• Title, Summary, Keyword: sporulation

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A physiological study on Sporulation of Rhizopus nigricans (Rhizopus nigricans의 포자형성에 관한 생물학적 연구)

  • 윤경하;이영록
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.81-93
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    • 1979
  • The mycelium of Rhizopus nigricans was harvested at intervals during the sporulation periods, fractioned into various cell components and analyzed the con!eiits of various cell materials in order to clarify the optimum conditions of sporulation and some characteristics of the metabolism during tke sporulation periods. The changes in enzyme activities, such as amylase and protease, were also measured during the sporulation period,. 1. Mycelium in distilled water culture, as control, did not sporulate but mycelial mat cultured in Petridish without mutrient spourulated. Optimum temperature range for sporulation was $20{\sim}25^{\circ}C$. 2. During the sporulation and maturation periods, proteins, especially alkali-labile protein were decreased remarkably but free amino acid and ninhydrin reactive substances in acid soluble fraction were increased, compared with control. 3. Acid solable polyphosphate was decreased but acid insoluble polyphosphate was increased, during the sporulation. 4. Carbohydrate and hexosamine in acid soluble fraction were increased, while carbohydrate in alkali insoluble residual fraction was decreased during the sporulation periods. 5. Amounts of UV-absorbing material in deoxyribonucleic acid fraction was increased a little but those in ribonucleic acid fraction was decreased, compared with control. 6. Intracellular amylases and proteases activities insporulating mycelial mat were increased continuously during the sporulation and maturation periods.

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Sporulation of Streptomyces griseus NRRL B-2682 in Submerged Culture (방선균 Streptomyces griseus NRRL B-2682의 액내포자형성)

  • 지의상
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.58-63
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    • 1994
  • Sporulation of Streptomyces griseus NRRL B-2682 occurs at 26~28 hours during incubation while shaking at 3$0^{\circ}C$ in a defined medium. The time of sporulation is the same when the levels of each nutrient is increased ten times. The levels of the carbon, nitrogen and phosphate source are at a high level when sporulation begins. Sporulation of S. griseus B-2682 is clearly not caused by nutrient deprivation. It appears that a clock mechanism is involved instead. Once spores are germinated, the time of sporulation is programmed. Sporulation of S. griseus is repressed by high levels of casein hydrolysate. A study of the effect of individual amino acids revealed that L-valise when added to the normal growth medium causes an inhibition or repression of sporulation without affecting growth.

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Influence of Physiological and Environmental Factors on Growth and Sporulation of an Antagonistic Strain of Trichoderma viride RSR 7

  • Jayaswal, R.K.;Singh, Rajesh;Lee, Youn-Su
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.36-41
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    • 2003
  • Influence of physiological and environmental factors on an antagonistic strain of Trichoderma viride RSR7 were studied optimize its biocontrol potential. The growth and sporulation of T. viride was greatly influenced by various carbon and nitrogen sources, and the environmental factors such as pH and temperature. The best growth and sporulation of T. viride was observed when sucrose, peptone and trehalose were supplemented in the medium as sole carbon sources. Rhamnose, pyruvic acid and sorbitol also supported a good growth. However, with these carbon sources the sporulation was poor. Growth and sporulation was also affected by various nitrogen sources. Growth and sporulation both were favoured by ammonium forms of nitrogen compared to nitrite or nitrate forms. Urea did not support either growth or sporulation. Among amino acids, glutamic acid, asparagine, leucine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid and alanine supported good growth as well as sporulation. T. viride was able to utilize large number of amino acids as sole nitrogen source. Proline was good for growth, but not for sporulation. Maximum growth and sporulation of T. viride was between pH 4.5 to 5.5. Temperatures between $20^{\circ}C\;and\;37^{\circ}C$ were good for both growth and sporulation of T. viride. At lower temperatures(i.e. below $20^{\circ}C$) growth and sporulation were inhibited. Based on the present study it may be concluded that T. viride RSR7 is capable of growing and sporulating with varied nutritional and environmental conditions and, therefore, this strain of T. viride may be useful as a biocontrol agent under diverse physiological and environmental conditions.

The Effects of Cyclic AMP, Theophylline and Caffeine on Sporulation of Aspergillus niger in the Defined Media (검정곰팡이(Aspergillus niger)의 포자형성(胞子形成)에 미치는 cAMP, 테오필린 및 카페인의 영향(影響)에 관한 연구(硏究))

  • Koh, Young-Joo;Kim, Jong-Hyup
    • The Korean Journal of Mycology
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.238-246
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    • 1987
  • Aspergillus niger van Tieghem was cultured by the method of synchronous and submerged culture. The sporulation occurred through the culture and its life cycle and differentiation were completed in the experiments. The effects of cAMP, theophylline and caffeine on the sporulation of A. niger were investigated. In the sporulation medium, the sporulation was stimulated by addition of cAMP and its optimum concentration was $10^{-4}M$. In the sporulation medium, the sporulation was stimulated by addition of theophylline and its optimum concentration was 10 mg/ml. In the sporulation medium, the sporulation was stimulated by addition of caffeine and its optimum concentration was 300 mg/ml. Theophylline added to the sporulation medium together with cAMP enhanced the promotion effect of cAMP on sporulation. Caffeine added to the sporulation medium together with cAMP enhanced the promotion effect of cAMP on sporulation. In the sporulation medium, the sporulation was stimulated by addition of neither AMP nor ATP. In the potassium acetate medium, cAMP, theophylline and caffeine stimulated the sporulation, respectively.

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Electron Microscopic Evidence of Paraporal Crystal Inclusion Biogenesis in Bacillus sphaericus Strain 1593

  • Lee, Young-Ju;Lee, Hyung-Hoan
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.11 no.6
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    • pp.1106-1110
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    • 2001
  • The parasporal biogenesis of crystal inclusion during the sporulation of Bacillus sphaericus strain 1593 was observed using transmission electron microscopy. The crystal biogenesis and sporulation process involved a sequence of events talking about 10 h. The sporulation Precesses were found to be similar to previous findings. The crystal biogenesis of B. sphaericus was initiated at the start of engulfment and nearly completed by the time of exosporium formation. The crystal formation was clearly associated with the outer forespore membrane from stages III through VI, and the crystals grew from polypeptide-like chains originated from the outer forespore membrane. These observations are different from previous findings, which report no association with the forespore membrane. The crystals were located adjacent to the outer membrane of the spore until the release stage. The axes size of the bipyramidal crystal was approximately $0.25{\mu}m{\times}42{\mu}m$. During crystal biogenesis, the crystal development could be classified into four stages; initiation stage Cl (sporulation stage . III), growth stage C2 (sporulation III to V), envelopment and maturation C3 (sporulation V to V), and finally release stage C4 (sporulation Vll).

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Cytochrome $C_{550}$ is Related to Initiation of Sporulation in Bacillus subtilis

  • Shin Inji;Ryu Han-Bong;Yim Hyung-Soon;Kang Sa-Ouk
    • Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.43 no.3
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    • pp.244-250
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    • 2005
  • The effect of cytochrome $c_{550}$ encoded by cccA in Bacillus subtilis during the event of sporulation was investigated. The sporulation of cccA-overexpressing mutant was significantly accelerated, while disruptant strain showed delayed sporulation in spite of the same growth rate. Activity of sporulation stage-0-specific enzyme, extracellular $\alpha-amylase$ of mutant strains was similar to that of the control strain, but cccA-overexpressing mutant exhibited higher activity of stage-II-specific alkaline phosphatase and stage-III-specific glucose dehydrogenase when compared to deletion mutant and control strain. Northern blot analysis also revealed that cccA-overexpressing mutant showed high level of spo0A transcripts, while the disruptant rarely expressed spo0A. These results suggested that although cytochrome $c_{550}$ is dispensable for growth and sporulation, expression of cccA may play an important role for initiation of sporulation through regulation of spo0A expression.

Pycnidiospore Production and Dispersal from the Warts Produced by Infection of Botryosphaeria dothidea on Apple Stems

  • Park, Chang-Hee;Yang, Hee-Jung;Hyun Woo;Kim, Dai-Gee;Uhm, Jae-Youl
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.330-334
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    • 1999
  • Applying the method of quantitative analysis of pycnidiospore from the detached warts produced by the infection of Botryosphaeria dothidea on apple stems, repeated productivity of spores within the detached warts, variations in the amount of spores within the detached warts, variations in the amount of spores by the length of induction time for sporulation, and the effects of temperature and moisture on the sporulation were investigated. In addition to these experiment, the changes in the state of spores within the pycnidia contained in the warts accompanied by the induction of sporulation and dispersal of spores were also investigated. When detached warts were kept in moist conditions, the sporulation and discharge of spores were also investigated. When detached warts were kept in moist conditions, the sporulation and discharge of spores could be repeated several times, and the amount of spores were almost constant after each repeat of sporulation induction and dispersal of spores in a given period. The fact that the pycnidia filled with spores were observed at considerable rates within the warts which were subjected to the shaking in the water to release spores indicated that the spores might never be released until the pycnidia were fully matured. From the high rate of empty pycnidia even in the warts which were kept in moist conditions for induction of sporulation, the pycnidiospores might be produced through the development of new pycnidia. A considerable amount of pycnidiospores were produced at $5^{\circ}$, and the sporulation was accelerated with the rise of temperature until $35^{\circ}$. When the warts were supplied with sufficient moisture, sporulation was further accelerated. The results obtained in these experiment will be applied in developing the method for assessing the inhibitory efficacies of fungicides on the sporulation of this fungus, with which a new control measure would be developed.

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Sporulation of Pyricularia grisea at Different Growth Stages of Rice in the Field

  • Kim, Chang-Kyu;Reiich Yoshino
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.147-150
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    • 2000
  • Sporulation patterns of rice blast fungus were studied at relatively later stages of leaf blast and neck blast seasons in Icheon, Korea. This experiment was done by detaching lesion-bearing leaves and panicle bases. The number of conidia remaining on the leaf blast lesions of different cultivars from Jul 20 to Jul 23 ranged from 3,640 to 82,740 spores. More conidia were observed on the adaxial surface because they were released from abaxial surface. After heading, sporulation was observed from the lesions on the flag leaves but the number of spores was less than in the late July. Detached panicle bases or uppermost internodes infected by Pyricularia grisea produced abundant amount of conidia. Among these panicle bases, 30.1 mm size lesion recorded the highest count of 244,560 spores. When we compared the sporulation amount using the KY-type spore trap, more conidia were recorded from intact lesions than from the lesions which removed conidia and conidiophore The ratio of conidia release against total sporulation ranged from 20.5%-25.0% for leaf blast and 8.2%-25.3% in the neck blast. Effective inoculum potential was also discussed.

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Sugar and Amino Acid Transport in Yeast (효모세포의 당과 아미노산의 운반에 관한 연구 II)

  • 민경희;권영명
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.148-154
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    • 1978
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae J170, a mutant, was used for $DL-^{14}C-leucine$ uptake during the sporulation and vegetative stage. $^{14}C-Leucine$ uptake into yeast cells appeared the highest at pH 6.0, indicating the same result of glucose transport, $^{14}C-Leucine$ uptake in sporulation period was higher than in growth phase, showing the evidence that leucine is more required for protein synthesis. This tendency has the evidence tht leucine is more required for protein synthesis. This tendency has the evidence that leucine is more required for protein synthesis. This tendency has been also supported from the result of Km values of leucine uptake in two stages of yeast. Leucine uptake was inhibited by 2,4-dinitrophenol in two stages of yeast. This means that leucine transport system is associated with energy dependent in both stages. The contents of all amino acid in growth phase cells were higher than those of sporulation stge cells, and those of methionine and tyrosine were showed in trace during the sporulation stage. In contrast, the content of glutamic acid in sporulation stage was compared with those of other amino acids.

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Immunological Analysis of Antigenic Variation of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. sotto during Sporulation and Crystallization

  • Cho, Jae Min;Gi Bum Nam;Soon Bok Hong;Myung Hwan Cho
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.5 no.6
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    • pp.359-363
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    • 1995
  • The antigenic variation of B. thuringiensis subsp. satto have been investigated for 120 hours during sporulation and crystallization by using SDS-PAGE and Western blot. Most antigens of a vegetative cell were found to disappear as it was in sporulation and crystallization, but protein antigens of 46, 29, 27, and 21 kDa continued to be expressed. The new protein bands of 293, 138, 119, 75, and 68 kDa appeared on days 2 through 5 in modified GYS medium. They were thought to be involved in sporulation and crystallization. The protein of 138 kDa was found to be a major protein of both crystal and spore. The expression patterns were immunologically analyzed by Western blot. The polyclonal antisera against the intact crystal showed strong immunoreactivity to proteins with molecular masses of 293, 138, 68, and 46 kDa. The polyclonal antisera against the spore recognized proteins of 293, 138, 68, and 46 kDa. Both crystals and spores appeared to express the common protein antigens.

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