• Title, Summary, Keyword: specific IgY

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Antimicrobial activity of Specific IgY against Streptococcus mutans (Streptococcus mutans에 대한 specific IgY의 항균력)

  • Kim, Young-Boong;Rho, Jeong-Hae;Shon, Dong-Hwa;Kim, Hee-Joo;Seong, Ki-Seung;Lee, Nam-Hyung
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.32 no.6
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    • pp.1319-1325
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    • 2000
  • Antimicrobial effects of the specific IgY separated from eggs which were laid by hens vaccinated with Streptococcus mutans were investigated. The comparison tests of vaccination, addition levels of crude specific IgY, and innoculation concentration were applied by microscopic observation and turbidity test. Ten% addition of crude specific IgY obtained from vaccinated hens showed agglomerative clusters of S. mutans cells in supernatants and sediments, while crude IgY produced by non-vaccinated hens showed no cluster. IgY addition above 5% showed agglutinating clusters of most S. mutans cells and there was definite difference between IgY addition below 2.5% and above 5%. Concentration tests of crude IgY revealed that antimicrobial effects were differentiated by addition level and addition over 10% produced satisfactory results with turbidity test. The cluster size was dependent upon concentration of crude IgY addition. $10^5\;cfu/mL$ inoculation showed agglutinated cells and extent of agglomeration was proportional to cell numbers. Study of inoculation levels showed that 10% addition of crude IgY decreased turbidity effectively regardless of number of S. mutans cells. Plaque formation decreased to 75% with 15% addition of specific IgY concentration. These results implied that IgY separated from eggs laid by S. mutans-vaccinated hens might prevent dental caries caused by S. mutans.

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Antimicrobial Activity of Specific IgY against Salmonella gallinarum (Salmonella gallinarum에 대한 specific IgY의 항균력)

  • Kim, Mi-Hyun;Rho, Jeong-Hae;Kim, Young-Boong;Shon, Dong-Hwa;Jung, Soon-Hee
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.39 no.5
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    • pp.552-557
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    • 2007
  • In this study, we investigated the antimicrobial effects of anti-Salmonella gallinarum-specific IgY separated from egg yolk obtained from layers immunized by S. gallinarum. The comparison tests of vaccination, content of IgY and innoculation number were examined by microscopic observation, turbidity, and pH. The results show that the ratio of anti-S. gallinarum IgY in the total IgY was 23%. Also, the anti-S. gallinarum IgY had selectivity only to S, gallinarum. The 0.3% addition of anti-S. gallinarum-specific IgY resulted in agglutinating clusters of S, gallinarum cells, but the agglomeration didn#t occur in IgY from layers not immunized nor in the control group. Microscopic observation indicated agglomerative cells when IgY was added at 0.2% or higher, and the pH and turbidity examinations revealed that a suppression effect was remarkable in IgY at more than 0.1%. These results suggest the possibility that IgY extracted from eggs and obtained from layers immunized by S. gallinarum can be used to prevent fowl typhoid.

The In Vitro and In Vivo Efficacy of Hen IgY Against Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus

  • Kassim, Neema;Mtenga, Adelard B.;Shim, Won-Bo;Chung, Duck-Hwa
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.22 no.10
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    • pp.1423-1431
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    • 2012
  • The inhibitory effect of IgY against Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio vulnificus responsible for seafood-borne diseases was investigated in this study. Water-soluble fractions (WSF) of protein containing IgYs were isolated from the egg yolk of hens initially immunized with formalin-inactivated V. parahaemolyticus or V. vulnificus. Protein, total and specific IgY contents of the WSF were determined. The inhibitory and protective effects of IgYs on the growth of V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus were assayed in liquid medium and in mice. IgYs showed high affinity to their corresponding antigens with high titer from day 28 onwards. Protein contents and total IgY concentrations remained stable throughout the immunization period, whereas specific IgY concentrations increased steadily and reached a plateau at day 49. Specific IgY powder (150 mg/ml) significantly inhibited further multiplication of both V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus in liquid medium as compared with the control IgY. The bacteria count in mice feces was lower in mice pretreated with specific IgYs than in those pretreated with PBS or control IgY. Higher survival of mice was observed in the experimental groups pretreated with either anti-V. parahaemolyticus (75% survival) or anti-V. vulnificus (87% survival) IgYs, compared with those in the control groups pretreated with PBS or nonspecific IgY. All mice in the control groups died within three days after bacteria inoculation; hence, the protective effect of specific IgYs against infection caused by V. parahaemolyticus and V. vulnificus was demonstrated.

Effect of Diet Supplements on the Production of Anti-Dental Caries Hen's Eggs by Immunization of Streptococcus mutans (Streptococcus mutans 균의 면역과 사료첨가제가 충치 예방용 계란의 생산에 미치는 영향)

  • Rho, Jeong-Hae;Han, Chan-Kyu;Kim, Young-Boong;Lee, Nam-Hyung
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.333-339
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    • 2005
  • To increase IgY in egg yolks, hens were fed a feed supplemented with kelp meal $4\%$ cinnamon $0.3\%$ and mint $2\%$ respectively, and immunized 5 times with Streptococcus mutans(S. mutans) at 2 week intervals. Groups fed experimental feeds without immunization showed higher laying rate than the control group, without supplementary feed and immunization. After the immunization, the laying rates had been decreasing due to the stress of immunization. The laying rate was recovered after the termination of immunization. Egg weight was not affected by the immunization but diets. Feed intake was dependent on the laying rate. Total IgY concentration in eggs laid from hens fed feeds containing supplementary feeds was higher than that of control. Especially, total IgY was increased up to $7.9\%$ in eggs laid from hens fed feeds supplemented with $4\%$ of kelp meal. Anti-S. mutans IgY was detected at 4 weeks after first immunization. Activity of anti-S. mutans IgY was sustained at 5 week after the final immunization. As the average concentration of specific IgY during the experimental period showed that eggs from hens fed the feed containing $4\%$ of kelp meal increased the specific IgY by $8.5\%$ kelp meal supplement improved specific IgY production by immunization.

Effect of Charcoal on the Production of Anti-Salmonella gallinarum IgY (Anti-Salmonella gallinarum Immunoglobulin 생산을 위한 계란의 이용)

  • Rho, Jeong-Hae;Kim, Mi-Hyun;Kim, Young-Boong;Jung, Soon-Hee
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.222-227
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    • 2007
  • In order to produce the antibody rich eggs against Salmonella gallinarum(S.G.) causing fowl typhoid, the productions of immunoglobulin in eggs were compared and examined with the feed additives, the variety of adjuvants in vaccines to layers, and the existence of additive antigens other than target microorganism. The examination of the average contents of specific IgY in immunized group by supplying hardwood charcoal showed that the group supplied with 0.5% hardwood charcoal had the highest contents, implying that the supply of hardwood charcoal promoted the production of specific IgY. Adjuvant appeared to have little effect on the average contents of total IgY, but specific IgY contents increased in the immunized group with Freund's adjuvant. Addition of BCG in adjuvant treatment increased specific IgY however, this feature was not seen in aluminum hydroxide treated group. Immunization at 15 week layers resulted in higher laying rate than immunization at 21 week and addition of hardwood charcoal in feed recovered laying rate. It was therefore, concluded that the feed supplement, such as hardwood charcoal followed by a proper immunization program concerning adjuvant, vaccination period and supplementary microorganism hastened the production of IgY.

Formation and Processing Properties of Anti-Salmonella gallinarum Specific lgY from Yolk (난황 중의 항-Salmonella gallinarum 특이 항체 생성 및 가공 특성)

  • Rho, J.H.;Kim, M.H.;Kim, Y.B.;Sung, K.S.;Lee, N.H.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.47 no.4
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    • pp.637-646
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    • 2005
  • Immunization of layers against Salmonella gallinarum(S.G.) which causes fowl typhoid resulted in production of anti-S.G. IgY rich eggs. Water soluble fraction was obtained from egg yolk using various gum solutions such as 0.1%(Sigma C-3889) λ-carrageenan; 1% and 2% cold water soluble carrageenan; 1% and 2% hot water soluble carrageenan; and 1% cold water soluble carrageenan with 1% hot water soluble carrageenan. Among them, λ-carrageenan 0.1% treatment showed a high recovery rate, possessing high IgY contents. In the range of pH 5-9, more than 70 percent of IgY was existent. Moreover, Anti-S.G. IgY was relatively heat-stable. This study revealed that immunoglobulin against fowl typhoid could be produced successfully by layers and the IgY was sustainable to further processing due to its pH and heat stability. IgY is promising to be utilized for prevention and treatment of fowl typhoid in industrial scale.

The Role of Specific IgG in Phagocytosis of Actinobacillus(Haemophilus) Actinomycetemcomitans Y4 by Human Neutrophils (다형핵 백혈구의 Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans Y4 균주 탐식시 특이항체의 역할)

  • Kim, Jin-Myung;Chung, Chong-Pyoung;Lee, Young-Hee;Lee, Jin-Yong
    • The Journal of the Korean Society for Microbiology
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.441-446
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    • 1986
  • Previous studies have demonstrated that phagocytosis of encapsulated bacteria needs the opsonization of bacteria with immunoglobulin and complement. Several investigators have studied the role of specific antibody to the bacteria. The purpose of this study is to investigate the role of specific anti-Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans Y4($A{\alpha}Y4$) antibody, which was obtained from the immunized rabbit serum for phagocytosis of $A{\alpha}Y4$ by PMNL. For this study, specific and nonspecific IgG were separated from the sera of the rabbits and PMNL were isolated from 15 healthy adults. By an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, the results showed that the binding capacity of anti-$A{\alpha}Y4$ IgG to $A{\alpha}Y4$ was much higher than that of nonspecific IgG; 0.75 and 0.14(O.D. at 400nm), respectively. The oxygen consumption of PMNL, phagocytizing $A{\alpha}Y4$ which was opsonized with specific $A{\alpha}Y4$ IgG(37.13 nmol/min/$1{\times}10^7$ PMNL), was significantly higher than that with nonspecific IgG(27.95 nmol/min/$1{\times}10^7$ PMNL, p<0.01). In immunofluorescence microscopic examination, the difference between the numbers of the ingested $A{\alpha}Y4$ opsonized with specific anti-$A{\alpha}Y4$ IgG and nonspecific IgG reached to statistically significant level; $184{\pm}11.4$ and $133.2{\pm}8.3$ per 100 PMNL, p<0.05. These results suggest that specific anti-$A{\alpha}Y4$ IgG has a significant role in PMNL phagocytosis of encapsulated $A{\alpha}Y4$ and also it can be available to adopt this system to develop anti-capsular antibody to $A{\alpha}Y4$ for enhancing and emphasizing the phagocytic activity against this bacterium.

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Inhibitory Effects of Chicken Egg Yolk Antibody on Infection of Escherichia coli in Macrophage

  • Lee, Jin-Ju;Kim, Dong-Hyeok;Lim, Jeong-Ju;Kim, Dae-Geun;Kim, Gon-Sup;Min, Won-Gi;Lee, Hu-Jang;Rhee, Man-Hee;Chang, Hong-Hee;Kim, Suk
    • Journal of agriculture & life science
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    • v.46 no.2
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    • pp.107-114
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    • 2012
  • The present study evaluated the potential use of immunoglobulin prepared from egg yolk of chickens immunized with Escherichia coli K88 (IgY-Ec) in the control of E. coli K88 infection in RAW 264.7 murine macrophage. The binding activity of IgY-Ec against E. coli K88 surface protein was more specific and increased than control IgY. In infection assay of E. coli in macrophage, the specific IgY-Ec to E. coli K88 remarkably inhibited the phagocytic activity comparing to nonspecific IgY (p<0.001). In adherence assay, bacterial adhesion on macrophage cells was definitely reduced by preincubation of IgY-Ec compared with nonspecific IgY (p<0.05). These findings suggested that IgY-Ec have the protective effects against pathogens and IgY-based diets may have potential benefits for preventing or treating various infections in domestic animals.

Properties of Anti-S. mutans IgY Separated from Egg Yolk (난황으로 부터 항충치 항체의 분리 및 그 특성)

  • Shon, Dong-Hwa;Rho, Jeong-Hae;Kim, Young-Boong;Han, Chan-Kyu;Sung, Ki-Seong;Lee, Nam-Hyung
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.30 no.5
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    • pp.1029-1034
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    • 1998
  • Chick antibodies (IgY) raised against Streptococcus mutans (serotype c) were separated from egg yolk and their properties were investigated. The purity of IgY extracts prepared by the method of ${\lambda}-carrageenan$, $gammaYolk^{TM}$, and $EGGstract^{TM}$ was 20%, 46%, and 48%, respectively, and the yields of IgY extracts from a gram yolk were 11. 3 mg, 1.7 mg, and 1.8mg, respectively. Quantitative immunoprecipitation test showed that specific IgY content of crude IgY prepared by ${\lambda}-carrageenan$ method was 12.2%, which means that 0.85 g of crude IgY from an egg yolk (15 g) contains about 100 mg of specific IgY. When the reactivity of the specific IgY towards 3 caries-inducing strains (serotype: b, c, f) was examined, the strains cultured in sucrose-added medium showed higher reactivity (the orders were c(+), f(+), b(+)) than those cultured in sucrose-free medium. Heat and pH stability of specific IgY was good, for crude IgY contained 50% of antibody activity after heat treatment at $70^{\circ}C$ for 5 min and they were stable at pH $4{\sim}8$.

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Egg Antibody Farming and IgY Technology for Food and Biomedical Applications (식품과 생의학을 위한 계란 항체생산과 IgY 기술의 활용)

  • Sim, Jeong S.;Sunwoo, Hoon H.
    • Proceedings of the Korea Society of Poultry Science Conference
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    • pp.37-54
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    • 2003
  • It has been recognized that the hen. like its mammalian counterparts. provides young chicks with antibodies as protection against hostile invaders. This system facilitates the transfer of specific antibodies from serum to egg yolk. and provides a supply of antibodies called immunoglobulin Y(IgY) to the developing embryo and the hatched chick. The protection against pathogens that the relatively immuno-incompetent newly hatched chick has. is through transmission of antibodies from the mother via the egg. Egg yolk. therefore. can be loaded with a large amount of IgY against pathogens which can immobilize the existing or invading pathogens during the embryo development or in day-old chicks. Thus. the immunization of laying hens to various pathogens results in production of different antigen-specific IgY in eggs. Egg yolk contains 8~20 mg of immunoglobulins (IgY) per $m\ell$ or 136~340 mg per yolk suggesting that more than 30 g of IgY can be obtained from one immunized hen in a year. By immunizing laying hens with antigens and collecting IgY from egg yolk. low cost antibodies at less than $10 per g compared to more than $20.000 per g of mammalian IgG can be obtained. This IgY technology opens new potential market applications in medicine. public health veterinary medicine and food safety. A broader use of IgY technology could be applied as biological or diagnostic tool. nut-raceutical or functional food development. oral-supplementation for prophylaxis. and as pathogen-specific antimicrobial agents for infectious disease control. This paper has emphasized that when IgY-loaded chicken eggs are produced and consumed. the specific antibody binds. immobilizes and consequently reduces or inhibits the growth or colony forming abilities of microbial pathogens. This concept could serve as an alternative agent to replace the use of antibiotics. since today. more and more antibiotics are less effective in the treatment of infections. due to the emergence of drug-resistant bacteria.

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