• Title, Summary, Keyword: starch phosphates

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Microstructural Changes of Starch Aqueous Solutions during Gelatinization and Retrogradation Studied through X-ray Scattering (X-선 산란을 이용한 전분의 호화와 노화 과정중의 미세구조 변화)

  • Kang, Min Kwan;Jeon, Hye-Jin;Song, Hyun Hoon
    • Textile Science and Engineering
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    • v.51 no.1
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    • pp.7-13
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    • 2014
  • Microstructural changes of potato and corn starch aqueous solutions associated with their gelatinization and retrogradation processes were examined through the use of small- and wide-angle X-ray scattering. It was found that the structural changes during these two processes were dominantly affected by the amount of phospholipids and phosphates contained in the starch. The phosphates contained in the amylopectin of the starch granule allow easy penetration of water into the structure, thus causing easy swelling or high solubility. This simultaneously allows greater freedom of chains, thus causing the recrystallization of the chains during the retrogradation process. On the other hand, in corn starch, which contains a lower amount of phosphates and a complex structure formed between phospholipid and amylose, the chain movements are much reduced, resulting in a higher gelatinization temperature and a reduction of recrystallization during retrogradation and a broad distribution of crystal size. In both starches, a micro-phase separated inhomogeneous structure was suggested in the amorphous state above the gelatinization temperature, which appears to be associated with the presence of highly branched amylopectin units.

Comparison of Physicochemical Properties of Starch Phosphates Prepared by Dry Heating and Extrusion Process (건식법과 Extrusion 공정에 의해 제조한 인산전분의 이화학적 성질 비교)

  • Kim, Chong-Tai;Ryu, Gi-Hyung;Kim, Dong-Chul;Kim, Chul-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.651-658
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    • 1990
  • Starch phosphates were prepared by dry heating, gelatinizing method and extrusion process using sodium tripolyphosphote (STPP) as a substitution reagent and their physicochemical properities were compared. In the preparation of starch phosphate by dry heating method(DSP), the effect of reaction temperature was the most significant to the DS(Degree of substitution). In the phosphorylation reaction with gelatinized starch(GSP), the substitution ratio was increased with increasing the reaction temperature, but the increase was insignificant above $85^{\circ}C$. By extrusion with the corn starch containing 2.0% STPP at various moisture contents of 20, 25 and 30%, the DS values of extrudate(WESP) were within the range of between 0.0066 and 0.0083. The starch phosphate(DSP) products showed lowering the gelatinization temperature, increasing the clarity of the starch paste. However, WESP showed higher gelatinization temperature than that of raw starch. The starch phosphate prepared by extrusion process showed lower apparent viscosity of paste than that of the DSP at same condition. All of starch phosphates showed reducing the tendency of the paste retrogradation.

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Product Characteristics as Factors of Process Parameters in Starch Phosphates Preparation by Twin-screw Extruder (이축압출성형기로 인산전분 제조시 Process Parameters에 따른 제품의 특성)

  • Kim, Chong-Tai;Kim, Dong-Chul;Kim, Chul-Jin;Kim, Hae-Sung
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.235-240
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    • 1991
  • Starch phosphates were prepared from the corn starch mixed with 2% sodium tripolyphosphate by twin-screw extruder with a feed rate of 20 kg/hr and an extrusion temperature of $130^{\circ}C$, and the effects of extrusion variables on the physicochemical properties (target parameters) of starch phosphates were investigated. Interrelations of system parameters (specific mechanical energy and extrudate moisture) and rheological properities of starch was analyzed by using the response surface analysis. Degree of substitution (DS) was increased with increasing the feed moisture, and showed the maximum value at the screw of near 250 rpm, Degree of gelatinization was proportionally increased with increasing the screw speed and decreasing the feed moisture. Apparent viscosity of the paste was increased with increasing the feed moisture, but it was not significantly affected by the screw speed. It was found by scanning electron microscopy that the starch microgranules were much more degradaded, and as consequent result, the intrinsic viscosity was decreased, whereas, water solubility index was increased. The rate of retrogradation of the gels was retarded with increasing DS and decreasing viscosity.

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Physicochemical Properties of Phosphorylated Rice Starch (인산 쌀 전분의 이화학적 특성)

  • 정재홍;이미현;오만진
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.244-250
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    • 1994
  • Starch phosphates were prepared by dry heating method using sodium triphosphate as a substitution reagent and their physicochemical properties were investigated with the chucheongbyeo and samkangbyeo. The solubility and swelling power of rice starches were increased by phosphorylation reaction. The solubility of the chucheongbyeo was greater than that of samkangbyeo , but the swelling power was appeared in vice versa. The transparency of raw starch was increased at the 6$0^{\circ}C$, but phosphorylated rice starch was begun to increase from 5$0^{\circ}C$. Light transmittance was higher inthe phosphorylate drice starch. The lightness of phosphyorylated rice starch decreased more than that of raw starch. Whereas the yellowness of phosphorylated rice starch increased. The temperature of initial gelatinization of the phosphorylated chucheong and samkang rice starch was shown to 5$0^{\circ}C$ and 53$^{\circ}C$, respectively. lowering 14-15$^{\circ}C$ in temperatureby the phosphorylation . The viscosity as well as by the phosphorylation reaction was raised 7.4-8.4 times, respectively. The hardness, adhesiveness, cohesiveness and texture which is rheological properties of starch gel increased by the phosphoryulation reaction. The chucheong rice starch gel was slightly higher in its rheolgocial values thanthat of the samkang rice starch gel. The rice starch particles were shown to polygonal structure, but they were deformed in the phosphorylated starch.

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A Study on Water Holding Capacity of Fish Meat Paste Products (어육(魚肉) 연제품(煉製品)의 보수력(保水力)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Kim, Mu-Nam;Jo, Sang-Joon;Lee, Kang-Ho;Choi, Jin-Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.43-52
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    • 1978
  • It is well known that water holding capacity plays an important role in processing such meat products as frankfurter-type sausage and fish meat paste products as kamaboko and fish sausage. Consumer qualities of meat products, such as appearance, flavor, as well as drip and shrinkage on cooking, depend greatly on the degree of water binding. In this paper, the water holding capacities of fish paste and salt added paste of white corvenia, Argyrosomus argentatus and file fish, Novodon modestus were measured by centrifuging and press method before and after cooking. And the effects of the addition of phosphates and starch to enhance water binding and stabilize gel formation were also discussed. In addition, the experimental conditions which are suitable to determine the water binding of fish meat paste product were suggested. The results were expressed in percent of water absorbed by the filter paper when pressed or released by pressor or centrifuge to the weight of sample. From the results. a proper condition to measure the water holding capacity of fish meat paste was that 3.0 g of sample which was previously added with 10 percent water was centrifuged at 13,400 G or 12,000 rpm for 15 minutes for the centriguging method and for press method, 0.3 g sample with 10 percent of water added was extracted by an oil pressor at $30\;kg/cm^2$ for 1 minute. Water holding capacity of fresh paste of white corvenia was relatively higher than that of file fish and the difference between species of fish was greater than the difference between measurments by two methods. Sodium chloride had a great effect on enhancing the water holding capacity of fish meat paste giving better effect when 3.0 percent of salt was added. Phosphates used except calcium phosphate revealed a certain enhancement in water binding, yielding best effect at 0.3 percent addition, and metaphosphate seemed to be more effective in order. The addition of corn starch, however, appeared to be not so effective for enhancement of water binding in fresh-salt-added fish meat paste but in cooked fish paste which might be attributed to absorption of water by starch grain and swelling during the heating and consequently enforced gel strength of cooked fish paste. And the water holding capacity of cooked fish paste was proportionally related to its gel strength.

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Effects of Reaction Conditions for Improvement of Caramelization Rate (Caramel화 반응속도 향상을 위한 반응조건의 영향)

  • Park, Cheon-Woo;Kang, Kun-Og;Kim, Woo-Jung
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.983-987
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    • 1998
  • Effects of sugars, temperature, pH and some chemicals on caramelization were investigated for improving of its reaction rates. Among the sugars tested, fructose showed the fastest reaction rate, followed by sucrose, glucose, starch syrup and maltose. As the reaction temperature increased from 80 to $110^{\circ}C$, the rate greatly increased by the range of $150{\sim}8000$ folds depending on sugars. It was indicated that pH 10 resulted in the highest reaction rate in the range of $pH{\;}4{\sim}10$. When several chemicals, such as phosphates and organic acid salts, were added to starch syrup, the rate increased by more than 10 folds, in particular effects of $K_2HPO_4$ and sodium salts of citrate, oxalate and succinate were significant.

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Studies on the Processing Functional Properities of Fish Meat by Cryogenic Crushing (냉동분쇄에 의한 어육의 가공기능성 연구)

  • 이성갑;김연수
    • Journal of the Korean Professional Engineers Association
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    • v.33 no.5
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    • pp.77-82
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    • 2000
  • In this study, effect of freezing and cryogenic crushing on physico-chemical characteristics of sardine, pollack and sqiud representative for domestic frozen fishery products was investigated and some product using them was tried to be prepared. Dehead and viscerated, washed fishes were subjection to freezing without air circulation and liquid N2 gas at -20$\^{C}$,-40$\^{C}$ and -80$\^{C}$, and then frozen fishes were crushed by hammermill, masscolloider and the product was stored added with anti-freeze such as sorbitol, phosphates, starch and egg Powder, qualify of frozen squid surimi was not changes during 70 days at below -20$\^{C}$ . The results of quality characteristics and sensory evaluation of patties and nugget which made from shattered squid and pollack were similar to commercial products in flavor, color and texture, but sardine meat was inferior to commercial products in flavor and color.

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Effect of Benzoyl Peroxide on the Activity of Drug-metabolizing Enzyme System and Lipid Peroxidation in Rats (Benzoyl peroxide가 흰쥐의 지질과산화현상에 미치는 영향)

  • Lee, H.W.;Rhee, K.S.;Hong, S.U.
    • The Korean Journal of Pharmacology
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.55-63
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    • 1982
  • Lipid peroxidation is the reaction of oxidative deterioration of polyunsaturated lipids and this peroxidation involves the direct reaction of oxygen and lipid to form free radical intermediates, which can lead to autocatalysis. As results of the extensive studies on the lipid peroxidation by many authors, the relationship between lipid peroxidation and the drug metabolizing system as well as the actions of free radicals on the peroxidation was reasonably well known. For a long time, the mechanism of hepatotoxicity of $CCl_4$ was not clearly understood. However, it is now quite well established that $CCl_4$ is activated in vivo to a free radical which is a highly reactive molecule. Therefore, lipid peroxidation which induces the reduction of cytochrome P-450 and aminopyrine demethylase activity is known as decisive event of $CCl_4$ hepatotoxicity. On the other hand, it was also reported that singlet molecular oxygen produces lipid peroxidation in liver microsomes. In this study the effects of benzoyl peroxide on the lipid peroxidation and drug-metabolizing enzyme were examined. Benzoyl peroxide mixed with starch and phosphates etc. is usually used as a food additive for flour bleaching and maturing purpose because of its oxidative property. Albino rats were used for the experimental animals. Benzoyl peroxide was suspended in soybean oil and sesame oil and administered intraperitoneally or orally. TBA value and aminopyrine demethylase activity were determined in liver microsomal fraction and serum. The results were summerized as following. 1) Body weights of animals administered benzoyl peroxide suspension were decreased while that of oil administered group were increased. 2) The activity of aminopyrine demethylase was generally decreased in animals administered oil suspension of benzoyl peroxide. Furthermore, the marked reduction of the enzyme activity was observed in animals administered benzoyl peroxide intraperitoneally. 3) Generally, microsomal TBA values as well as serum TBA were significantly elevated in benzoyl peroxide group in comparison with the control group. However, the more remarkable increase of serum TBA than microsomal TBA was observed in animals administered orally for 6 days. 4) Specifically, the changing pattern of TBA value was notable in serum rather than in liver microsome by intraperitoneal administration of benzoyl peroxide.

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Processing of Sausage Using Duck Mechanically Deboned Meat (오리 기계발골육을 이용한 Sausage 제조)

  • 강동수;최옥수;박욱민
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.8-15
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    • 2002
  • In this paper we dealt with processing of sausage using duck mechanically deboned meat(duck-MDM). The results may be summarized as follows : 1) after semi-thawing of freezing duck-MDM at $25^{\circ}C$ for 3 hours and cutting as thin, 2) alkali washing at low temperature for 4 hours by 0.2% NaHCO$_3$and 0.15% NaCl, 3) curing at low temperature for 4 hours, 4) after washing and dehydrating(moisture 80%), 5) grinding at low temperature for 55 minutes by silent cutter such as 1st grinding for 10 minutes added only dehydrated meat, 2rd grinding for 30 minutes added salt in 1st grinded meat and 3rd grinding for 15 minutes added other additives, 6) after quick casing in PVDC film and heating at 9$0^{\circ}C$ for 80 minutes, 7) cooling to below room temperature. The additives added at 3rd grinding process were Polymix-CA(0.3%), Polymix-CS(0.3%), polyphosphate(0.3%), sugar(4.2%), potato starch(8.0%), pyre-phosphates(0.3%), isolated soy protein(7.0%), MSG(0.2%), onion powder(0.5%), garlic powder(0.1%), nutmeg (1.5%), potassium sorbate(<0.1%), food red no.40(0.0075%), egg albumin(7.0%) and gluten(3.0%).