• Title, Summary, Keyword: stars: formation

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Molecular gas and star formation in early-type galaxies

  • Bureau, Martin
    • The Bulletin of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.65-65
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    • 2011
  • Early-type galaxies represent the end point of galaxy evolution and, despite pervasive residual star formation, are generally considered "red and dead", that is composed exclusively of old stars with no star formation. Here, their molecular gas content is constrained and discussed in relation to their evolution, supporting the continuing importance of minor mergers and/or cold gas accretion. First, as part of the Atlas3D survey, the first complete, large, volume-limited survey of CO in normal early-type galaxies is presented. At least of 23% of local early-types possess a substantial amount of molecular gas, the necessary ingredient for star formation, independent of mass and environment but dependent on the specific stellar angular momentum. Second, using CO synthesis imaging, the extent of the molecular gas is constrained and a variety of morphologies is revealed. The kinematics of the molecular gas and stars are often misaligned, implying an external gas origin in over a third of all systems, more than half in the field, while external gas accretion must be shot down in clusters. Third, many objects appear to be in the process of forming regular kpc-size decoupled disks, and a star formation sequence can be sketched by piecing together multi-wavelength information on the molecular gas, current star formation, and young stars. Fourth, early-type galaxies do not seem to systematically obey all our usual prejudices regarding star formation (e.g. Schmidt-Kennicutt law, far infrared-radio continuum correlation), suggesting a greater diversity in star formation processes than observed in disk galaxies and the possibility of "morphological quenching". Lastly, a first step toward constraining the physical properties of the molecular gas is taken, by modeling the line ratios of density- and opacity-sensitive molecules in a few objects. Taken together, these observations argue for the continuing importance of (minor) mergers and cold gas accretion in local early-types, and they provide a much greater understanding of the gas cycle in the galaxies harbouring most of the stellar mass. In the future, better dust masses and dust-to-gas mass ratios from Herschel should allow to place entirely independent constraints on the gas supply, while spatially-resolved high-density molecular gas tracers observed with ALMA will probe the interstellar medium and star formation laws locally in a regime entirely different from that normally probed in spiral galaxies.

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TIME-DEPENDENT INITIAL MASS FUNCTION AND PRESENT DAY MASS FUNCTION OF OPEN CLUSTERS

  • Lee, See-Woo;Kim, Yong-Ha
    • Journal of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.43-54
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    • 1983
  • The present day mass functions of main sequence stars in the well observed open clusters, Hyades, Praesepe, Pleiades, NGC 654 and NGC 6530 arc derived and compared with those computed from the model of time-dependent initial mass function and star formation rate. The agreements between the observed and computed present day mass functions suggest the importance of fragmentation process at the early phase and fragment interaction at the later phase of cluster evolution. This process of star formation is different from that related to the evolution of the solar neighborhood, and also could explain the lack of low mass stars observed in some open clusters.

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Cosmic Infrared Background from the First Stars and Relic H II Regions

  • Ahn, Kyung-Jin
    • The Bulletin of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.72.2-72.2
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    • 2011
  • We have performed the first self-consistent, large-scale simulation of cosmic reionization by stellar sources, including the Population III stars that emerged and were hosted by minihalos at very high redshifts (z~40). Based on this result, we calculate the redshifted radiation background from these stars and the relic H II regions which can be observed at near-infrared and infrared regime. Formation of the first stars inside minihalos are quenched by radiative feedback at z~15, while the relic H II regions have much longer lifetime due to the slow recombination rate. Therefore, the radiation output from the relic H II regions, dominated by Lyman alpha photons, will be observed both in the near-infrared and infrared regime. The estimated background from the first stars inside minihalos are still sub-dominant compared to that from stars inside larger halos, however, and thus complementary observations are necessary, such as redshifted 21-cm line observation.

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A Small Star Forming Region in the Molecular Cloud MBM 110

  • Sung, Hwankyung;Bessell, M.S.;Song, Inseog
    • The Bulletin of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.43 no.2
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    • pp.51.3-51.3
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    • 2018
  • MBM 110 is one of the molecular clouds at high Galactic latitude discovered by Magnani et al., and is one of a dozen cometary clouds in the Orion-Eridanus superbubble. We have conducted optical photometry and spectroscopy for a comprehensive study of the region. Recently released Gaia DR2 astrometric data as well as WISE mid-infrared data were used for the complete census of member stars. We select 17 member stars with $H{\alpha}$ emission and/or Li absorption. The total mass of stars in the region is only about $16M{\odot}$. We found that the star formation efficiency in the region is less than 5%. We discuss the origin of the cloud and the star formation history in MBM 110.

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A Hydrodynamic Study of Stellar Wind Accretion in S-type Symbiotic Stars

  • Lee, Young-Min;Kim, Hyosun;Lee, Hee-Won
    • The Bulletin of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.44 no.2
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    • pp.72.1-72.1
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    • 2019
  • Symbiotic stars are wide binary systems of a white dwarf and a mass losing giant, exhibiting various activities mainly attributed to accretion of a fraction of slow stellar wind emanating from the giant. We perform 3 dimensional hydrodynamical simulations using the FLASH code to investigate the formation and physical structures of an accretion disk in symbiotic stars with binary separation in the range of 2-4 au. Radiative cooling is introduced in the flow in order to avoid acute pressure increase in the vicinity of the accretor that may prevent stable disk formation. By setting the same density condition in front of the bow shock generated in two different velocity fields, the role of ram pressure balancing between the disk and the wind is examined. We find that three main streams (direct stream from the giant, stream following the accretion wake, and stream passing through the bow shock front) all feed the disk, and their individual contributions on the mass accretion onto the white dwarf are explored.

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Abundances of refractory elements for stars with extrasolar planets : New samples

  • Park, Sun-Kyung;Kang, Won-Seok;Lee, Sang-Gak;Lee, Jeong-Eun
    • The Bulletin of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.147.1-147.1
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    • 2011
  • We investigate the chemical differentiation in F, G, K type stars with and without planets to extend the work by Kang et al. (2011) to various spectral types. Since the primordial chemical composition has been preserved in the stellar atmosphere, stellar metallicity can provide the information on the primordial material, which is the potential building block of planets. Therefore, we can explore the favored conditions for planet formation through the comparison of chemical compositions between planet-host stars (PHSs) and stars without planets. In this work, we analyze 19 F, G, and K type stars. In each spectrum, we measure equivalent widths (EWs) of Fe, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, and Ni using TAME (Tools for Automatic Measurement of Equivalent width). The abundances of these species can be derived with the measured EWs and MOOG code (Sneden 1973). Like results by precedent studies, we find that planet-host stars have abundances higher than stars without planets. The typical difference in the abundances of Na, Mn, Co and Ni is $0.4{\pm}0.2dex$. In addition, as found in Kang et al. (2011), Mn is the most different element between PHSs and comparison stars.

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Stellar Content of the Massive Young Open Cluster Westerlund 2

  • Hur, Hyeonoh;Park, Byeong-Gon;Sung, Hwankyung;Lim, Beomdu;Chun, Moo-Young;Bessell, Michael S.;Sohn, Sangmo Tony
    • The Bulletin of The Korean Astronomical Society
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.84.1-84.1
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    • 2014
  • We report the spatial distribution of early-type stars and pre-main-sequence (PMS) stars around the starburst type young open cluster Westerlund 2. The early-type were selected from UBVI photometric data, while the PMS members were identified from their X-ray emission and mid-infrared excess. The northern clump of the cluster is composed mainly of PMS stars detected in both optical and X-ray and seems to be coeval to the cluster, while PMS stars in the bright bridge region are highly obscured in optical wavelength. The bright bridge appear to be an on-going star forming region possibly triggered by the strong radiation field from both sides-massive stars in Westerlund 2 and WR 20b. We also found that there are many early-type stars not only in the cluster but also farther from the cluster up to several times of the cluster radius. These early-type stars are well aligned from east to southwest of the cluster. We conclude these early-type stars are members of an OB association in the RCW 49 nebula. This report indicates there is a complex star formation history in Westerlund 2 and its surrounding H II region, the RCW 49 nebula.

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