• Title, Summary, Keyword: sporulation

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Production of Extracellular Polymeric Substances by Sporulation of Bacillus sp. and Activated Sludge (Bacillus 미생물과 활성슬러지의 포자화에 따른 체외고분자물질 생성에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Sang-Ho
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.85-93
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    • 2011
  • The structural components of microorganism are quite related to the toxin and environmental conditions. The vegetative and dormant cells are quite affected by the physical and chemical environments to survive and they will be dormant when they are in the extreme environment. The mechanism to activate the microorganisms however, is not well defined yet in the area of activation state and sporulation state through the analysis of EPS. Other than that even the main mechanism of prior to acquisition of analysis values is not well understood. Therefore, what kind of specific environment to affect the activation and sporulation will be discussed through the analysis of the extracellular polymeric substances(EPS). EPS are a high molecular weight mixture of polymers presenting both outside of cells and interior of microbial aggregates. They are a major complex materials in microbial aggregation for sustaining them together in a three dimensional matrix. Three commonly used extraction methods were applied to this study their effectiveness and quantification in extracting EPS from several Bacillus microorganisms and activated sludge. Three extraction methods used for this study are regular centrifugation with formaldehyde (RCF), Steaming, and EDTA extraction. The results of EPS contents such as the quantitative proteins, carbohydrates and the ratio of protein versus carbohydrate from the several species with the several specific methods showed in this research. This study aims to get comparable results of the quantitative production of EPS and the effectiveness of sedimentation for Bacillus microorganisms and activated sludge from several wastewater treatment plans. The results revealed that the protein amount extracted was the highest by the Steaming method of three extraction methods before sporulation and the carbohydrate amount extracted was the highest by the RCA method of three extraction methods after sporulation. The higher amount of protein compared with carbohydrate from Bacillus microorganisms affected higher sedimentation efficiency, however it could not be found the relation between the EPS production and sedimentation efficiency for the activated sludge.

Screening of Different Media and Substrates for Cultural Variability and Mass Culture of Arthrobotrys dactyloides Drechsler

  • Kumar, D.;Singh, K.P.;Jaiswal, R.K.
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.215-222
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    • 2005
  • Variability in growth and sporulation of five isolates of Arthrobotrys dactyloides was studied on five agar, 6 bran and 5 grain media. Potato dextrose agar (PDA) supported maximum growth of isolate A, C and E, while growth of isolate Band D was significantly lower on this medium. On Czapek's agar and yeast glucose agar media the differentiation in the isolates in relation to growth was poor than PDA. The other two media showed much poorer differentiation. On Czapek's agar medium, sporulation was recorded in isolate B only, whereas other isolates showed rare sporulation. Among the bran media, pea bran agar medium supported maximum growth of all the isolates except isolate B. Gram and rice bran agar media were next best. However, the growth of isolate B on the gram bran agar medium was more or less equal as other isolates. On pigeon pea bran agar medium, isolate E failed to grow while other isolates recorded poor growth. On lentil bran agar medium, only isolate Band D recorded little growth, whereas other isolates failed to grow. All the isolates recorded good sporulation on bran agar media except pigeon pea and lentil bran agar media. The grain agar media supported moderate to very good growth of all the isolates. In general isolate B remained slow growing on these media except gram grain and sorghum grain agar media on which growth of this isolate was comparable to other isolates. Sporulation in general, was good on all the grain agar media. Among different substrates screened, barley grain and pea bran were found superior to others for mass culture of isolate A of A. dactyloides.

Transcriptional Analysis of Genes Involved in Ectopic Sporulation in Streptomyces griseus (Streptomyces griseus의 특이적 포자형성에 관여하는 유전자의 전사량 분석)

  • Chi, Won-Jae
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.44 no.4
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    • pp.563-570
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    • 2016
  • Two Streptomyces griseus strains, a wild-type strain and an A-factor-dependent transcriptional activator mutant strain harboring multiple copies of a gene, dasA, that encodes a substrate-binding protein of the ATP-binding cassette transporter, showed severe ectopic sporulation of young substrate hyphae in response to glucose. The effect of dasA overexpression on the ectopic sporulation of Streptomyces strains was evaluated by comparing the transcriptomes of the strain harboring multiple copies of dasA and a strain harboring empty vector. By DNA microarray, 4 genes (SGR794, SGR2469, SGR3656, and SGR3657) and 3 clusters (SGR795-797, SGR2377-2378, and SGR6997-6998) were differentially expressed by more than 2-fold in S. griseus strains harboring dasA. The DNA microarray result was validated by low-resolution S1 nuclease mapping.

Fungal-Sporulation Suppressing Substances Produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa KMCS-1

  • Min, Bu-Yong;Shim, Jae-Young;Kim, Kun-Woo;Lee, Jong-Kyu;Choi, Hyung-Tae;Yoon, Kwon-Sang
    • Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.284-288
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    • 1996
  • Among the bacteria isolated from compost piles of cattle excretion in a pasture located at the suburbs of Chunchon city, Pseudomonas aeruginosa KMCS-1 was selected for the test of antifungal substances produced. Six fractions were separated by silica gel column chromatography, and then the antifungal activity of each fraction was assayed against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Candida albicans, Rhizopus sp., Aspergillus nidulans, Coprinus cinereus, and Pyricularia oryzae by paper disc method. Two fractions showed significant suppressive activities against A. nidulans, C. cinereus, and P. oryzae however, their mycelial growth was not affected by neither of these fractions. Inhibitory activities of these fractions to sporulation was assayed at the concentration of 50. 25, 12. 5, and 6.25 $\mu$g/ml and the average inhibition rates against sporulation of A. nidulans, C. cinereus, and P. oryzae were 94.0, 98.3, and 77.9%, respectively. Further purification and analysis of active substances are now being conducted.

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Development of a Culture Medium for Growth and Sporulation of Bacillus polyfermenticus SCD (프로바이오틱 비스루트균의 아포생산을 위한 최적배지 개발)

  • Lee, Kwang-Ho;Park, Kyu-Yong;Kim, Seong-Mi;Kim, Won-Seok;Paik, Hyun-Dong
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.263-268
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    • 2002
  • Bacillus polyfermenticus SCD, which is commonly called a 'Bisroot' strain, has been appropriately used for the treatment of long-term intestinal disorders, since the live strains, in the form of active endospores, can successfully reach the target intestine. Goal of this study was to develop an industrial medium for growth and sporulation of B. polyfermenticus SCD. From the results of effect of mixed carbon sources on growth and sporulation of B. polyfermenticus SCD, glucose 2% and starch 2% was particularly found to be the most effective for the maximum number of spore production, resulting in spore cells of $4.3{\times}10^9\;spores/mL$ with a sporulation yield of 91%. For the effect of nitrogen sources, the maximum spore cells of $5.7{\times}10^9\;spores/mL$ of B. polyfermenticus SCD with a sporulation yield of 97% was obtained when B. polyfermenticus SCD was cultivated in an optimum nitrogen source medium containing 5% soybean flour. A medium involving proper phosphate salt yielded the maximum number of a spore cells of $6.0{\times}10^9\;spores/mL$ with a sporulation yield of 95%. Finally, the efficacy of an industrial medium (KH5 medium) on growth and sporulation of B. polyfermenticus SCD was investigated in jar fermenter. The higher number of viable cells $(3.3{\times}10^{10}\;cells/mL)$ and spore cells $(3.0{\times}10^{10}\;spores/mL)$ were obtained in 5 L fermenter when compared with a 500 mL baffle flask cultivation. Thus, KH5 medium developed in this study shows promise as an industrial medium because of higher cells and sporulation yield.

Amino Acid Nutrition on Growth and Reproduction of Potato Dry Rot Fusarium roseum ‘Sambucinum' Variants (감자 건부(乾腐) Fusarium roseum ‘Sambucinum’ 변이체(變異體)의 균사생장(菌絲生長) 및 분생포자(分生胞子) 형성(形成)에 미치는 아미노산(酸) 영양(營養))

  • Lee, Chang-Un
    • The Korean Journal of Mycology
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.187-192
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    • 1982
  • The effects of amino acids on mycerial growth and sporulation of the decreased and increased pathogenicity variants of potato dry rot Fusarium roseum ‘Sambucinum' were as following. The increased pathogenicity variants Ic52 and Ic116 showed the trend of greater mycerial growth, marking up to 67mg on leucine, than the decreased pathogenicity variants Dc14 and Dc91, and produced markedly low conidia below $25{\times}10^{4}/ml$ or no sporulation. On methionine all the variants and the wild type showed the lowest growth recording 14mg to 20mg with no sporulation. Cystine similarly as glysine supported the poor growth 30mg to 19mg of the variants Dc14 and Dc91, respectively, and did not support the sporulation. The former amino acid like asparagine supported the growth of the variants Ic52 and Ic1l6 marking 47mg and 36mg, respectively. On all the eleven amino acids the variant Dc14 showed the trend of more mycerial growth and sporulation than the variant Dc91 which marked the exceptionally high sporulation $195{\times}10^{4}/ml$ on glutamic acid.

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Studies on the Incubation Condition according to Carbon Source, Nitrogen Source and Isolation of Pathogenic Aspergilli from Lung of Domestic Fowls (닭의 폐(肺)에서 병원성(病原性) Aspergilli 의 분리(分離)와 탄소원(炭素源)및 질소원(窒素源)에 따른 배양조건(培養條件)에 관(關)하여)

  • Lee, Bae-Ham;Lee, Kyoung-Bae
    • The Korean Journal of Mycology
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.25-30
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    • 1973
  • The Aspergilli can be isolated from many of damaged domestic fowl's lung which were collected at fowl slaughter house from July to August 1973, during two months at Dapsimri, Dongdaemoon-ku, Seoul city. The survey of incubation condition for carbon source and nitrogen source were summerized as follows: 1. One of the Aspergillius fumigatus group were isolated from damaged domestic fowl's lung. 2. In the preparation of isolation media, adding the 4 gs of silkworm pupa and Meju to Czapek's agar medium is more preferable than Austick's media (2% malt extract agar) 3. In survey of incubation condition, the growth rate and sporulation shown that higher differences according to varieties and amounts of C-source. And in the case of 20% C-source concentration shown that low growth rate than lower concentration of C-source. 4. In N-source, the growth rate indicated that some difference according to varieties of N-source, difference of growth rate demonstrated almost not shown at various amounts differences of mycelium and sporulation was only detected reversely.

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Effect of light on conidial formation in several anthracnose fungi (몇가지 탄저병균의 분생포자형성에 미치는 광선의 영향)

  • Chung H. S.
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.7
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    • pp.57-59
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    • 1969
  • Effect of light on conidial formation of Colletotrichum panacicola, C. gloeosporioides, C. runcatum and C. nicotianae was examined on potato dextrose agar on which each conidial suspension was seeded. The light source was Mitsubishi day light fluorescent lamps wi th an intensity of 100-120 ft-c at the colony surface. The treatments were (i)constant light, (ii) constant darkness, and (iii) alternating light (11hr.) and darkness {13hr.) at $26\{\circ}C\pm2$. With the exception of C. nicotianae, constant light gave the greatest sporulation over that obtained in the other two treatments; there were on significant differences in number of sporulation between under constant darkness and alternating light and darkness. C. nicotianae resulted in maximum. inter mediate and minimum sporulation under alternating light and darkness. constant darkness and constant light, respectively. These differences were statistically significant at $5\%$ level. C. truncatum and C. nicotianae produced abundant conidia in the entire test; C. gloeosporioides was intermediate, and C. panacicola was the least. Differences in number of sporulation due to light. organisms. and t he interaction of these two were all statistically significant.

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Studies on the Occurance of Highly Phosphorylated Nucleotides in the Differentiating Mycelia of Aspergillus niger and Effects of 8-Azaguanine, Cycloheximide on Sporulation (검정곰팡이의 분화에 있어서 고인산뉴클레오티드의 출현 및 8-아자구아닌, 시클로헥시미드의 영향에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Jong-Hyup;Han, Hee-Jae
    • The Korean Journal of Mycology
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.141-152
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    • 1984
  • Aspergillus niger van Tieghem was cultured by the method of synchronous and submerged culture. Throughout the culture, sporulation was occured. Highly phosphorylated nucleotides in sporulating mycelia were detected to assure whether the eucaryotic Aspergillus niger produce these substances or not during the differentiation. Phosphorylated nucleotides were extracted from the conidiophore, bearing mycelia and spore forming body, these nucleotides were identified by TLC with P.E.I. cellulose. Guanosine tetraphosphate was found in both phialide forming mycelia and spore forming body. The contents of free amino acids were assayed and its level was found to increase at early stage of sporulation. The effects of 8-azaguanine examined, it was found to prevent spore formation and to made abnormal structure. The effects of inosinic monophosphate and guanosine monophosphate on spore formation were examined, spore formation was enhanced by these nucleotides.

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Development and Characterization of Sporulation Mutants for Overexpression of Recombinant Protein of Bacillus subtilis (재조합 단백질 과발현을 위한 Bacillus snbtilis 포자형성 변이주의 개발 및 특성 분석)

  • 오민규;박승환김병기
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.16-25
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    • 1994
  • Sporulation mutants of Bacillus subtilis were developed for overproduction of heterologous proteins. The strains spoOJ spoIIG, and spoOJ spoIIG double mutant were constructed from two pretense-delfted mutant (DB104). The vector containing aprE gene was integrated in the chromosome of each strain, then the morphology of each strain was observed by TEM (trasmission electron microscopy). The morphology of spoOJ mutant and spoIIG mutant coincides with the description of the previous reports, respectively. The sporulating cells of spoOJ SpoIIG double mutation resemble spoIIG mutant more similarly, but with a little rougher cell wall membrane. The spoOJ mutation in B. subtilis gives negative effect on aprE activity with only a decreased sporulation frequency. On the contrary spoIIG mutation increases the aprE activity twice with an undetectable sporulation frequency. In the case of spoOJ and spolIG, i. e. double mutation, the effect of spoOJ on aprE activity seems to be relieved and the double mutant shows more or less the same aprE activity compared to spoIIG mutant.

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