• Title, Summary, Keyword: stachyose

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The Changes of $\alpha$-galactosidase Activities and Stachyose and Raffinose Contents During Fermentation of Soybeans (대두의 발효에 따른 $\alpha$-Galactosidase활성 및 Stachyose, Raffinose 함량 변화)

  • Kim, Sung-Soo;Yoon, Sun
    • Korean journal of food and cookery science
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.509-512
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    • 1998
  • Changes in the contents of stachyose and raffinose were determined during soybean fermentation. ${\alpha}$-Galactosidase activities were also monitored in soybean and its fermented products. The stachyose contents were 31.8239 mg/g of soybean, 4.2217 mg/g of Meju, and 2.1184 mg/g of Doenjang. The raffinose contents were 2.6914 mg/g of soybean, 1.7413 mg/g of Meju, and negligible of Doenjang. ${\alpha}$-Galactosidase activities was distinct in soybean and Meju. They were 14.5954 units/mg protein of soybean, 13.1489 units/mg protein of Meju, and 1.9157 units/mg protein of Doenjang. The results suggested that the decrease of stachyose and raffinose contents in fermented soy products were due to the ${\alpha}$-galactosidase activity.

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Quantitative Determination of Flatulence Factors in Legume Seeds and Soy Products (두류 및 대두제품중 가스발생인자의 함량 분석)

  • Bae, Ji-Hyun;Lee, Su-Rae
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.387-391
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    • 1987
  • The contents of flatulence factors such as raffinose and stachyose were determined by two-dimensional thin-layer chromatography using a guide-strip technique for some legume seeds and soy products consumed in Korea. Raffinose contents in bean samples were 1.34% in domestic soybean, 1.17% in imported soybean, 0.65% in kidney bean, 0.49% in red bean and 0.49% in mung bean. Stachyose contents were 4.1% in doemstic soybean, 3.6% in imported soybean, 3.0% in kidney bean, 2.9% in red bean and 1.9% in mung bean. The flatulence factors were not detected in soy sauce whereas soy paste contained 46.6mg% of raffinose and none of stachyose. The contents of raffinose and stachyose were 26.7mg% and 53.7mg% in soy curd and 26.5mg% and 41.7mg%, respectively, in soy milk.

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A Stack of Recessive Alleles of Kunitz Trypsin Inhibitor, Lectin, and Stachyose in Soybean (콩에서 쿠니츠트립인히비터, 렉틴 및 스타키오스에 대한 열성 유전자의 집적)

  • Choi, Sang Woo;Chae, Won Gi;Kang, Gyung Young;Chung, Jong Il
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.29 no.7
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    • pp.774-778
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    • 2019
  • Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is one of the major food sources of protein, oil, carbohydrates, isoflavones, and other nutrients for both humans and animals. However, soybean seeds contain antinutritional factors, such as lectin protein, Kunitz Trypsin Inhibitor (KTI) protein, and stachyose. The objective of this research was to stack recessive alleles for development a triple recessive genotype, titilelers2rs2, with low KTI protein, lectin protein, and stachyose contents. Three parents (Gaechuck#2, PI200508, and 14G20) were used to develop the breeding population. The presence or absence of the lectin and KTI proteins was detected by western blotting. The stachyose content in mature seeds was determined by HPLC. Agronomic traits, such as plant type, plant height, maturity date, lodging, seed quality, and 100-seed weight, were evaluated for the four $F_3$ plant strains. One $F_4$ plant strain with the desired agronomical traits was selected. One new strain with the triple recessive titilelers2rs2 genotype was developed. The plant height of the new strain was 51 cm and the 100-seed weight was 31.0 g. The new strain had a yellow seed coat and yellow hilum. The stachyose content of the new strain was 3.8 g/kg. One strain developed in this research will be used to produce improved yellow soybean cultivars that are free of lectin and KTI proteins and low in stachyose content.

Breeding of a Recessive Soybean Genotype (titirs2rs2) with Green Cotyledons and Black Seed Coats (titirs2rs2 열성 유전자형을 가진 속푸른 검정콩 계통 육성)

  • Choi, Sang Woo;Kim, Jin A;Shim, Sang In;Kim, Min Chul;Chung, Jong Il
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.147-151
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    • 2019
  • Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] is grown worldwide for its high protein and oil content. Anthocyanins from black soybean seed coats are known to have many pharmaceutical effects. Soybean cultivars with large seed sizes and black seed coats are needed by soybean farmers. However, antinutritional factors, like protein, stachyose, and Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (KTI) exist in raw mature soybeans. Genetic elimination or reduction of these components is needed in soybean breeding. The objective of this research was to develop new a soybean strain with black seed coats and green cotyledons that was KTI protein free and low in stachyose. Six parents were used. The presence or absence of KTI protein was detected using the Western blot technique. The content of stachyose in mature seeds was detected using HPLC. One new strain was selected from 11 $F_2$ plants with black seed coats and green cotyledons that lacked KTI protein. The new strain had black seed coats and green cotyledons and was KTI protein free and low in stachyose. The plant height of the new strain was 66 cm, and its 100-seed weight was 28.4 g. The stachyose content of the new strain was 2.59 g/kg. The new strain developed in this research will be used to develop new cultivars that are KTI protein free and low in stachyose.

Genotype and Environment Influence on Raffinose and Stachyose Content of Soybean Seed (콩 종자의 Raffinose 및 Stachyose 함량에 대한 유전자형과 환경의 영향)

  • Sung, Mi Kyung;Han, Sung Jin;Seo, Hyung Jin;Choi, Sang Woo;Nam, Sang Hae;Chung, Jong Il
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.59 no.3
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    • pp.319-324
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    • 2014
  • Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) is an important crop for protein, oil, carbohydrates, isoflavones, and many other nutrients to humans and animals. But, antinutritional factors in the raw mature soybean are exist. Raffinose and stachyose are main antinutritional factors in soybean seed. Both raffinose and stachyose are carbohydrates, belonging to the raffinose family of oligosaccharides (RFOs). RFOs are not readily digested in humans and cause flatulence or diarrhea. The objective of this research is to obtain the information on raffinose and stachyose content according to genotype and environment. A total of twenty two soybean genotypes (11 cultivars, 3 germplasms and 8 breeding lines) were selected. Each genotype was grown in the field for two years with two replications and harvested in bulk at natural maturity for two years. Content of raffinose and stachyose was detected by HPLC. The raffinose content (g/kg) of 22 genotypes was $2.68{\pm}0.21-5.87{\pm}2.43$ in year 1 and was $3.24{\pm}0.37-9.05{\pm}0.16$ in year 2. The stachyose content (g/kg) was $4.23{\pm}0.98-27.68{\pm}9.90$ at year 1 and was $5.11{\pm}1.09-25.32{\pm}0.35$ in year 2. Genotype and environment have highly significant effects on raffinose and stachyose content. Three genotypes (Da-7, 116-13, and RS-78) have low stachyose content at 5% significant level in two years. A positive correlation ($R^2=0.1985^*$) between raffinose and stachyose was observed in year 2. These informations are valuable in soybean genetics and breeding program related with raffinose and stachyose content.

Selection of rs2rs2titi Soybean Genotype with Yellow Seed Coat (rs2rs2titi 유전자형을 가진 노란 콩 계통 선발)

  • Choi, Sang Woo;Park, Jun Hyun;Chung, Jong Il
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.28 no.11
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    • pp.1285-1289
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    • 2018
  • Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] seed is an important dietary source of protein, oil, carbohydrates, isoflavones, and other nutrients for humans and animals. But, antinutritional factors in the raw mature soybean are exist. Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (KTI) protein and stachyose are main antinutritional factors in soybean seed. The genetic removal of the antinutritional factors will improve the nutritional value of soybean seed. The objective of this research was to breed a new yellow soybean strains (rs2rs2titi genotype) with the traits of lacking of KTI protein and low content of stachyose. Breeding population was developed from the cross of "Jinyangkong" and 15G1 parents. Presence or absence of KTI protein was detected based on Western Blot technique. Content of stachyose in mature seed was detected by HPLC. Total four new strains (603-1, 603-2, 625, and 694) with KTI protein free and low content of stachyose were selected. Four strains (603-1, 603-2, 625, and 694) have yellow seed coat and hilum. Plant height of 603-1 strain was 65 cm and 100-seed weight was 29.2 g. Plant height of 603-2 strain was 66 cm and 100-seed weight was 26.2 g. Plant height of 625 strain was 64 cm and 100-seed weight was 27.1 g. Content of stachyose for four new strains was 3.0~3.50 g/kg. Four strains selected in this research will be used to improve new yellow soybean cultivar with KTI protein free, and low content of stachyose.

Studies on the Changes of Oligosaccharide Contents in Rehmanniae Radix preparata According to Various Processing methods (포제에 따른 숙지황(熟地黃)의 당(糖) 성분 변화 연구)

  • Choi, Ho-Young;Kwon, Seung-Ro;Kim, Hyo-Geun;Ham, In-Hye;Lee, Jae-Jun;Lee, Je-Hyeon;Hong, Seon-Pyo;Kim, Do-Hoon
    • The Korea Journal of Herbology
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    • v.22 no.4
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    • pp.261-270
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    • 2007
  • Objective : The 5-HMF was not index material suitable to do the quality control of Rehmanniae Radix Preparata. In this study, We estimated the changes of oligosaccharide contents in Rehmanniae Radix Preparata using high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection(HPAEC-PAD). Methods : The analysis of oligosaccharide was conducted by HPAEC-PAD with Carbopac PA1, $250{\times}4mm$, 5um, and Carbopac PA1 guard column. Column temperature was kept at $30^{\circ}C$. Elution was carried out at 1000 ${\mu}l/min$ with 70mM NaOH and the injection volume was $10{\mu}l$. Each component was detected by PAD. Results : Nine constituents were found from merchandising Rehmanniae Radix Preparata(MR), while seven constituents were found in various processed Rehmanniae Radix Preparata. Not all constituents were defined but stachyose and raffinose were found in all cases. And The most common constituents of Rehmanniae radix was stachyose. In the course of processing, most of stachyose and raffinose were decreased. Stachyose was decreased slowly in the course of processing with rice wine(RR), amomi and rice wine(AR), and crataegi and rice wine(CR). However stachyose was decreased rapidly in the course of processing with fresh rehmannia juice(FR). The method with crataegi and rice wine(CR) showed the smallest decrease of stachyose. And processing method with crataegi and rice wine(CR) showed the most abundant amount for stachyose after the nineth processing. Conclusion : The changes of oligosaccharides in the course of processing were a very important direct barometers to do the quality control and set up a standard of Rehmanniae Radix Preparata.

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Sugar Leakage from Differently-aged Seeds of Rape, Chinese Cabbage and Radish (퇴화처리에 따리 유채, 배추, 무 종자의 당 누출)

  • 홍승범;이석순
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.40 no.3
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    • pp.322-327
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    • 1995
  • Experiments were conducted to know the relationships between seed quality and leakage of sugars from differently-aged seeds of rape, Chinese cabbage and radish. Seeds were artificially aged at 90% relative humidity and 45$^{\circ}C$ to get different seed qualities. Significant amounts of total sugars were leaked from the dead seeds of all crops during the 8~24 hours soaking period, while high quality seeds leaked negligible amounts of total sugars. High quality seeds of all crops contained lots of sucrose and glucose and some stachyose, raffinose and fructose. During the artificial aging of seeds stachyose, raffinose, and sucrose decreased, while glucose and fructose increased.

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Characterization of ${\alpha}-galactosidase$ from Bifidobacterium sp. Int-57 (Bifidobacterium sp. Int-57 ${\alpha}-galactosidase$의 효소 특성)

  • Yeo, Na-Im;Lee, Se-Kyung;Ji, Geun-Eog
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.25 no.6
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    • pp.689-693
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    • 1993
  • ${\alpha}-galactosidase$ releases galactoside from raffinose and stachyose which are the major sugars in soybean, Although raffinose and stachyose were known as flatulence factors, these sugars were recently claimed as bifidus factors. In this experiment we studied the properties of ${\alpha}-galactosidase$ and its production from Bifidobacterium sp. Int-57. Int-57 produced higher level of ${\alpha}-galactosidase$ than other intestinal bacteria. The production of ${\alpha}-galactosidase$ was greater when grown on raffinose compared with other carbohydrates tested. Partially purified ${\alpha}-galactosidase$ was obtained after sonication of harvested cell pellet followed by DEAE-cellulose chromatography and Sepharose CL-6B gel filtration, and assayed using PNP-${\alpha}-galactosidase$ as a substrate. Optimum pH for activity was 7.0 and optimum temperature was $40^{\circ}C$. At 5 mM concentration of metal ions, $CoCl_{2}\;and\;CuCl_{2}$ and inhibited the enzyme activity by 33% and 21% respectively. The enzyme was shown to hydrolyse genuine substrates, i.e. raffinose and stachyose.

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Determination of Soluble Carbohydrates in Soybean Seeds

  • Choung Myoung-Gun
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.50 no.5
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    • pp.319-324
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    • 2005
  • This study was conducted to identify the soluble carbohydrates in soybean seeds using on-line HPLC-RID-ES/MS and HPLC behavior, and to deter­mine their contents for high quality soybean breeding. The monosaccharide (glucose) and three oligosaccharides (sucrose, raffinose, and stachyose) were identified in Korean soybeans by their chromatographic behavior and results of on-line HPLC-RID-MS with Electro­spray Ionization mode. On the basis of HPLC with a RID detector, the 32 Korean major soybeans contain $0.37{\pm}0.26\%$ glucose, $4.55{\pm}0.91\%$ sucrose, $1.19{\pm}0.19\%$ raffinose, and $2.72{\pm}0.37\%$ stachyose on a dry basis. In 468 soybean germplasms, the ranges of glucose, sucrose, raffinose, and stachyose were $0.03 - 0.98\%$, $2.33 - 6.96\%$, $0.08 -1.87\%$ and $0.75 - 3.18\%$, respectively. Among 500 soybean samples, oligosaccharide contents of 32 Korean major cultivated soybeans and 468 soybean germplasms were varied $5.83 - 10.06\%$ and $3.66 - 10.32\%$, respectively. The composition of glucose, sucrose, raffinose, and stachyose in soluble carbo­hydrates of 500 soybean samples were $2.07 {\pm} 1.75\%$, $58.01{\pm}5.82\%$, $10.13{\pm}2.28\%$ and $29.80{\pm}4.54\%$, respectively. Sucrose appeared to be most prevalent in soy­bean soluble carbohydrates.