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Enhancing seismic performance of ductile moment frames with delayed wire-rope bracing using middle steel plate

  • Ghalandari, Akram;Ghasemi, Mohammad Reza;Dizangian, Babak
    • Steel and Composite Structures
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.139-147
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    • 2018
  • Moment frames have considerable ductility against cyclic lateral loads and displacements; however, sometimes this feature causes the relative displacement to exceed the permissible limits. This issue can bring unfavorable hysteretic behavior on the frame due to the reduction in the stiffness and resistance against lateral loads. Most of common bracing systems usually control lateral displacements through increasing stiffness while result in decreasing the capacity for energy absorption. This has direct effect on hysteresis curves of moment frames. Therefore, a system that is capable of both having the capacity of energy absorption as well as controlling the displacements without a considerable increase in the stiffness is quite important. This paper investigates retrofitting of a single-storey steel moment frame using a delayed wire-rope bracing system equipped with the ductile middle steel plate. The steel plate is considered at the middle intersection of wire ropes, where it causes cables to be continuously in tension. This integrated system has the advantage of reducing considerable stiffness of the frame compared to cross bracing systems as a result of which it could also preserve the frame's energy absorption capacity. In this paper, FEM models of a delayed wire-rope bracing system equipped by steel plates with different geometries have been studied, validated, and compared with other researchers' laboratory test results.

A Fundamental Study for the Sliding Wear Characteristics of the Crane Sheave Against a Rope Wire (크레인시브와 로프소선간의 미끄럼 마멸특성에 관한 기초연구)

  • Ryu, Jung-Buk;Chae, Young-Hun;Kim, Seock-Sam
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A
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    • v.27 no.11
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    • pp.1873-1880
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    • 2003
  • The sliding wear characteristics of the crane sheave were investigated using a pin on disk rig tester. The experiment was conducted using a high carbon steel wire that was upper material, also carbon steel castings that was disk material. There are various operating conditions in this work. At the room temperature, we carried out the wear test under a grease lubrication and dry condition. The results of wear test showed that an annealed-casted have lower, also the wear curves are linearly increased with increasing of sliding distance. For the specific wear rate of annealed-casted, the wear resistance was increased with decreasing diameter of wire. The wear of a wire and a disk have a different mechanism, the one is the abrasive wear due to fatigue wear under lubrication, another is the adhesion wear under dry condition.

An initial investigation of the inverted trussed beam formed by wooden rectangular cross section enlaced with wire rope

  • Gesualdo, F.A.R.;Lima, M.C.V.
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.44 no.2
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    • pp.239-255
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    • 2012
  • This work presents a contribution to understand the inverted trussed beams behavior. The system has a main beam and struts with rectangular cross section associated to a wire rope enlaced to the main beam. It is an unpublished system with the advantage of easy positioning of the wire rope, once it is a continuous and connected by turnbuckles. It is a system that can be used as support for concrete formworks or for rehabilitation wooden beams proposal. The enlacement of the cable demands a small notch at the top of the cross section and a cross pin at the bottom. Six inverted trussed beams were tested, with spans of 180 cm with cables diameter of 1/4". Additionally, four simple beams without any external steel cable were also tested with material from the same lot of wood, allowing a comparison in rupture. The results showed capacity gain of around 60% compared to a simple beam. Once the wire rope characteristics and anchoring are very important for structure response, some improvement suggestions for the efficiency of the cables are also presented.

Axial Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Columns Externally Strengthened with Unbonded Wire Rope and T-Shaped Steel Plate (와이어로프와 T 강판으로 비부착 보강된 철근콘크리트 기둥의 중심 축하중 거동)

  • Yang, Keun-Hyeok;Sim, Jae-Il;Byun, Hang-Yong
    • Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.221-229
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    • 2008
  • An improved unbonded-type column strengthening procedure using wire rope and T-shaped steel plate units was proposed. Eight strengthened columns and an unstrengthened control column were tested under concentric axial load. The main variables considered were the volume ratio of wire rope and the flange width and configuration of T-shaped steel plates. Axial load capacity and ductility ratio of columns tested were compared with predictions obtained from the equation specified in ACI 318-05 and those of conventionally tied columns tested by Chung et al., respectively. In addition, a mathematical model was proposed to evaluate the complete stress-strain relationship of concrete confined by the wire rope and T-plate units. Test results showed that the axial load capacity and ductility of columns increased with the increase of the volume ratio of wire rope and the flange width of T-plates. In particular, at the same lateral reinforcement index, a much higher ductility ratio was observed in the strengthened columns having the volume ratio of wire rope above 0.0039 than in the tied columns. A mathematical model for the stress-strain relationship of confined concrete using the proposed strengthening procedure is developed. The predicted stress-strain curves were in good agreement with test results.

The Sliding Wear Characteristics of Carbon Steel Castings against High Carbon Steel Wire Rods (탄소주강과 경강선재간의 미끄럼 마멸특성)

  • 류중북;채영훈;김석삼
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Tribologists and Lubrication Engineers Conference
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    • pp.319-326
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    • 2001
  • The sliding wear characteristics of carbon steel castings were Investigated using a ball on disk type tester. The experiment was conducted using high carbon steel wire rods as ball material and carbon steel castings as disk material and different operating conditions, at room temperature under a lubrication and dry conditions. The results showed that the carbon steel castings appeared average wear volume Is lowed after annealing under a lubrication conditions and wear curve linear Increased. The specific wear rate of carbon steel castings Increased with wire diameter lubrication and dry also Increased 125 times In Ory. The sliding wear mechanism were Investigated due to fatigue wear lubrications and abrasive wear dries also wire Included fatigue and abrasive wear by plastic flow.

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Comparison between Wire Rope and CFRP UD on Bending Analysis (엘리베이터용 와이어로프와 CFRP UD의 벤딩 해석 비교)

  • Park, Sung-Min;Shin, Dong-Woo;Kwon, Il-Jun;Yoo, Sung-Hun;Moon, Wan-Kee
    • Composites Research
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    • v.28 no.6
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    • pp.378-382
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    • 2015
  • With increasing population density and high-rise expansion of buildings in recent years, elevators have become to play a pivotal role in our everyday lives as most people take an elevator several times even in a day. The elevator penetration and distribution rates in Korea have increased dramatically every year, and the emergence of skyscrapers leads to accelerating the development of elevator industry. Carbon-fiber-reinforced plastics (CFRPs) exhibit better mechanical and thermal properties than steel suitable for uses as elevator wire ropes. In this paper, in order to analyze the properties of CFRPs, the tensile strength of unidirectional (UD) CFRP wire ropes was characterized and finite element analysis was conducted for bending simulation. Simulation results were compared.

The Sliding Wear Characteristics of the Carbon Steel Castings against High Carbon Steel Wire Rods (탄소주강품과 경강선재간의 미끄럼 마멸특성)

  • 류중북;채영훈;김석삼
    • Tribology and Lubricants
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.223-229
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    • 2003
  • The sliding wear characteristics of the crane sheave were investigated using a pin-on-disk rig tester. The experiment was conducted using a high carbon steel wire that was upper material, also carbon steel castings that was disk material. There are various operating conditions in this work. At the room temperature, we carried out the wear test under a grease lubrication and dry condition. The results of wear test showed that an annealed-casted have lower, also the wear curves are linearly increased with increasing of sliding distance. For the specific wear rate of annealed-casted, the wear resistance was increased with decreasing diameter of wire. The wear of a wire and a disk have a different mechanism, the one is the abrasive wear due to fatigue wear under lubrication, another is the adhesion wear under dry condition.

Assessment of Performance and Cost-Effectiveness for the Rockfall Protection Fence Using a High Carbon Steel Wire Rod (고장력 경강선을 적용한 낙석방지울타리의 성능 및 경제성 평가)

  • Lee, Yong-Joo;Na, Seung-Min;Hwang, Young-Cheol;You, Byung-Ok
    • Proceedings of the Korean Geotechical Society Conference
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    • pp.910-920
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    • 2008
  • In Korea, more than 70% of the territory consists of mountains. Therefore, the construction of roads and railways has generally involved with a steep rock slope in which the event of rockfalls are often occurred due to the weathered rock conditions and rainfalls etc. This is dangerous when the rock falls into the road and railway on which vehicles and trains are running. In order to prevent such rockfalls, the rockfall protection fence consisting of post, wire rope, and PVC coating steel net has most used at the bottom of rock slopes. In a general practice, an absorbing rockfall energy, 50kJ is specified by the Ministry of Construction and Transportation. However, questions still remain about whether the rockfall protection fence works effectively or not. In this study, a typical wire rope used in the standard rockfall protection fence was replaced by the high carbon steel wire rod and to validate its capacity of rockfall energy absorbing the field rockfall tests were conducted. The testing results show that a new rockfall protection fence using the high carbon steel wire rods can absorb the rockfall energy more than 50kJ and 20% of construction cost was saved in comparison with the previous rockfall protection fence.

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An Experimental Study on the Flexural Behavior of Reinforced Concrete Columns Strengthened with Wire Rope and T-Shape Steel Plate units (와이어로프와 T형 플레이트에 의해 보강된 RC 기둥의 휨 거동에 대한 실험적 연구)

  • Sim, Jae-Il;Yang, Keun-Hyeok;Oh, Sung-Jin;Byun, Hang-Yong
    • Proceedings of the Korea Concrete Institute Conference
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    • pp.153-156
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    • 2008
  • The objective of the present study is to evaluate the flexural behavior of reinforced concrete columns externally strengthened with wire rope and T-shape steel plate units. Three strengened columns and a control unstrengthened column were tested under cyclic lateral load simultaneously subjected to a constant axial load. All columns had same section size, and the arrangement of longitudinal reinforcement and internal hoop. The spacing of wire rope range from 40 ${\sim}$ 80mm, which corresponds from 1.0 ${\sim}$ 0.5, respectively, times the minium amount of hoop specified in seismic design of ACI 318-05. Test results showed that the proposed unbonded-type strengthening procedure is very effective for improving the flexural ductility of reinforced concrete columns.

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