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PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND SURFACE TOPOGRAPHY OF ORTHODONTIC STAINLESS STEEL WIRES : COMPARING A NEW KOREAN PRODUCT WITH OTHERS FROM FOREIGN COMPANIES (여러 스테인레스 스틸 호선의 물성 및 표면의 비교)

  • Lee, Sung-Ho;Kim, Tae-Woo;Chang, Young-Il
    • The korean journal of orthodontics
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    • v.31 no.1
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    • pp.149-157
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    • 2001
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the property of a new Korean stainless steel wire(Jinsung Ind.) comparing with other foreign Products. Five types of stainless steel wires (Standard, Resilient, HI-T of Unitek, Stainless steel of Ormco and Jinsung Ind.) in 0.016x0.022 and 0.019x0.02 were tested to observe for Composition analysis, size difference, tensile properties, flexure bending property, tortion property, surface hardness and surface topography by means of SEM. The findings suggest that: 1. In maximum tensile strength of tensile properties, Unitek Hi-T showed the greatest value, followed by Unitek Resilient, Jinsung Stainless Steel, Ormco Stainless Steel, Unitek Standard in 0.016x0.022, and Unitek Hi-T showed highest value, followed by Jinsung Stainless Steel, Ormco Stainless Steel, Unitek Resilient, Unitek Standard in 0.019x 0.025. 2. In elongation rate, Unitek Standard showed the greatest value, fellowed by Ormco Stainless Steel, Unitek Hi-T, Unitek Resilient, Jinsung Stainless Steel in 0.016x0.022, and Unitek Hi-T showed the highest value, followed by Unitek Standard, Ormco Stainless Steel, Jinsung Stainless Steel, Unitek Resilient in 0.019x0.025. 3. In modulus of elasticity, Jinsung Stainless Steel showed the greatest value, followed by Unitek Hi-T, Unitek Resilient, Ormco Stainless Steel, Unitek Standard in 0.016x0.022, and Unitek Resilient showed the highest value followed by Jinsung Stainless Steel, Ormco Stainless Steel, Unitek Hi-T, Unitek Standard in 0.019x0.025. 4. In bending fatigue test, Jinsung Stainless Steel showed the greatest fracture resistance, followed by Unitek Hi-T, Unitek Standard, Unitek Resilient, Ormco Stainless Steel in 0.016x0.022, and Unitek Hi-T showed the greatest fracture resistance followed by Jinsung Stainless Steel, Unitek Resilient, Unitek Standard, Ormco Stainless Steel in 0.019x0.025. 5. In twist test, Unitek Resilient showed the greatest fracture resistance, followed by Jinsung Stainless Steel, Unitek Hi-7, Ormco Stainless Steel, Unitek Standard in 0.016x0.022, and Jinsung showed the greatest fracture resistance, followed by Unitek Resilient, Unitek Standard, Ormco Stainless Steel, Unitek Hi-T. 6. In surface topography, every products showed indentation and pitting. Jinsung stainless steel wire showed long thin indentation and relatively smooth surface. Unitek wires showed indentation and pitting and Ormco wire showed a lot of irregular pittings.

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Study on Diffusion Bonding of Stainless Steel to Mild Steel (연강-스테인리스강의 확산접합에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, S.T.
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Heat Treatment
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.17-26
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    • 1998
  • Cladding of stainless steel on mild steel was prepared by diffusion bonding process. The bond strength increased with an increase of bonding temperature and time. It was also found that the bond strength increased as the surface roughness decreased. After the diffusion bonding of stainless steel-mild steel, the mild steel part near the bonded interface showed higher strength than the base steel due to the migration of chromium and nickel from stainless steel to mild steel. Carbon migration from mild steel gave effect on the formation of chromium carbides at grain boundaries of stainless steel, the fractograpohic features of the imperfectly bonded interface showed rather coarse dimples in the mild steel part and very fine dimples in the stainless steel part.

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Improving buckling response of the square steel tube by using steel foam

  • Moradi, Mohammadreza;Arwade, Sanjay R.
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.51 no.6
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    • pp.1017-1036
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    • 2014
  • Steel tubes have an efficient shape with large second moment of inertia relative to their light weight. One of the main problems of these members is their low buckling resistance caused from having thin walls. In this study, steel foams with high strength over weight ratio is used to fill the steel tube to beneficially modify the response of steel tubes. The linear eigenvalue and plastic collapse FE analysis is done on steel foam filled tube under pure compression and three point bending simulation. It is shown that steel foam improves the maximum strength and the ability of energy absorption of the steel tubes significantly. Different configurations with different volume of steel foam and composite behavior is investigated. It is demonstrated that there are some optimum configurations with more efficient behavior. If composite action between steel foam and steel increases, the strength of the element will improve, in a way that, the failure mode change from local buckling to yielding.

CFRP strengthening of steel columns subjected to eccentric compression loading

  • Keykha, Amir Hamzeh
    • Steel and Composite Structures
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.87-94
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    • 2017
  • Steel structures often require strengthening due to the increasing life loads, or repair caused by corrosion or fatigue cracking. Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers (CFRP) is one of the materials used to strengthen steel structures. Most studies on strengthening steel structures have been carried out on steel beams and steel columns under centric compression load. No independent article, to the author's knowledge, has studied the effect of CFRP strengthening on steel columns under eccentric compression load, and it seems that there is a lack of understanding on behavior of CFRP strengthening on steel columns under eccentric compression load. However, this study explored the use of adhesively bonded CFRP flexible sheets on retrofitting square hollow section (SHS) steel columns under the eccentric compression load, using numerical investigations. Finite Element Method (FEM) was employed for modeling. To determine ultimate load of SHS steel columns, eight specimens with two types of section (Type A and B), strengthened using CFRP sheets, were analyzed under different coverage lengths, the number of layers, and the location of CFRP composites. Two specimens were analyzed without strengthening (control) to determine the increasing rate of the ultimate load in strengthened steel columns. ANSYS was used to analyze the SHS steel columns. The results showed that the CFRP composite had no similar effect on the slender and stocky SHS steel columns. The results also showed that the coverage length, the number of layers, and the location of CFRP composites were effective in increasing the ultimate load of the SHS steel columns.

A Study on the Machining Charcterisitics of Milling of cylinderical Rod Materials for Passenger Car (승용차용 CYLINDER ROD 소재의 밀링 적삭 특성 연구)

  • 채왕석
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Machine Tool Engineers Conference
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    • pp.143-148
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    • 1996
  • In this paper, we have studied internal quality including chemical compositions, microscopic structure and nonmetalic inclusion of test materials. We have analyzed dynamic characteristics of cutting force of milling including tensile strength value hardness etcs. Test materials are used the tempered carbon steel and the non-tempered carbon steel. The obtained results are as follows: 1.In analyzing internal quality, the tempered carbon steel have typical martensite structure and the non-tempered carbon steel have ferrite+pearlite structure. 2.Yield strength, tensile strength and hardness value are in the non-tempered carbon steel but elongation is maximum value in the tempered carbon steel. 3.Cutting force is smaller non-tempered carbon steel than tempered carbon steel when feed speed and depth of cut is constant. 4.Cutting force is smaller to the tempered carbon steel and smaller non-tempered carbon steel than tempered carbon steel when cutting conditions

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Developments and applications of high strength cold rolled steel sheets for automobiles (자동차용 고강도 냉연강판의 개발 및 적용현황)

  • Kim S. J.;Chin K. G.
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Technology of Plasticity Conference
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    • pp.45-52
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    • 2004
  • Continuing pressure for the weight reduction of vehicles and improvement of collision safety is driving the development of new high strength steel with excellent formability. The formable high strength steels which have excellent drawability have been developed and applied to the complicated inner panels. Although BH steel have mainly occupied the material market for outer panels, it is challenged by DP steel which have low yield strength and good bake hardenability. The advanced high strength steel, TRIP steels and DP steels which have excellent formability are new alternatives to conventional HSLA steel for structural parts such as members and pillars. HSLA steels also have been used for automotive bumper reinforcements due to their high yield ratio. Higher grade complex phase steel(CP) were developed for bumper reinforcements by addition of precipitation hardening to transformation strengthened steel. The usage of the advanced high strength steel ale increasing and will become the main material in structural parts near future. This paper describes the features of newly developed high strength cold rolled steels for automobiles.

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Galvanic Sensor System for Detecting the Corrosion Damage of the Steel in Concrete

  • Kim, Jung-Gu;Park, Zin-Taek;Yoo, Ji-Hong;Hwang, Woon-Suk
    • Corrosion Science and Technology
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    • v.3 no.3
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    • pp.118-126
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    • 2004
  • The correlation between sensor output and corrosion rate of reinforcing steel was evaluated by laboratory electrochemical tests in saturated $Ca(OH)_2$ with 3.5 wt.% NaCl and confirmed in concrete environment. In this paper, two types of electrochemical probes were developed: galvanic cells containing of steel/copper and steel/stainless steel couples. Potentiodynamic test, weight loss measurement, monitoring of open-circuit potential, linear polarization resistance (LPR) measurement and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used to evaluate the corrosion behavior of steel bar embedded in concrete. Also, galvanic current measurements were conducted to obtain the charge of sensor embedded in concrete. In this study, steel/copper and steel/stainless steel sensors showed a good correlation in simulated concrete solution between sensor output and corrosion rate of steel bar. However, there was no linear relationship between steel/stainless steel sensor output and corrosion rate of steel bar in concrete environment due to the low galvanic current output. Thus, steel/copper sensor is a reliable corrosion monitoring sensor system which can detect corrosion rate of reinforcing steel in concrete structures.

Numerical investigation on the behavior of SHS steel frames strengthened using CFRP

  • Keykha, Amir Hamzeh
    • Steel and Composite Structures
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    • v.24 no.5
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    • pp.561-568
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    • 2017
  • Steel frames are widely used in steel structures. Exiting steel structures may be needed to strengthen for various reasons. Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers (CFRP) is one of the materials that are used to strengthen steel structures. Most studies on strengthening steel structures have been done on beams and steel columns. No independent study, to the researcher's knowledge, has studied the effect of CFRP strengthening on steel frames. This study explored the use of CFRP composite on retrofitting square hollow section (SHS) steel frames, using numerical investigations. Ten Finite Element (FE) models, which were strengthened with CFRP sheets, were analyzed under different coverage length, number of layers, and location of CFRP composite. One FE model without strengthening was analyzed as a control FE model to determine the increase of the ultimate load in the strengthened steel frames. ANSYS software was used to analyze the SHS steel frames. The results showed that the coverage length and the number of layers of CFRP composite have a significant effect on increasing the ultimate load of the SHS steel frames. The results also showed that the location of CFRP composite had no similar effect on increasing the ultimate load and the amount of mid span deflection of the SHS steel frames.

Moment redistribution of continuous composite I-girder with high strength steel

  • Joo, Hyun Sung;Moon, Jiho;Sung, Ik-Hyun;Lee, Hak-Eun
    • Steel and Composite Structures
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.873-887
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    • 2015
  • The continuous composite I-girder should have a sufficient rotation capacity (or ductility) to redistribute the negative bending moment into an adjacent positive bending moment region. However, it is generally known that the ductility of the high strength steel is smaller than that of conventional steel, and application of high strength steel can cause ductility problems in a negative moment region of the I-girder. In this study, moment redistribution of the continuous composite I-girder with high strength steel was studied, where high strength steel with yield stress of 690 MPa was considered (the ultimate stress of the steel was 800 MPa). The available and required rotation capacity of the continuous composite I-girder with high strength steel was firstly derived based on the stress-strain curve of high strength steel and plastic analysis, respectively. A large scale test and a series of non-linear finite element analysis for the continuous composite I-girder with high strength steel were then conducted to examine the effectiveness of proposed models and to investigate the effect of high strength steel on the inelastic behavior of the negative bending moment region of the continuous composite I-girder with high strength steel. Finally, it can be found that the proposed equations provided good estimation of the requited and available rotation capacity of the continuous composite I-girder with high strength steel.

A Study on the Metrial Charcterisitics of Material Quality and Milling of Axle Materials for a Automobile (자동차 차축 소재의 금속적 특징 및 밀링 절삭 특성 연구)

  • 채왕석
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Manufacturing Technology Engineers
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.77-83
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    • 1997
  • In this paper, we have studied internal quality including chemical compositions, microscopic structure and nonmetalic inclusion of test materials. We have analyzed dynamic characteristics of cutting force of milling including tensile strength value, hardness etc. Test materials are used in the tempered carbon steel and the non-tempered carbon steel. The obtained results are as follows: 1. In analyzing internal quality, the tempered carbon steel have typical martensite structure and the non-tempered carbon steel have ferrite + pearlite structure. 2. Yield strength, tensile strength and hardness value are in the non-tempered carbon steel but elongation is maximum value in the tempered carbon steel. 3. Cutting force is smaller non-tempered carbon steel than tempered carbon steel when feed speed and depth on cut is constant. 4. Cutting force is smaller non-tempered carbon steel than tempered carbon steel when cutting speed and depth of cut is constant.

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