• Title, Summary, Keyword: starter culture

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A Strategy for Cheese Starter Culture Management in Australia

  • Lim, Sow-Tin;Gaetan, K.Y.;Bruinenberg, Paul-G.;Powell, Ian-B.
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 1997
  • The efficient manufacture of fermented dairy products on an industrial scale requires a supply of reliable starter cultures with properties suited to desired product specifications. These cultures must be backed by relevant research and development activities. This article describes the issues involved in establishing a centre to provide starter culture R & D for a group of independent cheese manufacturing companies, and discusses a strategic approach to the management of starter cultures.

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Starter Culture for the Meat Fermentation

  • Kim, Seung-Hwa;Min, Sang-Gi
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Food Science of Animal Resources Conference
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    • pp.40-49
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    • 1997
  • 육제품 제조용 starter culture에 대한 연구는 기초과학을 바탕으로 관련 미생물의 생리대사 특성은 물론 이들의 환경적응성이나 상업적인 생산공정개발에 이르기까지 상당한 발전을 거듭해 왔다. 특히, 최근에 와서 유전공학의 응용으로 starter균주의 대사능력을 조절할 수 있고 생물학적 안전성을 쉽게 검증할수 있을 뿐만 아니라 원하는 활력을 안전하게 보존할 수 있도록 하는 연구도 진행되고 있다. 미생물의 생육환경인 육의 발효과정에 대한 연구를 통하여 육제품 starter culture개발의 근간이 되는 지식을 얻게 되었으며 어떤 요인이 발효과정중 starter 균주의 대사능력과 성장에 영향을 주는지 또한 발효과정중 starter culture간의 상호작용 및 starter와 윈래 혼합육에 존재하는 균들사이에서 일어나는 상호작용에 관한연구, 나아가서는 Bacteriocine과 Bacteriophage가 육제품제조에서 어떤 의미를 갖고 있는지 등에 관한 연구도 활발히 이루어지고 있다. 특히 이런 연구결과들을 통하여 이들 starter의 실제 상업적인 이용에 있어 원료육이나 부재료, 향신료의 선정은 물론 제조 공정을 제어하여 제품의 안전성을 기대할 수 있을 뿐만아니라 하나의 starter culture로 여러 종류의 발효sausage를 제조하여도 제품마다 최상의 능력을 발휘할 수 있는 새로운 균주의 개발에도 기여할 수 있다. 스타타컬쳐에 대한 연구상황은 균주별로 다르나 유산균에 대하여 가장 많이 연구되어 있고 Micrococci에 대한 연구도 상당히 진전되어 있다. 특히할만한 점은 아시아의 발효생선이 육제품 발효에 이용되는 Staphylococcus carnosus종의 habitat로 밝혀진 것이다. 뿐만 아니라 곰팡이 균주도 실제 praxis에 적합하게 개발시킬수 있다. 따라서 앞으로 발효육제품제조에 있어 starter culture가 갖는 의미는 매우 중요하며 특히 짧은 숙성기간을 거치는 발효소시지의 제조에 있어서는 필수불가결한 공정의 한 분야로 자리잡게 될 것이다.

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The Effect of Glucono delta Lactone, Starter Clulture and NaCl on the Production of Staphylococcal Enterotoxign A in the Processing of Fermented Sausage (발효 소세지의 숙성 중 Starter Culture, Glucono delta Lactone 및 소금첨가량이 Staphylococcal Enterotoxin의 생성에 미치는 영향)

  • Shin, Heuyn-Kil;Jin, Young-Ku;Lee, Young-Jin;Park, Woo-Moon;Kim, Jong-Bae
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.150-156
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    • 1991
  • This research was conducted to investigate the effect of starter culture(Lactobacillus plantarum), glucono-delta-lactone(GdL), and NaCl on the production of staphylococcal enterotoxin A in the processing of fermented sausages. With the increasing amount of GdL(0, 0.23, 0.50 and 0.75%) added the production of enterotoxin was significantly decreased(p>0.01). Lactobacillus plantarum as starter culture were inoculated at the level of $10^6\;cells/g$. When GdL was not added, the amount of production of enterotoxin in the group with and without the starter culture were 40 and 80 ng/10g, respectively. With the addition of 0.5%, GdL, the maximum amount of enterotoxin produced in the group with and without starter culture were 30 and 50 ng/10g. These results showed the inhibiting effect of starter culture in the production of enterotoxin. When the amount of enterotoxin production was compared with the addition of 2.7 and 1.7% NaCl, the production of enterotoxin was higher at 2.7% NaCl level.

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Effects of Starter Cultures on Physicochemical Properties of Fermented Sausages

  • Yim, Dong-Gyun;Chung, Yi-Hyung;Nam, Ki-Chang
    • The Korean Journal of Food And Nutrition
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    • v.30 no.5
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    • pp.1105-1112
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    • 2017
  • Fermented sausages prepared by inoculation with different starter cultures were analyzed for their physicochemical characteristics. Three types of fermented sausages were processed separately, without starter culture (control), with a commercial culture mix, and culture mix plus Lactobacillus plantarum (LP). On proximate analysis, two inoculated sausages showed an increase in moisture and fat contents (p<0.05). The inoculated sausages showed lower hardness and gumminess values (p<0.05) than control. The combination of starter culture with LP displayed the lowest chewiness and cohesiveness values and showed a more intensive red color (p<0.05). Two inoculated batches showed significantly lower pH values and water activity than control, in accordance with the increase in lactic acid bacteria (p<0.05). The inoculated sausages reduced the extent of lipid oxidation (p<0.05) and induced an increase in lauric acid, linoleic acid, eicosadienoic acid, and arachidonic acid, as well as they had a higher polyunsaturated fatty acid content and ratio of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids (p<0.05). The addition of LP to the starter culture in a suitable combination resulted in a positive effect on the physicochemical and microbiological attributes of fermented sausages.

Selection of indigenous starter culture for safety and its effect on reduction of biogenic amine content in Moo som

  • Tangwatcharin, Pussadee;Nithisantawakhup, Jiraroj;Sorapukdee, Supaluk
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.32 no.10
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    • pp.1580-1590
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    • 2019
  • Objective: The aims of this study were to select one strain of Lactobacillus plantarum (L. plantarum) for a potential indigenous safe starter culture with low level antibiotic resistant and low biogenic amine production and evaluate its effect on biogenic amines reduction in Moo som. Methods: Three strains of indigenous L. plantarum starter culture (KL101, KL102, and KL103) were selected based on their safety including antibiotic resistance and decarboxylase activity, and fermentation property as compared with a commercial starter culture (L. plantarum TISIR543). Subsequently, the effect of the selected indigenous safe starter culture on biogenic amines formation during Moo som fermentation was studied. Results: KL102 and TISIR 543 were susceptible to penicillin G, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, gentamycin, streptomycin, vancomycin, ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim (MIC90 ranging from 0.25 to $4{\mu}g/mL$). All strains were negative amino acid-decarboxylase for lysis of biogenic amines in screening medium. For fermentation in Moo som broth, a relatively high maximum growth rate of KL102 and TISIR543 resulted in a generation time than in the other strains (p<0.05). These strain counts were constant during the end of fermentation. Similarly, KL102 or TISIR543 addition supported increases of lactic acid bacterial count and total acidity in Moo som fermentation. For biogenic amine reduction, tyramine, putrescine, histamine and spermine contents in Moo som decreased significantly by the addition KL102 during 1 d of fermentation (p<0.05). In final product, histamine, spermine and tryptamine contents in Moo som inoculated with KL102 were lower amount those with TISIR543 (p<0.05). Conclusion: KL102 was a suitable starter culture to reduce the biogenic amine formation in Moo som.

Evaluation of Fermented Sausages Manufactured with Reduced-fat and Functional Starter Cultures on Physicochemical, Functional and Flavor Characteristics

  • Kim, Young Joo;Park, Sung Yong;Lee, Hong Cheol;Yoo, Seung Seok;Oh, Se Jong;Kim, Hyeong Sang;Chin, Koo Bok
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.346-354
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    • 2014
  • Fermented foods with probiotics having functional properties may provide beneficial effects on health. These effects are varied, depending on the type of lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Different probiotic LAB might have different functional properties. Thus, this study was performed to evaluate the quality of fermented sausages manufactured with functional starter cultures (Lactobacillus plantarum 115 and 167, and Pediococcus damnosus L12) and different fat levels, and to determine the optimum condition for the manufacture of these products. Medium-fat (~15%) fermented sausages reduced the drying time and cholesterol contents, as compared to regular-fat counterparts. In proximate analysis, the contents of moisture and protein of regular-fat products were lower than medium-fat with reduced fat content. The regular-fat products also had a lighter color and less redness, due to reduced fat content. Approximately 35 volatile compounds were identified in functional fermented sausages, and hexanal, trans-caryophyllene, and tetradecanal were the major volatile compounds. Selected mixed starter culture showed the potential possibility of replacing the commercial starter culture (LK30 plus) in flavor profiles. However, medium-fat fermented sausage containing selected mixed starter culture tended to be less acceptable than their high-fat counterparts, due to excess dry ring developed in the surface. These results indicate that the use of combinations of L. plantarum 115 and 167, and P. damnosus L12 as a starter culture, will prove useful for manufacturing the fermented sausage.

Evaluation of Mixed Probiotic Starter Cultures Isolated from Kimchi on Physicochemical and Functional Properties, and Volatile Compounds of Fermented Hams

  • Kim, Young Joo;Park, Sung Yong;Lee, Hong Chul;Yoo, Seung Seok;Oh, Sejong;Kim, Kwang Hyun;Chin, Koo Bok
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.36 no.1
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    • pp.122-130
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    • 2016
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of mixed starter cultures isolated from kimchi on physicochemical properties, functionality and flavors of fermented ham. Physicochemical properties, microbial counts, shear force, cholesterol contents and volatile compounds of fermented ham were investigated during processing (curing and ripening time). Curing process for 7 d increased saltiness, however, decreased hunter color values (L, a, and b values). Ripening process for 21 d increased most parameters, such as saltiness, color values, weight loss, shear force and cholesterol content due to the drying process. The mixed starter culture had higher lactic acid bacteria than the commercial one. While eight volatile compounds were identified from fermented hams during curing process, total fiftyeight volatile compounds were identified from fermented hams during ripening process. The main volatile compounds were alcohols, esters and furans. However, no differences in volatile compounds were observed between two batches. Fermented hams (batch B) manufactured with probiotic starter culture (LPP) had higher sensory score in texture, color and overall acceptability than counterparts (batch A), while the opposite trend was observed in flavor. Therefore, mixed probiotic starter culture isolated from kimchi might be used as a starter culture to be able to replace with commercial starter culture (LK-30 plus) for the manufacture of fermented ham.

Effects of the Addition Levels of White Kimchi Powder and Acerola Juice Powder on the Qualities of Indirectly Cured Meat Products

  • Choi, Jae Hyeong;Bae, Su Min;Jeong, Jong Youn
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.636-648
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    • 2020
  • This study investigated the effects of the addition levels of white kimchi powder and acerola juice powder, as natural sources of sodium nitrite and sodium ascorbate, on the quality of cooked ground pork products. Freeze-dried white kimchi powder was prepared and used after fermentation for 2 wk. Six treatments were included: control (100 ppm sodium nitrite and 500 ppm sodium ascorbate), treatment 1 (0.2% white kimchi powder, 0.02 % starter culture, and 0.1% acerola juice powder), treatment 2 (0.2% white kimchi powder, 0.02% starter culture, and 0.2% acerola juice powder), treatment 3 (0.4% white kimchi powder, 0.04% starter culture, and 0.1% acerola juice powder), treatment 4 (0.4% white kimchi powder, 0.04% starter culture, and 0.2% acerola juice powder), and treatment 5 (0.4% celery powder, 0.04% starter culture, and 0.2% acerola juice powder). The pH values were decreased (p<0.05) because of lower pH of acerola juice powder, resulting in lower cooking yields (p<0.05) in these treatments. CIE L* and CIE a* values of indirectly cured meat products were not different (p>0.05) from the sodium nitrite-added control. However, indirectly cured meat products showed lower (p<0.05) residual nitrite contents, but higher (p<0.05) nitrosyl hemochrome contents and cure efficiency than the control. Treatments 2 and 4 had higher (p<0.05) total pigment contents and lipid oxidation than the control. This study indicates that white kimchi powder coupled with acerola juice powder has substantial potential to substitute synthetic nitrite to naturally cured meat products, which could be favored by consumers seeking clean label products.

Selection and Characterization of Staphylococcus hominis subsp. hominis WiKim0113 Isolated from Kimchi as a Starter Culture for the Production of Natural Pre-converted Nitrite

  • Hwang, Hyelyeon;Lee, Ho Jae;Lee, Mi-Ai;Sohn, Hyejin;Chang, You Hyun;Han, Sung Gu;Jeong, Jong Youn;Lee, Sung Ho;Hong, Sung Wook
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.512-526
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    • 2020
  • Synthetic nitrite is considered an undesirable preservative for meat products; thus, controlling synthetic nitrite concentrations is important from the standpoint of food safety. We investigated 1,000 species of microorganisms from various kimchi preparations for their potential use as a starter culture for the production of nitrites. We used 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis to select a starter culture with excellent nitrite and nitric oxide productivity, which we subsequently identified as Staphylococcus hominis subspecies hominis WiKim0113. That starter culture was grown in NaCl (up to 9%; w/v) at 10℃-40℃; its optimum growth was observed at 30℃ at pH 4.0-10.0. It exhibited nonproteolytic activity and antibacterial activity against Clostridium perfringens, a bacterium that causes food poisoning symptoms. Analysis of Staphylococcus hominis subspecies hominis WiKim0113 with an API ZYM system did not reveal the presence of β-glucuronidase, and tests of the starter culture on 5% (v/v) sheep blood agar showed no hemolytic activity. Our results demonstrated the remarkable stability of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus hominis subspecies hominis WiKim0113, especially in strain negative for staphylococcal enterotoxins and sensitive to clinically relevant antibiotics. Moreover, Staphylococcus hominis subspecies hominis WiKim0113 exhibited a 45.5% conversion rate of nitrate to nitrite, with nitrate levels reduced to 25% after 36 h of culturing in the minimal medium supplemented with nitrate (200 ppm). The results clearly demonstrated the safety and utility of Staphylococcus hominis subspecies hominis WiKim0113, and therefore its suitability as a starter culture.

Manufacturing and Quality Characteristics of the Cheonggukjang Fermented Using Starter Derived from Rice Straw Removed Bacillus cereus Selectively (Bacillus cereus가 선택적으로 제거된 볏짚유래 스타터를 이용한 청국장의 제조 및 품질특성)

  • Lee, Eun-Sil;Song, Ye-Ji;Kim, Kwang-Pyo;Yim, Eun-Jung;Jeong, Do-Yeon;Cho, Sung-Ho
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.65-73
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    • 2015
  • The purpose of this study is to evaluate quality characteristics of the Cheonggukjang produced using rice straw-derived Bacillus cereus free starter culture (RiBS1). The Cheonggukjang was prepared in 0.1 and 1.0% inoculum concentrations of starter culture and fermented from 12 hr to 72 hr at 40 and $50^{\circ}C$. Amino-nitrogen contents after 48 hr fermentation were 559.6~590.2 mg% and 393.8~494.0 mg% at 40 and $50^{\circ}C$, respectively. Sensory evaluation showed that the Cheonggukjang fermented using RiBS1 starter for 48 hr at $50^{\circ}C$ was better than the control. And we inspected on B. cereus and biogenic amine in the Cheonggukjang produced using RiBS1 starter. As a results, B. cereus was not detected and histamine and tyramine of biogenic amine were $5.53{\pm}0.13{\sim}39.96{\pm}0.62mg/kg$. This research results showed that rice straw-derived B. cereus free starter culture (RiBS1) will be produce the Cheonggukjang with good flavour and taste.