• Title, Summary, Keyword: sporulation

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Effects of Fungicides on Sporulation of Apple Leaf Spot Alternaria mali Roberts (사과 반점낙엽병의 포자형성에 대한 살균제의 효과)

  • LEE Chang Un;KIM Moon Ho
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.169-174
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    • 1980
  • Regardless of the kind of the apple orchards whether received various fungicides application or not Rovral exhibited the most efficient inhibitory effect on the sporulation of Alternaria mali with the spotted leaf disks at the recommended dose $0.5{\mu}g/ml$ as well as the lower or the higher doses. When applied at the recommended doses $0.7{\mu}g,\;0.75{\mu}g,\;and\;0.7{\mu}g/ml$ of Antracol, Dithane M-45, and Dikar, respectively, these fungicides showed complete inhibitory effects on the sporulation. At the lower levels of application, they allowed the sporulation of 10,000 to 25,000 conidia/ml. Polyoxin and Difolatan, when applied on the leaf disks from the orchard that had received the fungicides application, exhibited low effects allowing the sporulation of around 20,000 conidia/ml. On the leaf disks from the orchard that had received no fungicide application, however, both fungicides showed relatively high inhibitory effects of the sporulation. The inhibitory effects of Captan, Dakonil, and Spat on the sporulation were lower than those of the aforementioned fungicides. Bayleton was the least effective among the fungicides used in the present investigation. Benlate showed promoting effect on the sporulation of the apple leaf spot fungus rather tan inhibiting.

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Studies on Cultural Characteristics Pestalotiopsis theae causing Leaf Blight on Oriental Persimmon Tree (단감나무 둥근갈색무뉘병원균 Pestalotiopsis theae의 배양적 특성)

  • Chang, Tae-Hyun;Lim, Tae-Heon;Chung, Bong-Koo;Kim, Byung-Sup
    • Korean Journal Plant Pathology
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.232-238
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    • 1997
  • Culture conditions affecting mycelial growth and sporulation of P. theae, SP2, SP3 and P. longiseta which causing leaf blight on oriental persimmon leaf blight have been investigated. The optimum temperature for the mycelial growth and sporulation on potato dextrose agar was $25{\sim}30^{\circ}C$ in all the fungi, but was inhibited and finally arrested at 10 and $30^{\circ}C$. The optimum pH for mycelial growth and sporulation were ranged at pH 4.5~5.0 and 5.0~6.0 in all the fungi. Lenonian agar, potato sucrose agar and oatmeal medium were good culture media for the mycelial growth and sporulation of all the fungi. The effective sources of nitrogen and carbon for the mycelial growth were tryptone, glycine, starch, dextrose, galactose and lactose. Glutamic acid, peptone and tryptone were good nitrogen sources for sporulation of the fungi. Sucrose, starch and galactose were also good carbon sources for sporulation. Generally, vitamins had no effect on mycelial growth and sporulation. The pH of the potato dextrose broth inoculated with SP2, SP3 and P. theae and P. longiseta was changed from 7.0 to 4.5~4.7 and 5.0~5.4 after incubating for 10 days, respectively. But, the initial pH of the medium adjusted to 5.0 was lowered to 4.5~4.7 after incubating for 10 days.

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Studies on the Thermal Resistant Spore of Bacillus coagulance(Part I Sporulating Conditions of the Thermal Resistant spore) (Bacillus coagulance 의 내열성포자에 관한 연구 (제일보) 생육ㆍ내열성및 포자형성에 미치는 단양조건)

  • 유주현;최규봉;이정치;윤원영
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.5-12
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    • 1977
  • As a basic study for the application of the spore-tearing lactic acid bacteria to foods, the effects of the sporulating conditions on the growth and sporogenesis were studied were observed. The results obtained are as follow. 1. All carbohydrates added to sporulation media except dextrin decreased the sporulation rate and the thermal resistance of spores. Dextrin stimulated the growth, however, there in no effect on the thermal resistance. 2. As nitrogen source, the protein hydrolysates such as peptone, casamino acid were effective to obtain were spores of the increased thermal resistance. 3. Ca$\^$++/, Mn$\^$++/ of the metal ions added to casamino acid containing medium validly increased the total growth, sporulation rate and thermal resistance. Its optimum concentration was 40 ppm each. 4. Biotin of vitamines had an effect on the total growth, sporulation and thermal resistance of spores. Its optimum concentration was 30${\gamma}$/ml. 5. The resistant spores required the adequate maturation period, more than 36 hours, sufficient aeration. and optimum temperature, 37∼45$^{\circ}C$.

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Biotin Requirement for the Growth and Sporulation of Bacillus subtilis SNU816 in a Synthetic medium (Bacillus subtilis SNU816의 合成培地에서의 성장과 포자형성을 위한 Biotin 要求性에 관하여)

  • Lee, Oh-Hyoung
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.135-142
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    • 1984
  • The effect of biotin on the growth and sporulation of Bacillus subtilis SNU816 was investigated. When B. subtilis SNU816 was cultured on glucose as a sole carbon source, the growth was retarded markedly and usually ceased at early log phawe. But by addition of biotin to this medium, normal, rapid growth was restored. The growth rate was increased proportionally according to the concentration of exogenous biotin until it reached to 0.05㎍/ml, at which about three fold rapid growth was achieved. Also biotin was required for optimum sporulation for it facilitated the complete utilization of both glucose(Glc) and glutamic acid(Glu). Without biotin in Glc+Glu medium, about 40% of glutamic acid was remained unutilized. The dipicolinic acid content of cells cultured in Glc+Glu medium without biotin was markedly small and sporulation was suppressed before free spore release. Since biotin could be partiallyreplaced by one of TCA cycle intermediates such as oxalacetic acid, citric acid, or glutamic acid in enhancing growth in Glc medium, it was postulated that this strain might have a defect in converting pyruvate to oxalacetate which process is known to be mediated by pyruvate carboxylase that requires biotin as a cofactor.

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Studies on the Distribution of the Mononucleotides in Aspergillus niger during Differentiation (검정곰팡이의 분화에 따르는 모노뉴클레오티드 성분의 분포 변동에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Boon-Lae;Kim, Jong-Hyup
    • The Korean Journal of Mycology
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.65-74
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    • 1985
  • Aspergillus niger IMI 41873 was cultured by the method of synchronous and submerged culture. Its sporulation occurred in the culture. Ribonucleic acids were extracted at each stage of life cycle. These RNAs were digested, separated and determined by P.E.I. cellulose TLC and HPLC methods. The levels of ribonucleic acids in sporulating mycelia were higher than those of conidiophore and phialide forming mycelia. Inosine 5-monophosphate and adenosine 5-monophosphate derivatives were found in HPLC separations. The levels of inosine 5-monophosphate and adenosine 5-monophosphate derivatives per ribonucleic acid were constant through differentiation. After the standard purine necleosides and boiling water extracts from A. bisporus, F. velutipes and L. edodes were added into the culture, their effects on sporulation were examined. Sporulation was greatly enhanced in each adding experiment.

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Mass Production of Yeast Spores from Compressed Yeast

  • Lim, Yong-Sung;Bae, Sang-Myun;Kim, Keun
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.568-572
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    • 2005
  • Saccharomyces yeast spores are more resistant to drying and storage than vegetative cells. For the mass production of yeast spores, compressed yeast was directly inoculated into a sporulation medium (SM). The effects of inoculum size and the addition of rice wine cake (RWC) into SM on the sporulation were examined using flasks. With $1\%$ inoculum of compressed yeast, $1.45{\times}10^8/ml$ of asci was obtained. The addition of $0.5\%$ RWC into SM improved the cell growth and spore yield, and the number of asci formed was $2.31{\times}10^8/ml$. The effects of culture temperature, temperature-shift, and concentrations of inoculum, potassium acetate, and RWC on the sporulation were also evaluated using a jar fermentor. The optimum temperature for spore formation was $22^{\circ}C$ where the number of asci formed was $2.46{\times}10^8/ml$. The shift of culture temperature from initial $30^{\circ}C$ for 1 day to $22^{\circ}C$ for 3 days increased the number of asci formed to $2.96{\times}10^8/ml$. The use of $2\%$ (w/v) inoculum of compressed yeast, $2\%$ potassium acetate, and $1\%$ (w/v) RWC in SM with the shift of culture temperature of initial $30^{\circ}C\;to\;22^{\circ}C$ resulted in $90\%$ sporulation ratio and formation of $6.18{\times}10^8\;asci/ml$.

Sporulation of Cercospora capsici causing Cercospora leaf spot of Pepper (고추 갈색점무늬병원균 (Cercospora capsici)의 배양특성과 다량 포자형성법)

  • Lim Yang-Sook;Kim, Byung-Soo
    • Research in Plant Disease
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.162-165
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    • 2003
  • High sporulation method and cultural characteristics of Cercospora capsici causing Cercospora leaf spot of pepper were examined. Optimum temperature for mycelial growth of Cercospora capsici was $25^{\circ}C$. The fungus did not grow below $5^{\circ}C$ and over $35^{\circ}C$. Optimum pH for mycelial growth was pH 4.0~pH 8.0. Mycelial growth was not influenced by light. C. capsici sporulated well on pepper leaf agar (5g/l). A standard method of sporulation established was as follows. The mycelial plugs were ground with some water in motar with pestle. The mycelial suspension was smeared on the surface of medium and incubated for 2~3 days at $20^{\circ}C$. The culture surface was lightly scraped with a brush after adding 1 ml of sterile water to stimulate sporulation and further incubated for 2~3 days.

Effects of Plant Extracts on Conidial Germination, Mycelial Growth and Sporulation of Fungi Isolated From Poultry Feed

  • Islam, M. Rafiqul;Alam, Shahidul;Rahman, M. Ziaur;Chowdhury, S.P.;Begum, M.F.;Akhter, Nargis;Alam, M.S.;Han, Kee-Don;Lee, Min-Woong
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.221-225
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    • 2003
  • Effect of ethanolic extracts of Lawsonia inermis, Azadirachta indica, Vinca rosea, Tagetes patula, Ocimum sanctum, Colocasia antiquorum, Adhatoda vasica, Moringa oleifera, Datura metel and Curcuma longa leaf on conidial germination, mycelial growth and sporulation of Aspergillus flavus, A. niger and A. fumigatus were examined. The conidial germination of A. flavus and A. fumigatus were most inhibited by the extract of L. inermis, while that of A. niger was inhibited by A. indica. Other tested plant extracts have a good effect on conidial germination on the selected fungi. The highest mycelial growth of A. flavus(37 mm) was found in V. rosea, but in case of A. niger and A. fumigatus it(38 and 39 mm) was found in D. metel. The lowest(4, 9 and 6 mm) respectively mycelial growth of these fungi found in L. inermis. The highest sporulation($75{\times}10^4/ml$) of A. flavus was counted in V. rosea, but in case of A. niger and A. fumigatus those($45{\times}10^4$ and $55{\times}10^4/ml$) were in D. metel and the lowest($5{\times}10^4,\;12{\times}10^4\;and\;9{\times}10^4/ml$) respectively sporulation of these fungi counted in L. inermis plant extract medium.

Effect of Concentration of Carbon and Nitrogen Sources on the Sporulation and the Life Cycles of Zygosaccharomyces (Zygosaccharomyces 의 포자형성(胞子形成)과 Life Cycle 에 미치는 배지중(培地中)의 당농도(糖濃度) 및 질소농도(窒素濃度)의 영향(影響))

  • Ha, Duk-Mo
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.10
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    • pp.101-105
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    • 1968
  • The effect of concentration of carbon and nitrogen sources on the sporulation and the life cycles of three strains of Zygosaccharomyces was investigated. The results are as follows: 1) The good sporulation of Zygosaccharomyces bisporus, delbruekii, and Z. steineri was obtained on solid medium containing 0 to 0.001% of nitrogen and 10 to 20% of glucose. The high content of nitrogen was detrimental to sporulation and asci were formed under 0.01% of nitrogen. 2) It is widely accepted that the life cycle of Zygosaccharomyces proceeds in the following way: Ascospore...Vegetative cells...Conjugation of vegetative cells...Sporulation...Ascopores But zygotes of Z. bisporus proceeded to vegetative cells when transfered to the suitable medium for vegetative reproduction, and then formed asci.

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Fermentation and Sporulation Characteristics of Saccharomyces cerevisiae SHY111 Isolated from Korean Traditional Rice Wine

  • Kim, Seung-Hwan;Chung, Oon-Chan;Woo, Im-Sun;Shin, Jae-Ho;Rho, Dong-Hyun;Rhee, In-Koo;Park, Heui-Dong
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.10 no.6
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    • pp.776-783
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    • 2000
  • Various alcohol yeast strains have been isolated from main mashes of Korean traditional liquors, and their genetic diversities were previously reported [23]. In this study, the strain SHY111, showing the highest alcohol production, was tested for its fermentation and sporulation characteristics. Additionally, its haploid cells were isolated and tested for their growth and fermentation patterns. The strain was identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae based on its morphological and physiological characteristics. The sequences of the ITS(internal transcribed spacer) and 5.8S rDNA regions of S. cerevisiae SHY111 were found to be identical to those of S. cerevisiae that was obtained from through the yeast genome project. The maximum fermentation ratio obtained by the strain SHY111 (96.7%) was almost the same as that by S. cerevisiae Balyun No. 1 (96.5%) that was a little higher than that by S. cerevisiae KCCM11215(95.8%). The strain was induced for sporulation in a sporulation liquid medium using log phase cells grown in different types of pre-sporulation media, and its haploid cells were obtained by spore dissection using a micromanipulator. The majority of the spores formed a small colony on a YPD agar plate, and the haploid yeast cells derived from the strain SHY111 showed a variety of growth and alcohol fermentation patterns. It was proposed that the fermentation patterns were related to their growth phenotypes in the most haploid strains, but possible not in some strains.

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