menopausal subjects were higher in significant difference than those of the pre-menopausal subjects. The bone density of the hip and spine in post-menopausal subjects was lower in significant difference than that of the pre-menopausal subjects. After menopause, the subjects had a lower ratio of individuals at risk of anemia when compared with the subjects before menopause, but had higher health risk ratio related to each type of chronic disease, including obesity, hypertension, high cholesterol and osteoporosis than the subjects before menopause. The intake frequency of each soybean food was similar among subjects before/after menopause. The most common soybean based foods consumed by the subjects were soybean, soybean curd and soybean paste. The average daily intake level of isoflavone among subjects before menopause was 25.48 mg, while that of subjects after menopause was 32.25 mg. Evaluation of the distribution of the isoflavone level revealed that the pre-menopausal subjects consumed 3.29~78.36 mg and the post-menopausal subjects consumed 3.18~116.59 mg. The intake level by each individual varied greatly. The pre-menopausal subjects had a low BMI index and systolic blood pressure as much as their isoflavone intake level was high. Additionally, the post-menopausal subjects had a low menarche age and high menopause age when their isoflavone intake level was high, the BMI index and waist-hip circumference ratio was highest among individuals with lowest isoflavone intake level. This study showed that there was a possible relationship between soybean isoflavone intake and health problems such as obesity, high cholesterol, and osteoporosis in women after menopause with diseases such as metabolic syndrome and osteoporosis, even if this relationship was not great.