• Title, Summary, Keyword: spinal cord

Search Result 1,314, Processing Time 0.051 seconds

Revisit Spinal Shock: Pattern of Reflex Evolution during Spinal Shock

  • Ko, Hyun-Yoon
    • Korean Journal of Neurotrauma
    • /
    • v.14 no.2
    • /
    • pp.47-54
    • /
    • 2018
  • When the spinal cord is suddenly severed, all the fundamental functions of the spinal cord below the level of injury including the spinal cord reflexes are immediately depressed, which is referred to as spinal shock. The resolution of spinal shock occurs over a period of days to months, and spinal shock slowly transitions to spasticity. The definition of spinal shock and the pattern of reflex recovery or evolution remains as an issue of debate and controversy. The identification of clinical signs that determine the duration of spinal shock is controversial. The underlying mechanisms of spinal shock are also not clearly defined. Various authors have defined the termination of spinal shock as the appearance of the bulbocavernosus reflex, the recovery of deep tendon reflexes, or the return of reflexic detrusor activity. However, many questions remain to be answered, such as: When should we define spinal shock as the end? What types of reflexes appear first among polysynaptic cutaneous reflexes, monosynaptic deep tendon reflexes, and pathological reflexes? Should it include changes in autonomic reflexes such as a detrusor reflex?

Isokinetic Evaluation Comparison of Shoulder Girdle Muscles in the Spinal Cord Injury Group and Normal Young Adults Group (척수 손상 환자와 정상 성인과의 견관절 주위근에 대한 등속성 근력 평가 비교)

  • Moon, Sung-Ki;Chae, Soo-Sung
    • Journal of Korean Physical Therapy Science
    • /
    • v.2 no.1
    • /
    • pp.367-373
    • /
    • 1995
  • The purpose of this studied was the comparison with shoulder girdle muscles of isokinetic evaluation in the spinal cord injury group, and adults normal group. Data was collected from 20 cases spinal cord injury from January 10. 1994 to February 10, 1995 in a Chungnam University hospital and adults normal group to 20 cases. The results were as follows; 1. Low speeds peak torque was higher spinal cord group than normal group shoulder girdle muscles of flexor, extensor, external rotator showed statistically significant in spinal cord injury group(p<0.05). Against normal groups shoulder girdle muscles of internal rotator showed statistically significant in normal group(p<0.05). 2. High speeds peak torque was higher spinal cord group than normal group shoulder girdle muscles of flexor, extensor, showed statistically significant in spinal cord injury group(p<0.05). 3. High speeds total work was higher spinal cord group than normal group shoulder girdle muscles of flexor, extensor, external rotator showed statistically significant in spinal cord injury group(p<0.05).(p<0.01). Against normal group shoulder girdle muscles of internal rotator showed statistically significant in normal group(p<0.05).

  • PDF

The Effects of Pulsed Elctromagnetic Fields on Expression of Neurotrophic Factors after Spinal Cord Hemisection in Rats

  • Kang, Ji-Hyuk;Park, Sang-Young;Lee, Yun-Seob
    • Journal of Magnetics
    • /
    • v.16 no.3
    • /
    • pp.253-258
    • /
    • 2011
  • The purpose of this study was to identify the effect of pulsed electromagnetic fields on the expression of neurotrophic factors after spinal cord injury. Sprague-Dawley male rats were given a spinal cord hemisection and randomly divided into 2 groups, the control and experimental groups. The experimental group was administered a fifteen minutes session of pulsed electromagnetic field once a day, five days a week. In order to observe the effect of these pulsed electromagnetic fields, this study observed the BDNF expression in the rat's lumbar spinal cord and the H&E staining in the gastrocnemius at 3, 7, 14, 21 days group after spinal cord hemisection. The results of this showed that the immunoreactivity of the BDNF in the rat's spinal cord gradually increased in each group. At 21 days, there is a significant difference between the control and experimental groups. The morphological shape of the gastrocnemius was gradually changed from 3days to 21days, and the gastrocnemius at 21 days was significantly degraded. However, the experimental group showed a slightly more organized gastrocnemius than the control group at 21days. The Results of this study suggest that pulsed electromagnetic field application decreases the degeneration of a rat's gastrocnemius morphology, and increases the immunoreactivity of the BDNF in the rat's spinal cord after spinal cord hemisection.

Sacrococcygeal Teratoma with Split Spinal Cord Malformation

  • Park, Jong-Tae;Kim, Dae-Won;Kim, Tae-Young;Kim, Jong-Moon
    • Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
    • /
    • v.41 no.1
    • /
    • pp.57-60
    • /
    • 2007
  • The incidence of diastematomyelia associated with teratoma is extremely rare. We present a case of sacrococcygeal teratoma in a neonate with split spinal cord malformation[SSCM]. Magnetic resonance imaging[MRI] showed a heterogenous mass lesion with cyst in the sacrococcygeal region and multiple spinal anormalies [diastematomyelia, tethered cord, hydromyelia, and hemivertebrae]. The mature teratoma was confirmed on histopathological examination. In SSCMs, the potential for coexisting congenital anomalies at separate levels of the spinal cord must be considered in radiological investigations.

Spinal Cord Subependymoma Surgery : A Multi-Institutional Experience

  • Yuh, Woon Tak;Chung, Chun Kee;Park, Sung-Hye;Kim, Ki-Jeong;Lee, Sun-Ho;Kim, Kyoung-Tae
    • Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
    • /
    • v.61 no.2
    • /
    • pp.233-242
    • /
    • 2018
  • Objective : A spinal cord subependymoma is an uncommon, indolent, benign spinal cord tumor. It is radiologically similar to a spinal cord ependymoma, but surgical findings and outcomes differ. Gross total resection of the tumor is not always feasible. The present study was done to determine the clinical, radiological and pathological characteristics of spinal cord subependymomas. Methods : We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of ten spinal cord subependymoma patients (M : F=4 : 6; median 38 years; range, 21-77) from four institutions. Results : The most common symptoms were sensory changes and/or pain in eight patients, followed by motor weakness in six. The median duration of symptoms was 9.5 months. Preoperative radiological diagnosis was ependymoma in seven and astrocytoma in three. The tumors were located eccentrically in six and were not enhanced in six. Gross total resection of the tumor was achieved in five patients, whereas subtotal or partial resection was inevitable in the other five patients due to a poor dissection plane. Adjuvant radiotherapy was performed in two patients. Neurological deterioration occurred in two patients; transient weakness in one after subtotal resection and permanent weakness after gross total resection in the other. Recurrence or regrowth of the tumor was not observed during the median 31.5 months follow-up period (range, 8-89). Conclusion : Spinal cord subependymoma should be considered when the tumor is located eccentrically and is not dissected easily from the spinal cord. Considering the rather indolent nature of spinal cord subependymomas, subtotal removal without the risk of neurological deficit is another option.

Improvement of Functional Recovery by Cell Transplantation after Spinal Cord Injury (척수손상 후 세포이식에 의한 운동기능의 회복증진)

  • 이배환;이경희;성제경;황세진;김계성
    • Science of Emotion and Sensibility
    • /
    • v.7 no.2
    • /
    • pp.179-186
    • /
    • 2004
  • Acute spinal cord injury can produce neurologic injury with many physical, psychological and social ramifications. It has been shown that two separate components combine to produce neurologic damage in acute spinal cord injury : the primary and secondary injuries. The primary mediators of spinal cord injury include the actual mechanical tissue disruption which is a passive process that occurs immediately following the trauma. A secondary injury cascade follows which appears mediated by cellular and molecular processes working through complex mechanisms. Both the primary and secondary injury cascades produce cell death both in neuronal and supporting cell tissues. Recovery from central nervous system(CNS) disorders is hindered by the limited ability of the vertebrate CNS to regenerate injured cells, replace damaged myelin sheath, and re-establish functional neuronal connections. Of many CNS disorders including multiple sclerosis, stroke, and other trauma, spinal cord injury is one of the important diseases because of the direct association with the functional loss of the body. Previous studies suggest that substantial recovery of function might be achieved through regeneration of lost neuronal cells and remyelination of intact axon in spinal cord injury which is occurred frequently. As a therapeutic approach in spinal cord injury, recently, cell transplantation provides a potential solution for the treatment of spinal cord injury. This review describes the characteristics of spinal cord injury and presents some evidence supporting functional recovery after cell transplantation following spinal cord injury.

  • PDF

Effects of Oriental Medicinal Drugs on Axonal Regeneration in the Spinal Cord Neurons

  • An Joung-Jo;NamGung Uk;Seo In-Chan;Kim Yoon-Sik
    • Journal of Physiology & Pathology in Korean Medicine
    • /
    • v.19 no.6
    • /
    • pp.1640-1646
    • /
    • 2005
  • An oriental medicinal drugs Jahageo (JHG, Hominis placenta) were examined to determine its effects on the responsiveness of central nervous system neurons after injury. We found that JHG was involved in neurite outgrowth of DRG sensory axons. JHG treatment also increased expression of axonal growth-associated protein GAP-43 in DRG sensory neurons after sciatic nerve injury and in the injured spinal cord. JHG treatment during the spinal cord injury increased induction levels of cell division cycle 2 (Cdc2) protein in DRG as well as in the spinal cord. Histochemical investigation showed that induced Cdc2 in the injured spinal cord was found in non-neuronal cells. These results suggest that JHG regulates activities of non-neuronal cells such as oligodendrocyte and astrocyte in responses to spinal cord injury and protects neuronal responsiveness after axonal damage.

Profiles of Spinal Cord Tumors Removed through a Unilateral Hemilaminectomy

  • Yeo, Dong-Kyu;Im, Soo-Bin;Park, Kwan-Woong;Shin, Dong-Seong;Kim, Bum-Tae;Shin, Won-Han
    • Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
    • /
    • v.50 no.3
    • /
    • pp.195-200
    • /
    • 2011
  • Objective : To present the profiles of spinal cord tumors that can be removed through a unilateral hemilaminectomy and to demonstrate its usefulness for benign spinal cord tumors that significantly occupy the spinal canal. Methods : From June 2004 to October 2010, 25 spinal cord tumors were approached with unilateral hemilaminectomy. We calculated the cross-sectional occupying ratio (CSOR) of tumor to spinal canal before and after the operations. Results : The locations of the tumors were intradural extramedullary in 20 cases, extradural in 2, and intramedullary in 3. The levels of the tumors were lumbar in 12, thoracic 9, and cervical 4. In all cases, the tumor was removed grossly and totally without damaging spinal cord or roots. The mean height and width of the lesions we195re 17.64 mm (3-47.5) and 12.62 mm (4-32.7), respectively. The mean CSOR was 69.40% (range, 27.8-96.9%). Postoperative neurological status showed improvement in all patients except one whose neurologic deficit remained unchanged. Postoperative spinal stability was preserved during the follow-up period (mean, 21.5 months) in all cases. Tumor recurrence did not develop during the follow-up period. Conclusion : Unilateral hemilaminectomy combined with microsurgical technique provides sufficient space for the removal of diverse spinal cord tumors. The basic profiles of the spinal cord tumors which can be removed through the unilateral hemilaminectomy demonstrate its role for the surgery of the benign spinal cord tumors in various sizes.

Spinal cord abscess in pork carcasses

  • Seo, Ji-Yon;Ryu, Jae-Yoon;Park, Jae-Myoung
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Service
    • /
    • v.31 no.4
    • /
    • pp.471-473
    • /
    • 2008
  • This is a case report of spinal cord abscess in pork carcasses. We have detected 7 cases with spinal cord abscesses in abattoir from January to October 2008. It may occur from either direct extension or hematogenos infection. Four cases were presumed by hematogenous infection because of no external wound, and 3 may be caused by direct extension. The infection is a result of external wound in 3 pigs and is a result of hematogenous spread in 4 pigs. The incidence rate of spinal cord abscess in sows is higher than that in pigs.