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Growth and optical conductivity properties for MnAl2S4 single crystal thin film by hot wall epitaxy method (Hot Wall Epitaxy(HWE)법에 의한 MnAl2S4 단결정 박막 성장과 광전도 특성)

  • You, Sangha;Lee, Kijeong;Hong, Kwangjoon;Moon, Jongdae
    • Journal of the Korean Crystal Growth and Crystal Technology
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    • v.24 no.6
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    • pp.229-236
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    • 2014
  • A stoichiometric mixture of evaporating materials for $MnAl_2S_4$ single crystal thin films was prepared from horizontal electric furnace. To obtain the single crystal thin films, $MnAl_2S_4$ mixed crystal was deposited on thoroughly etched semi-insulating GaAs(100) substrate by the Hot Wall Epitaxy (HWE) system. The source and substrate temperatures were $630^{\circ}C$ and $410^{\circ}C$, respectively. The crystalline structure of the single crystal thin films was investigated by the photoluminescence and double crystal X-ray diffraction (DCXD). The temperature dependence of the energy band gap of the $MnAl_2S_4$ obtained from the absorption spectra was well described by the Varshni's relation, $E_g(T)=3.7920eV-5.2729{\times}10^{-4}eV/K)T^2/(T+786 K)$. In order to explore the applicability as a photoconductive cell, we measured the sensitivity (${\gamma}$), the ratio of photocurrent to dark current (pc/dc), maximum allowable power dissipation (MAPD) and response time. The results indicated that the photoconductive characteristic were the best for the samples annealed in S vapour compare with in Mn, Al, air and vacuum vapour. Then we obtained the sensitivity of 0.93, the value of pc/dc of $1.10{\times}10^7$, the MAPD of 316 mW, and the rise and decay time of 14.8 ms and 12.1 ms, respectively.

The role of porous graphite plate for high quality SiC crystal growth by PVT method (고품질 4H-SiC 단결정 성장을 위한 다공성 흑연 판의 역할)

  • Lee, Hee-Jun;Lee, Hee-Tae;Shin, Hee-Won;Park, Mi-Seon;Jang, Yeon-Suk;Lee, Won-Jae;Yeo, Im-Gyu;Eun, Tai-Hee;Kim, Jang-Yul;Chun, Myoung-Chul;Lee, Si-Hyun;Kim, Jung-Gon
    • Journal of the Korean Crystal Growth and Crystal Technology
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.51-55
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    • 2015
  • The present research is focused on the effect of porous graphite what is influenced on the 4H-SiC crystal growth by PVT method. We expect that it produces more C-rich and a change of temperature gradient for polytype stability of 4H-SiC crystal as adding the porous graphite in the growth cell. The SiC seeds and high purity SiC source materials were placed on opposite side in a sealed graphite crucible which was surrounded by graphite insulator. The growth temperature was around $2100{\sim}2300^{\circ}C$ and the growth pressure was 10~30 Torr of an argon pressure with 5~15 % nitrogen. 2 inch $4^{\circ}$ off-axis 4H-SiC with C-face (000-1) was used as a seed material. The porous graphite plate was inserted on SiC powder source to produce a more C-rich for polytype stability of 4H-SiC crystal and uniform radial temperature gradient. While in case of the conventional crucible, various polytypes such as 6H-, 15R-SiC were observed on SiC wafers, only 4H-SiC polytype was observed on SiC wafers prepared in porous graphite inserted crucible. The defect level such as MP and EP density of SiC crystal grown in the conventional crucible was observed to be higher than that of porous graphite inserted crucible. The better crystal quality of SiC grown using porous graphite plate was also confirmed by rocking curve measurement and Raman spectra analysis.

Antioxidant and skin whitening effects of Inonotus obliquus methanol extract (차가버섯 메탄올 추출물의 항산화 및 미백효과)

  • Guk, Min-Hee;Kim, Dong-Ha;Lee, Chan;Jeong, Eun-Seon;Choi, Eun-Jae;Lee, Jae-Seong;Lee, Tae-Soo
    • Journal of Mushroom
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.99-106
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    • 2013
  • This study was initiated to investigate the skin whitening activities of methanol extracts from fruiting bodies of I. obliquus. The total polyphenols and flavonoids contents of I. obliquus methanol extracts were 31.85 mg/g and 28.33 mg/g, respectively. The methanol extract of the mushroom treated on B16/F10 melanoma and NIH3T3 cell lines did not show cytotoxic activity. 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH) free radical scavenging activity and chelating activity on ferrous ions of I. obliquus methanol extract were lower than those of positive control, tocopherol and BHT. The tyrosinase and L-DOPA inhibitory activities of the extract were lower than those of positive control, kojic acid and ascorbic acid. The tyrosinase and melanin synthesis inhibitory activities of the melanoma cells treated with the extract were comparable with positive control, arbutin. The experimental results suggested that methanol extract of I. obliquus contained inhibitory activities of tyrosinase and melanin synthesis in the B16/F10 melanoma cells by dose dependent manner. High ultra-violet absorption spectra in the range of 280-350 nm showed that I. obliquus extract could protect skin from UV radiation damage. Therefore, fruiting bodies of I. obliquus can be used for developing skin whitening, anti-UV and skin care agents.

Preliminary Study on Electron Paramagnetic Resonance(EPR) Signal Properties of Mobile Phone Components for Dose Estimation in Radiation Accident (방사선사고시 피폭선량평가를 위한 휴대전화 부품의 전자상자성공명(EPR) 특성에 대한 예비 연구)

  • Park, Byeong Ryong;Ha, Wi-Ho;Park, Sunhoo;Lee, Jin Kyeong;Lee, Seung-Sook
    • Journal of Radiation Protection and Research
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.194-201
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    • 2015
  • We have investigated the EPR signal properties in 12 components of two mobile phones (LCD, OLED) using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometer in this study.EPR measurements were performed at normal atmospheric conditions using Bruker EXEXSYS-II E500 spectrometer with X-band bridge, and samples were irradiated by $^{137}Cs$ gamma-ray source. To identify the presence of radiation-induced signal (RIS), the EPR spectra of each sample were measured unirradiated and irradiated at 50 Gy. Then, dose-response curve and signal intensity variating by time after irradiation were measured. As a result, the signal intensity increased after irradiation in all samples except the USIM plastic and IC chip. Among the samples, cover glass(CG), lens, light guide plate(LGP) and diffusion sheet have shown fine linearity ($R^2$ > 0.99). Especially, the LGP had ideal characteristics for dosimetry because there were no signal in 0 Gy and high rate of increase in RIS. However, this sample showed weakness in fading. Signal intensity of LGP and Diffusion Sheet decreased by 50% within 72 hours after irradiation, while signals of Cover Glass and Lens were stably preserved during the short period of time. In order to apply rapidly EPR dosimetry using mobile phone components in large-scale radiation accidents, further studies on signal differences for same components of the different mobile phone, fading, pretreatment of samples and processing of background signal are needed. However, it will be possible to do dosimetry by dose-additive method or comparative method using unirradiated same product in small-scale accident.

Evaluation of Radiation Dose for Dual Energy CBCT Using Multi-Grid Device (에너지 변조 필터를 이용한 이중 에너지 콘빔 CT의 선량 평가)

  • Ju, Eun Bin;Ahn, So Hyun;Cho, Sam Ju;Keum, Ki Chang;Lee, Rena
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.31-36
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    • 2016
  • The paper discusses radiation dose of dual energy CT on which copper modulation layer, is mounted in order to improve diagnostic performance of the dual energy CT. The radiation dose is estimated using MCNPX and its results are compared with that of the conventional dual energy CT system. CT X-ray spectra of 80 and 120 kVp, which are usually used for thorax, abdominal, head, and neck CT scans, were generated by the SPEC78 code and were used for the source specification 'SDEF' card for MCNPX dose modeling. The copper modulation layer was located 20 cm away from a source covering half of the X-ray window. The radiation dose was measured as changing its thickness from 0.5 to 2.0 mm at intervals of 0.5 mm. Since the MCNPX tally provides only normalized values to a single particle, the dose conversion coefficients of F6 tally for the modulation layer-based dual energy CBCT should be calculated for matching the modeling results into the actual dose. The dose conversion coefficient is $7.2*10^4cGy/output$ that is obtained from dose calibration curve between F6 tally and experimental results in which GAFCHORMIC EBT3 films were exposed by an already known source. Consequently, the dose of the modulation layer-based dual energy cone beam CT is 33~40% less than that of the single energy CT system. On the basis of the results, it is considered that scattered dose produced by the copper modulation layer is very small. It shows that the modulation layer-based dual energy CBCT system can effectively reduce radiation dose, which is the major disadvantage of established dual energy CT.

Phytochemical Analysis and Anti-cancer Investigation of Boswellia Serrata Bioactive Constituents In Vitro

  • Ahmed, Hanaa H;Abd-Rabou, Ahmed A;Hassan, Amal Z;Kotob, Soheir E
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.16 no.16
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    • pp.7179-7188
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    • 2015
  • Cancer is a major health obstacle around the world, with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and colorectal cancer (CRC) as major causes of morbidity and mortality. Nowadays, there isgrowing interest in the therapeutic use of natural products for HCC and CRC, owing to the anticancer activity of their bioactive constituents. Boswellia serrata oleo gum resin has long been used in Ayurvedic and traditional Chinese medicine to alleviate a variety of health problems such as inflammatory and arthritic diseases. The current study aimed to identify and explore the in vitro anticancer effect of B. Serrata bioactive constituents on HepG2 and HCT 116 cell lines. Phytochemical analysis of volatile oils of B. Serrata oleo gum resin was carried out using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Oleo-gum-resin of B. Serrata was then successively extracted with petroleum ether (extract 1) and methanol (extract 2). Gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) analysis of the lipoidal matter was also performed. In addition, a methanol extract of B. Serrata oleo gum resin was phytochemically studied using column chromatography (CC) and thin layer chromatography (TLC) to obtain four fractions (I, II, III and IV). Sephadex columns were used to isolate ${\beta}$-boswellic acid and identification of the pure compound was done using UV, mass spectra, $^1H$ NMR and $^{13}C$ NMR analysis. Total extracts, fractions and volatile oils of B. Serrata oleo-gum resin were subsequently applied to HCC cells (HepG2 cell line) and CRC cells (HCT 116 cell line) to assess their cytotoxic effects. GLC analysis of the lipoidal matter resulted in identification of tricosane (75.32%) as a major compound with the presence of cholesterol, stigmasterol and ${\beta}$-sitosterol. Twenty two fatty acids were identified of which saturated fatty acids represented 25.6% and unsaturated fatty acids 74.4% of the total saponifiable fraction. GC/MS analysis of three chromatographic fractions (I,II and III) of B. Serrata oleo gum resin revealed the presence of pent-2-ene-1,4-dione, 2-methyl- levulinic acid methyl ester, 3,5- dimethyl- 1-hexane, methyl-1-methylpentadecanoate, 1,1- dimethoxy cyclohexane, 1-methoxy-4-(1-propenyl)benzene and 17a-hydroxy-17a-cyano, preg-4-en-3-one. GC/MS analysis of volatile oils of B. Serrata oleo gum resin revealed the presence of sabinene (19.11%), terpinen-4-ol (14.64%) and terpinyl acetate (13.01%) as major constituents. The anti-cancer effect of two extracts (1 and 2) and four fractions (I, II, III and IV) as well as volatile oils of B. Serrata oleo gum resin on HepG2 and HCT 116 cell lines was investigated using SRB assay. Regarding HepG2 cell line, extracts 1 and 2 elicited the most pronounced cytotoxic activity with $IC_{50}$ values equal 1.58 and $5.82{\mu}g/mL$ at 48 h, respectively which were comparable to doxorubicin with an $IC_{50}$ equal $4.68{\mu}g/mL$ at 48 h. With respect to HCT 116 cells, extracts 1 and 2 exhibited the most obvious cytotoxic effect; with $IC_{50}$ values equal 0.12 and $6.59{\mu}g/mL$ at 48 h, respectively which were comparable to 5-fluorouracil with an $IC_{50}$ equal $3.43{\mu}g/mL$ at 48 h. In conclusion, total extracts, fractions and volatile oils of B. Serrata oleo gum resin proved their usefulness as cytotoxic mediators against HepG2 and HCT 116 cell lines with different potentiality (extracts > fractions > volatile oil). In the two studied cell lines the cytotoxic acivity of each of extract 1 and 2 was comparable to doxorubicin and 5-fluorouracil, respectively. Extensive in vivo research is warranted to explore the precise molecular mechanisms of these bioactive natural products in cytotoxicity against HCC and CRC cells.

Establishment of discrimination system using multivariate analysis of FT-IR spectroscopy data from different species of artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus L.) (FT-IR 스펙트럼 데이터 기반 다변량통계분석기법을 이용한 아티초크의 대사체 수준 품종 분류)

  • Kim, Chun Hwan;Seong, Ki-Cheol;Jung, Young Bin;Lim, Chan Kyu;Moon, Doo Gyung;Song, Seung Yeob
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.324-330
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    • 2016
  • To determine whether FT-IR spectral analysis based on multivariate analysis for whole cell extracts can be used to discriminate between artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus L.) plants at the metabolic level, leaves of ten artichoke plants were subjected to Fourier transform infrared(FT-IR) spectroscopy. FT-IR spectral data from leaves were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA), partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA). FT-IR spectra confirmed typical spectral differences between the frequency regions of 1,700-1,500, 1,500-1,300 and $1,100-950cm^{-1}$, respectively. These spectral regions reflect the quantitative and qualitative variations of amide I, II from amino acids and proteins ($1,700-1,500cm^{-1}$), phosphodiester groups from nucleic acid and phospholipid ($1,500-1,300cm^{-1}$) and carbohydrate compounds ($1,100-950cm^{-1}$). PCA revealed separate clusters that corresponded to their species relationship. Thus, PCA could be used to distinguish between artichoke species with different metabolite contents. PLS-DA showed similar species classification of artichoke. Furthermore these metabolic discrimination systems could be used for the rapid selection and classification of useful artichoke cultivars.

Rapid metabolic discrimination between Zoysia japonica and Zoysia sinica based on multivariate analysis of FT-IR spectroscopy (FT-IR스펙트럼 데이터의 다변량통계분석 기반 들잔디와 갯잔디의 대사체 수준 신속 식별 체계)

  • Yang, Dae-Hwa;Ahn, Myung Suk;Jeong, Ok-Cheol;Song, In-Ja;Ko, Suk-Min;Jeon, Ye-In;Kang, Hong-Gyu;Sun, Hyeon-Jin;Kwon, Yong-Ik;Kim, Suk Weon;Lee, Hyo-Yeon
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.43 no.2
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    • pp.213-222
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    • 2016
  • This study aims to establish a system for the rapid discrimination of Zoysia species using metabolite fingerprinting of FT-IR spectroscopy combined with multivariate analysis. Whole cell extracts from leaves of 19 identified Zoysia japonica, 6 identified Zoysia sinica, and 38 different unidentified Zoysia species were subjected to Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). PCA (principle component analysis) and PLS-DA (partial least square discriminant analysis) from FT-IR spectral data successfully divided the 25 identified turf grasses into two groups, representing good agreement with species identification using molecular markers. PC (principal component) loading values show that the $1,100{\sim}950cm^{-1}$ region of the FT-IR spectra are important for the discrimination of Zoysia species. A dendrogram based on hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) from the PCA and PLS-DA data of turf grasses showed that turf grass samples were divided into Zoysia japonica and Zoysia sinica in a species-dependent manner. PCA and PLS-DA from FT-IR spectral data of Zoysia species identified and unidentified by molecular markers successfully divided the 49 turf grasses into Z. japonica and Z. sinica. In particular, PLS-DA and the HCA dendrogram could mostly discriminate the 47 Z. japonica grasses into two groups depending on their origins (mountainous areas and island area). Considering these results, we suggest that FT-IR fingerprinting combined with multivariate analysis could be applied to discriminate between Zoysia species as well as their geographical origins of various Zoysia species.

Studies on Degradation of Nucleic acid and Related Compounds by Microbial Enzymes (미생물 효소에 의한 핵산 및 그의 관련물질의 분해에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Sang-Soon
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.111-129
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    • 1970
  • As a series of studies on the nucleic acids and their related substances 210 samples were collected from 76 places such as farm soil, compost of heap, nuruk and meju to obtain microbial strains which produce 5'-phosphodiesterase. From these samples total of 758 strains were isolated by the use of dilution pour plate method. For all isolated strains primary screening of the productivity of RNA depolymerase was performed and useful strains with regard to 5'-phosphodiesterase productivities were identified. For these useful strains optimum condition, the effect of various compounds on the activity of 5'-phosphodiesterase, and the optimum condition for enzyme reaction were discussed. The quantitative of 5'-mononucleotides produced by the action of 5'-phosphodiesterase was performed using anion-exchange column chromatography and their identified was done by paper chromatography, thinlayer chromatography, ultra violet spectrophotometry, and characteristic color reaction using carbazole and schiff's reagent. (1) Penicillium citreo-viride PO 2-11 and Streptomyces aureus SOA 4-21 from soil were identified as a potent 5'-phosphodiesterase producing strains. (2) Optimum culture conditions for Penicillium citreo-viride PO 2-11 strain isolated were found to be pH 5.0 and $30^{\circ}C$, and the optimum conditions for enzyme action of 5'-phosphodiesterase were pH 4.2 and $60^{\circ}C$. Best carbon source for the production of 5'-phosphodiesterase was found to be sucrose and ammonium nitrate for nitrogen source. Addition of 0.01% corn steep liquor or yeast extract exhibited 20% increase in the amount of 5'-phosphodiesterase production compared to the control. 5'-phosphodiesterase produced by this strain was activated by $Mg^{++},\;Ca^{++},\;Zn^{++},\;Mn^{++}$ and was inhibited by EDTA, citrate, $Cu^{++},\;CO^{++}$. 5'-phosphodiesterase produced 5'-mononucleotide from RNA at a rate of 65.81%, and among the 5'-mononucleotides accumulated 5'-GMP only was found to have flavorous and the strain was also found lack of 5'-AMP deaminase. Productivity of flavorous 5'-GMP was found to be 186.7mg per gram of RNA. (3) Optimum culture canditions for the isolated Streptomyces aureus SOA 4-21 strain were pH 7.0 and $28^{\circ}C$, and the optimum conditions for the action of 5'-phosphodiesterase were pH 7.3 and $50^{\circ}C$. The best carbon source for 5'-phosphodiesterase production was found to be glucose and that of nitrogen was asparagine. Addition of 0.01% yeast extract exhibited increased productivity of 5'-phosphodiesterase by 40% compared to the non-added control. 5'-phosphodiesterase produced by this strain was activated by $Ca^{++},\;Zn^{++},\;Mn^{++}$ and was inhibited by citrate, EDTA, $Cu^{++}$. It was also found that the strain produce 5'-AMP deaminase in addition to 5'-phosphodiesterase. For this reason although decomposition rate was 63.58% the accumulation of 5'-AMP, 5'-CMP, 5'-GMP and 5'-UMP occurred by the breakdown of RNA. In the course of these reaction 5'-AMP deaminase converted 60% of 5'-AMP thus produced into 5'-IMP and flavorous 5'-mono nucleotide production was significantly increased by this strain over the above mentioned one. Production rates were found to be 171.8mg per grain of RNA for 5'-IMP and 148.2mg per gram of RNA for 5'-GMP, respectively.

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$Hg^{2+}$-promoted Aquation and Chelation of cis-[Co(en)$_2$(L)Cl]$^{2+}$ (L = Amines) Complexes ($Hg^{2+}$에 의한 cis-[Co(en)$_2$(L)Cl]$^{2+}$ (L = 아민류) 착물의 아쿠아화 및 킬레이트화 반응)

  • Chang Eon Oh;Doo Cheon Yoon;Bok Jo Kim;Myung Ki Doh
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.565-578
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    • 1992
  • It has been suggested that Hg$^{2+}$-promoted reaction of a series of cis-[Co(en)$_2$(L)Cl]$^{2+}$ (en = 1,2-diaminoethane) with L = NH$_3$, NH$_2$CH$_3$, glyOC$_2$H$_5$, glyOCH$_3$, dl-alaOC$_2$H$_5$, NH$_2$CH$_2$CONH$_2$, and NH$_2$CH$_2$CN proceeds by dissociative interchange(I$_d$) mechanism from kinetic data, circular dichroism spectra, analyses of products, and the values of m(Grunwald-Winstein plot) using Y (solvent ionizing power) in aqueous solution and in mixed aqueous-organic solvent. It has been found that chloride replacement by water (aquation) for the series with L = NH$_3$ and NH$_2$CH$_3$ and chelation of ligand L to Co(Ⅲ) for the series with L = glyOC$_2$H$_5$, glyOCH$_3$, dl-alaOC$_2$H$_5$, NH$_2$CH$_2$CONH$_2$, and NH$_2$CH$_2$CN occurs, respectively. The rate constants on Hg$^{2+}$-induced reaction of the series except cis-[Co(en)$_2$(NH$_2$CH$_2$CN)Cl]$^{2+}$ were increased with increasing the contents of ethanol in mixed water-ethanol solvents. In mixed water-30${\%}$ organic solvents, the rate constants of the series except cis-[Co(en)$_2$(NH$_2$CH$_2$CN)Cl]$^{2+}$ have also been measured in the order 30${\%}$ 2-propanol-water > 30${\%}$ ethanol-water > water. However, the rate constants of cis-[Co(en)$_2$(NH$_2$CH$_2$CN)Cl]$^{2+}$ were reversed. The rate constants of the series with L= NH$_3$ and NH$_2$CH$_3$ were related to ligand field parameter (${\Delta}$), but those of the series with L = glyOC$_2$H$_5$, glyOCH$_3$, dl-alaOC$_2$H$_5$, NH$_2$CH$_2$CONH$_2$, NH$_2$CH$_2$CN were not. The reaction between the series and Hg2+ in aqueous media containing NO$_3^-$ has been investigated. The results for the reaction do not alter the mechanism, but the rate only was altered.

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