• Title, Summary, Keyword: stars: formation

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ASTROPHYSICS OF DUSTY STELLAR WINDS FROM AGB STARS

  • Suh, Kyung-Won
    • Journal of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.47 no.6
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    • pp.219-233
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    • 2014
  • The main site of dust formation is believed to be the cool envelopes around AGB stars. Nearly all AGB stars can be identified as long-period variables (LPVs) with large amplitude pulsation. Shock waves produce by the strong pulsation and radiation pressure on newly formed dust grains drive dusty stellar winds with high mass-loss rates. IR observations of AGB stars identify various dust species in different physical conditions. Radio observations of gas phase materials are helpful to understand the overall properties of the stellar winds. In this paper, we review (i) classification of AGB stars; (ii) IR two-color diagrams of AGB stars; (iii) pulsation of AGB stars; (iv) dust around AGB stars including dusty stellar winds; (v) dust envelopes around AGB stars; (vi) mass-loss and evolution of AGB stars; and (vii) contribution of AGB dust to galactic environments. We discuss various observational evidences and their theoretical interpretations.

INFLOWS IN MASSIVE STAR FORMATION REGIONS

  • WU, YUEFANG;LIU, TIE;QIN, SHENGLI
    • Publications of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.93-97
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    • 2015
  • How high-mass stars form is currently unclear. Calculations suggest that the radiation pressure of a forming star can halt spherical infall, preventing further growth when it reaches $10M_{\odot}$. Two major theoretical models on the further growth of stellar mass have been proposed. One model suggests the merging of less massive stellar objects, and the other is through accretion, but with the help of a disk. Inflow motions are key evidence for how forming stars gain further mass to build up massive stars. Recent developments in technology have boosted the search for inflow motion. A number of high-mass collapse candidates were obtained with single dish observations, and mostly showed blue profiles. Infalling signatures seem to be more common in regions which have developed radiation pressure than in younger cores, which is the opposite of the theoretical prediction and is also very different from observations of low mass star formation. Interferometer studies so far confirm this tendency with more obvious blue profiles or inverse P Cygni profiles. Results seem to favor the accretion model. However, the evolution of the infall motion in massive star forming cores needs to be further explored. Direct evidence for monolithic or competitive collapse processes is still lacking. ALMA will enable us to probe more detail of the gravitional processes.

RECENT PROGRESS IN HIGH-MASS STAR-FORMATION STUDIES WITH ALMA

  • Hirota, Tomoya
    • Publications of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.21-30
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    • 2018
  • Formation processes of high-mass stars have been long-standing issues in astronomy and astrophysics. This is mainly because of major difficulties in observational studies such as a smaller number of high-mass young stellar objects (YSOs), larger distances, and more complex structures in young high-mass clusters compared with nearby low-mass isolated star-forming regions (SFRs), and extremely large opacity of interstellar dust except for centimeter to submillimeter wavelengths. High resolution and high sensitivity observations with Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA) at millimeter/submillimeter wavelengths will overcome these observational difficulties even for statistical studies with increasing number of high-mass YSO samples. This review will summarize recent progresses in high-mass star-formation studies with ALMA such as clumps and filaments in giant molecular cloud complexes and infrared dark clouds (IRDCs), protostellar disks and outflows in dense cores, chemistry, masers, and accretion bursts in high-mass SFRs.

DUST SHELL MODELS FOR LOW MASS-LOSS RATE OXYGEN-RICH AGB STARS

  • SUH KYUNG-WON
    • Journal of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.267-270
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    • 2005
  • We investigate the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of low mass-loss rate O-rich asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars using the infrared observational data including the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) data. Comparing the results of detailed radiative transfer model calculations with observations, we find that the dust formation temperature is much lower than 1000 K for standard dust shell models. We find that the superwind model with a density-enhanced region can be a possible alternative dust shell model for LMOA stars.

MOLECULAR OUTFLOWS AND THE FORMATION PROCESS OF VERY LOW-MASS OBJECTS

  • PHAN-BAO, NGOC;DANG-DUC, CUONG;LEE, CHIN-FEI;HO, PAUL T.P.
    • Publications of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.83-86
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    • 2015
  • We present observational results characterizing molecular outflows from very low-mass objects in ${\rho}$ Ophiuchi and Taurus. Our results provide us with important implications that clarify the formation process of very low-mass objects.

Characteristic Mass Function of First Generation of Stars Investigated by Extremely Metal-Poor ([Fe/H] < -3.0) Stars

  • Cheon, Sehwan;Lee, Young Sun
    • The Bulletin of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.44 no.1
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    • pp.68.3-68.3
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    • 2019
  • Even though the initial mass function (IMF) of the first generation of stars played important roles in reionization of the universe, subsequent star formation, and chemical enrichment of the universe, it is still very uncertain. In this study, among the several indirect ways of estimating the IMF of the population III (Pop III) stars, we make use of extremely metal-poor (EMP; [Fe/H] < -3.0) stars in the Milky Way, in order to infer the characteristic mass range of Pop III stars. As the progenitors of many of the EMP stars are known to be Pop III stars, we attempt to construct the characteristic mass range of the progenitors (e.g., Pop III stars) of the EMP stares by comparing their observed abundance pattern of various chemical elements with chemical yields from supernova models.

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New insights on the origin of multiple stellar populations in globular clusters

  • Kim, Jaeyeon;Lee, Young-Wook
    • The Bulletin of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.43 no.1
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    • pp.46.1-46.1
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    • 2018
  • In order to investigate the origin of multiple stellar populations in the halo and bulge of the Milky Way, we have constructed chemical evolution models for the low-mass proto-Galactic subsystems such as globular clusters. Unlike previous studies, we assume that supernova blast waves undergo blowout without expelling the pre-enriched gas, while relatively slow winds of massive stars, together with the winds and ejecta from low and intermediate mass asymptotic-giant-branch stars, are all locally retained in these less massive systems. We find that the observed Na-O anti-correlations in metal-poor GCs can be reproduced when multiple episodes of starbursts are allowed to continue in these subsystems. A specific form of star formation history with decreasing time intervals between the stellar generations, however, is required to obtain this result, which is in good agreement with the parameters obtained from our stellar evolution models for the horizontal-branch. The "mass budget problem" is also much alleviated by our models without ad-hoc assumptions on star formation efficiency and initial mass function. We also applied these models to investigate the origin of super helium-rich red clump stars in the metal-rich bulge as recently suggested by Lee et al. (2015). We find that chemical enrichments by the winds of massive stars can naturally reproduce the required helium enhancement (dY/dZ = 6) for the second-generation stars. Disruption of proto-globular clusters in a hierarchical merging paradigm would have provided helium enhanced stars to the bulge field.

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On the origin of Na-O anticorrelation in globular clusters

  • Kim, Jaeyeon;Lee, Young-Wook
    • The Bulletin of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.42 no.1
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    • pp.49.1-49.1
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    • 2017
  • In order to investigate the origin of multiple stellar populations in the halo and bulge of the Milky Way, we have constructed chemical evolution models for the low-mass proto-Galactic subsystems such as globular clusters (GCs). Unlike previous studies, we assume that supernova blast waves undergo blowout without expelling the pre-enriched gas, while relatively slow winds of massive stars, together with the winds and ejecta from low and intermediate mass asymptotic giant branch stars, are all locally retained in these less massive systems. We first applied these models to investigate the origin of super-helium-rich red clump stars in the metal-rich bulge as recently suggested by Lee et al. (2015). We find that chemical enrichments by the winds of massive stars can naturally reproduce the required helium enhancement (dY/dZ = 6) for the second generation stars. Disruption of these "building blocks" in a hierarchical merging paradigm would have provided helium enhanced stars to the bulge field. Interestingly, we also find that the observed Na-O anticorrelation in metal-poor GCs can be reproduced, when multiple episodes of starbursts are allowed to continue in these subsystems. Specific star formation history with decreasing time intervals between the stellar generations, however, is required to obtain this result, as would be expected from the orbital evolution of these subsystems in a proto-Galaxy. The "mass budget problem" is also much alleviated by our models without ad-hoc assumptions on star formation efficiency and initial mass function.

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