• Title, Summary, Keyword: stay cable

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Theoretical investigation on rain-wind induced vibration of a continuous stay cable with given rivulet motion

  • Li, Shouying;Chen, Zhengqing;Li, Shouke
    • Wind and Structures
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.481-503
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    • 2014
  • A new theoretical model on rain-wind induced vibration (RWIV) of a continuous stay cable is developed in this paper. Different from the existing theoretical analyses in which the cable was modeled as a segmental rigid element, the proposed scheme focuses on the in-plane and out-of-plane responses of a continuous stay cable, which is identical with the prototype cable on cable-stayed bridge. In order to simplify the complexities, the motion law of the rivulet on the cable surface is assumed as a sinusoidal way according to some results obtained from wind tunnel tests. Quasi-steady theory is utilized to determine the aerodynamic forces on the cable. Equations of motion of the cable are derived in a Cartesian Coordinate System and solved by using finite difference method to obtain the in-plane and out-of-plane responses of the cable. The results show that limited cable amplitudes are achieved within a limited range of wind velocity, which is a unique characteristic of RWIV of stay cable. It appears that the in-plane cable amplitude is much larger than the out-of-plane cable amplitude. Rivulet frequency, rivulet distribution along cable axis, and mean wind velocity profile, all have significant effects on the RWIV responses of the prototype stay cable. The effects of damping ratio on RWIVs of stay cables are carefully investigated, which suggests that damping ratio of 1% is needed to well mitigate RWIVs of prototype stay cables.

Using cable finite elements to analyze parametric vibrations of stay cables in cable-stayed bridges

  • Wu, Qingxiong;Takahashi, Kazuo;Chen, Baochun
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.23 no.6
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    • pp.691-711
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    • 2006
  • This paper uses the finite element method to simultaneously consider the coupled cable-deck vibrations and the parametric vibrations of stay cables in dynamic analysis of a cable-stayed bridge. The stay cables are represented by some cable finite elements, which can consider the parametric vibration of the cables. In addition to modeling stay cables using multiple link cable elements, a procedure for removing the self-weight term of cable element is proposed. A eigenvalue analysis process using dynamic condensation method for sorting out the natural modes of the girder-tower vibrations and the Rayleigh damping considering element damping for damping matrix are also proposed for dynamic analyses of cable-stayed bridges. The possibilities of using cable elements and of using global and local vibrations to evaluate the parametric vibrations of stay cables in a cable-stayed bridge are confirmed, respectively.

Experimental investigation on multi-mode vortex-induced vibration control of stay cable installed with pounding tuned mass dampers

  • Liu, Min;Yang, Wenhan;Chen, Wenli;Li, Hui
    • Smart Structures and Systems
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    • v.23 no.6
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    • pp.579-587
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    • 2019
  • In this paper, pounding tuned mass dampers (PTMDs) were designed to mitigate the multi-mode vortex-induced vibration (VIV) of stay cable utilizing the viscous-elastic material's energy-dissipated ability. The PTMD device consists of a cantilever metal rod beam, a metal mass block and a specially designed damping element covered with viscous-elastic material layer. Wind-tunnel experiment on VIV of stay cable model was set up to validate the effectiveness of the PTMD on multi-mode VIV mitigation of stay cable. By analyzing and comparing testing results of all testing cases, it could be verified that the PTMD with viscous-elastic pounding boundary can obviously mitigate the VIV amplitude of the stay cable. Moreover, the installed location and the design parameters of the PTMD device based on the controlled modes of the primary stay cable, would have a certain extent suppression on the other modal vibration of the stay cable, which means that the designed PTMDs are effective among a large band of frequency for the multi-mode VIV control of the stay cable.

Vibration mitigation of stay cable using optimally tuned MR damper

  • Huang, Hongwei;Sun, Limin;Jiang, Xiaolu
    • Smart Structures and Systems
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.35-53
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    • 2012
  • Mechanical dampers have been proved to be one of the most effective countermeasures for vibration mitigation of stay cables in various cable-stayed bridges over the world. However, for long stay cables, as the installation height of the damper is restricted due to the aesthetic concern, using passive dampers alone may not satisfy the control requirement of the stay cables. In this connection, semi-active MR dampers have been proposed for the vibration mitigation of long stay cables. Although various studies have been carried out on the implementation of MR dampers on stay cables, the optimal damping performance of the cable-MR damper system has yet to be evaluated. Therefore, this paper aims to investigate the effectiveness of MR damper as a semi-active control device for the vibration mitigation of stay cable. The mathematical model of the MR damper will first be established through a performance test. Then, an efficient semi-active control strategy will be derived, where the damping of MR damper will be tuned according to the dynamic characteristics of stay cable, in order to achieve optimal damping of cable-damper system. Simulation study will be carried out to verify the proposed semi-active control algorithm for suppressing the cable vibrations induced by different loading patterns using optimally tuned MR damper. Finally, the effectiveness of MR damper in mitigating multi modes of cable vibration will be examined theoretically.

Dynamic characteristics of cable vibrations in a steel cable-stayed bridge using nonlinear enhanced MECS approach

  • Wu, Qingxiong;Takahashi, Kazuo;Chen, Baochun
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.37-66
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    • 2008
  • This paper focuses on the nonlinear vibrations of stay cables and evaluates the dynamic characteristics of stay cables by using the nonlinear enhanced MECS approach and the approximate approach. The nonlinear enhanced MECS approach is that both the girder-tower vibrations and the cable vibrations including parametric cable vibrations are simultaneously considered in the numerical analysis of cable-stayed bridges. Cable finite element method is used to simulate the responses including the parametric vibrations of stay cables. The approximate approach is based on the assumption that cable vibrations have a small effect on girder-tower vibrations, and analyzes the local cable vibrations after obtaining the girder-tower responses. Under the periodic excitations or the moderate ground motion, the differences of the responses of stay cables between these two approaches are evaluated in detail. The effect of cable vibrations on the girder and towers are also discussed. As a result, the dynamic characteristics of the parametric vibrations in stay cables can be evaluated by using the approximate approach or the nonlinear enhanced MECS approach. Since the different axial force fluctuant of stay cables in both ends of one girder causes the difference response values between two approach, it had better use the nonlinear enhanced MECS approach to perform the dynamic analyses of cable-stayed bridges.

Development of Cable Exciting Robot for Estimating Dynamic Properties of Stay Cables (사장교 케이블의 동특성 추정을 위한 케이블 가진 로봇의 개발)

  • Lee, Jong-Jae;Kim, Jae-Min;Ahn, Sang-Sup;Choi, Jun-Sung
    • Proceedings of the Computational Structural Engineering Institute Conference
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    • pp.39-42
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    • 2007
  • It is necessary to estimate the dynamic characteristics of stay cables ie., the natural frequencies and the damping ratios of the stay cables to design cable damper for appropriate mitigation of cable vibrations and/or to estimate the tension of cables in service. In this study, a cable exciting robot for evaluating dynamic characteristics of stay cables has been developed, and the feasibility of the developed system has been demonstrated through a field test on the stay cable installed at the test yard of Highway and Transportation Technology Institute (HTTI). The dynamic characteristics of the stay cable were estimated based on acceleration data as well as displacement measured by digital image processing technique.

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Performance Evaluation of a Nonlinear Cable Damper for Stay Cables Using Wind Vibration Analysis (사장교 케이블의 풍진동 해석을 통한 비선형 댐퍼의 성능 검증)

  • Kim, Saang-Bum;Lee, Sung-Jin
    • Proceedings of the Computational Structural Engineering Institute Conference
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    • pp.603-606
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    • 2007
  • Wind induced vibration of a stay cable with a nonlinear friction damper is investigated. Stay cables are likely to vibrate under several wind-related environments, and cable dampers can be used to suppress the excessive vibrations of stay cables. Conventional design of cable dampers are based on the equivalent modal damping achieved by the cable damper. However, the equivalent modal damping achieved by nonlinear dampers are depend on the vibration characteristics like the amplitude of the vibration. In this paper, not only the achieved equivalent modal damping, but also the vibration levels under gust wind are analyzed through the time domain buffeting analysis. Numerical simulation results show the efficacy of a nonlinear friction damper for suppressing the excessive vibration of a stay cable.

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Innovative cable force monitoring of stay cables using piezoelectric dynamic strain responses

  • Nguyen, Khac-Duy;Huynh, Thanh-Canh;Lee, Ji-Yong;Shin, Sung Woo;Kim, Jeong-Tae
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Noise and Vibration Engineering Conference
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    • pp.830-834
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    • 2013
  • This study presents a method to monitor cable force of a long-span cable-stayed bridge using a smart piezoelectric sensor system. The following approaches are implemented in order to achieve the objective. Firstly, the method to utilize piezoelectric materials for the health monitoring of stay cables is presented. For strain measurement of a stay cable, a PZT-embedded smart skin is designed to overcome the difficulties of bonding PZT sensors directly on stay cables. Secondly, a piezoelectric strain monitoring system for stay cables is designed. For the operation of the sensor board, the Imote2 sensor platform is used to provide the computation, wireless communication and power supply units. The feasibility of the proposed monitoring system is then evaluated on a full-scale cable of a cable-stayed bridge.

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Design strategy of hybrid stay cable system using CFRP and steel materials

  • Xiong, Wen;Cai, C.S.;Xiao, Rucheng;Zhang, Yin
    • Steel and Composite Structures
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.47-70
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    • 2012
  • To enhance cable stiffness, this paper proposed a combined application of carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) and steel materials, resulting in a novel type of hybrid stay cable system especially for the cable-stayed bridges with main span lengths of 1400~2800 m. In this combination, CFRP materials can conserve all their advantages such as light weight and high strength; while steel materials help increase the equivalent stiffness to compensate for the low elastic modulus of CFRP materials. An increase of the equivalent stiffness of the hybrid stay cable system could be further obtained with a reasonable increase of its safety factor. Following this concept, a series of parametric studies for the hybrid stay cable system with the consideration of stiffness and cost were carried out. Three design strategies/criteria, namely, best equivalent stiffness with a given safety factor, highest ratio of equivalent stiffness to material cost with a given safety factor, and best equivalent stiffness under a given cost were proposed from the stiffness and cost viewpoints. Finally, a comprehensive design procedure following the proposed design strategies was suggested. It was shown that the proposed hybrid stay cable system could be a good alternative to the pure CFRP or traditional steel stay cables in the future applications of super long span bridges.

Investigation on deck-stay interaction of cable-stayed bridges with appropriate initial shapes

  • Liu, Ming-Yi;Lin, Li-Chin;Wang, Pao-Hsii
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.43 no.5
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    • pp.691-709
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    • 2012
  • This paper provides a variety of viewpoints to illustrate the mechanism of the deck-stay interaction with the appropriate initial shapes of cable-stayed bridges. Based on the smooth and convergent bridge shapes obtained by the initial shape analysis, the one-element cable system (OECS) and multi-element cable system (MECS) models of the Kao Ping Hsi Bridge in Taiwan are developed to verify the applicability of the analytical model and numerical formulation from the field observations in the authors' previous work. For this purpose, the modal analysis of the two finite element models are conducted to calculate the natural frequency and normalized mode shape of the individual modes of the bridge. The modal coupling assessment is also performed to obtain the generalized mass ratios among the structural components for each mode of the bridge. The findings indicate that the coupled modes are attributed to the frequency loci veering and mode localization when the "pure" deck-tower frequency and the "pure" stay cable frequency approach one another, implying that the mode shapes of such coupled modes are simply different from those of the deck-tower system or stay cables alone. The distribution of the generalized mass ratios between the deck-tower system and stay cables are useful indices for quantitatively assessing the degree of coupling for each mode. These results are demonstrated to fully understand the mechanism of the deck-stay interaction with the appropriate initial shapes of cable-stayed bridges.