• Title, Summary, Keyword: stem browning

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Effects of Calcium and Indole-3-butyric acid Treatments on Calcium Concentration and Stem-End Browning in 'Fuyu' Sweet Persimmons (칼슘제 및 IBA 처리가 '부유' 단감과실의 칼슘함량 및 과정부 갈변현상에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Young;Kim, Wol-Soo;Choi, Hyun-Sug;Gu, Mengmeng
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.459-462
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    • 2009
  • 'Fuyu' (Diospyros kaki L.) is an important sweet persimmon cultivar, and the fruits are often stored in a modified atmosphere after harvesting in South Korea. However, blossom-end browning and darkening of fruit often occur after harvest or during storage, which decreases fruit quality in the fresh fruit market. High fruit calcium concentration would reduce oxidation of phenolic compounds in the cytoplasm such oxidation is responsible for fruit browning. This study investigated the effects of soluble calcium fertilization and foliar application, and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) fertilization on fruit quality and browning. Trees received one of the following five treatments: 1) control (no calcium or IBA); 2) calcium fertilization (Ca FG, 2 mL per tree); 3) calcium foliar application (Ca FA, 2 mL); 4) calcium and IBA fertilization (Ca+IBA) 5) IBA fertilization (IBA, 2 mL. Fruit calcium concentration was highest in trees treated by Ca FA, and lowest in control trees. Generally, fruit calcium concentration was high in the stem end but low in the blossom end, which usually first develops fruit-browning symptoms. There were no apparent differences in fruit qualities such as firmness, soluble solid content, and weight among treatments. Fruit browning occurred at frequencies of about 14%, 20%, and 50% on Ca FA, Ca FG, and control trees, respectively. Therefore, the improved fruit calcium level seen when trees received Ca or IBA application tended to prevent fruit browning, which increased fruit quality and storage properties.

Comparison of the change in quality indices during distribution period by import season in three grape cultivars

  • Kim, Sung-Joo;Noh, Soo-In;Lim, Byung-Sun;Chun, Jong-Pil
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.46 no.1
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    • pp.45-56
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    • 2019
  • As a result of analyzing the quality of imported grapes during the 2018 season, the hardness of the grape berry was found to be 10 N or less in total. In the case of Chilean grapes, the soluble solids tended to be lower as imports and distribution periods were delayed. The berry weight was the largest at 14.4 - 14.8 g for the 'Red Globe', 7.1 - 7.4 g for the 'Thompson Seedless' and 6.0 - 7.0 g for the 'Crimson Seedless'. The 'Crimson Seedless' grapes imported from Chile, which had a high berry shatter rate, had a shorter pedicel length, pad width and brush length than that of the other 2 varieties. Regardless of the grape varieties, the weight loss during the distribution at room temperature ($25^{\circ}C$) increased rapidly as the import season was delayed. Additionally, it was found that the later the distribution seasons, a higher stem browning index was observed regardless of the variety. The 'Thompson Seedless' was revealed to be more susceptible to browning than that of the other varieties. The shrinkage of the stem and the pedicel browning progressed within a short time during shelf-life as the distribution time was delayed. The incidence of berry decay of the imported grapes tended to increase with the progression of the distribution period. In the fruits distributed on April, except for the 'Crimson Seedless', the grapes were rapidly corrupted in the second half of the distribution. The 'Red Globe' grapes completely lost marketability due to a berry decay of 26.1% and 69.9% at 9 and 12 days after shelf-life, respectively.

Effects of film liners, ethylene scrubber, alcohol releaser and chlorine dioxide on the berry quality during simulated marketing in 'Campbell Early' grapes

  • Kim, Sung-Joo;Choi, Cheol;Ahn, Young-Jik;Lim, Byung-Sun;Chun, Jong-Pil
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.47 no.3
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    • pp.415-424
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    • 2020
  • This study investigated the effects of an ethylene scrubber (ES) with a micro-perforated polypropylene (MP-PP, 30 ㎛) or a high density polyethylene (MP-HDPE, 30 ㎛) film liner for the export carton packaging box in 'Campbell Early' grapes. Rachis browning was highest in the untreated group, followed by MP-PP and MP-HDPE for 14 days of simulated marketing at 20℃. The combination treatment of ES with the film liners showed a partial inhibition of the rachis browning regardless of the film liners. The effects of an alcohol releaser (AR) sachet or chlorine dioxide (CD) diffuser co-packaging were also investigated in the 'Campbell Early' grapes packed with the MP-HDPE (40 × 99 pin hole·m-2) film liner. The CD 1 g treatment showed a very limited weight loss of 1.1%, which was significantly lower than the 4.7% of the untreated control after 14 days of simulation marketing at 20℃. The berry shatter was 0.7% for the MP-HDPE + CD 1 g treatment and 1.8% for the MP-HDPE + CD 5 g treatment on the 10th day of the simulated marketing, which was significantly lower than the 8.9% of the control. The stem browning was significant suppressed until the 10th day of the simulated marketing. In particular, the CD 1 g treatment in combination with the MP-HDPE showed a low rachis and pedicel browning index of 2.0, which is 50% and 40% lower than that of the untreated control and the MP-HDPE single treatment, respectively. In addition, the CD 1 g treatment group showed a higher decay reduction effect than the CD 5 g treatment group, which caused high concentration damage.

Stem Blight of Brunfelsia Caused by Fusarium oxysporum (Fusarium oxysporum에 의한 브룬펠지아 줄기마름병)

  • Han, Kyoung-Suk;Park, Jong-Han;Lee, Jung-Sup;Choi, Young-Moon
    • Research in Plant Disease
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.36-38
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    • 2003
  • Stem blight of brunfelsia (Brunfelsia calycina) caused by Fusarium oxysporum was found in greenhouse around Sungnam area, Kyunggi province, Korea in September 2001. The initial infection appeared as a slight wilting of the foliage, turned yellow from the lower leaves. The yellowing leaves were falled, resulting in blight of stem and eventual death of the entire plant. The vascular tissue of a diseased plants became dark brown and browning of the vascular system was a characteristic of the disease and the pith remained healthy, Isolates obtained from the lesions of the diseased plant were identified as F. oxysporum, based on the morphological characteristics of conidia. Symptom by artificial inoculation was same to the symptom of naturally infected plants. This is the first report demonstrating the stem blight on a brunfelsia caused by F. oxysporum in Korea, and we proposed to name this disease "stem blight of brunfelsia".

Changes in postharvest quality of Pleurotus eryngii treated with different shelf temperature and browning inhibitors (큰느타리버섯 유통온도 및 갈변억제처리에 따른 품질 변화)

  • Lee, Yun-Hae;Jeoung, Yun-Kyeoung;Baek, Il-Sun;Lee, Han-Bum;Chi, Jeong-Hyun;Jhune, Chang-Sung
    • Journal of Mushroom
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.297-302
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    • 2013
  • Pleurotus eryngii is one of the main export items in Korean mushroom industry. Whole mushrooms were packed with 30 um polypropylene anti-fog film without trimming. The range of package weight and oxygen permeability of film were 400 g and 2000 $c/m^2$, 24 h,atm, respectively. The anti-browning treatments were sprayed by 0.5%(w/w) solution of Sporix Sporix(Sodium polyphosphate and $ClO_2$ gas The weight loss ratio was increased with increasing shelf period and temperature. There were no big differences in weight loss ratio according to browning inhibitors. In case of $ClO_2$ treatment, the hardness and lightness of stem was showed higher than other treatment for shelf period. As results of freshness, the optimum browning inhibitor of P. eryngii was $ClO_2$ treatment and the shelf life was extended 36days at $10{\sim}15^{\circ}C$.

Boron deficiency of sunflower (Helianthus annuus.) (해바라기의 붕소결핍(硼素缺乏))

  • Park, Hoon;Yu, Ik Sang
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.195-198
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    • 1975
  • Boron deficiency appeared as a cause of poor growth of sunflower(Helianthus annuus) according to soil and plant analysis. The investigated results are as follows; 1. Boron deficiency was due to low content of available boron (hot water soluble) in soil and clitical concentration appeared as 0.17 ppm. 2. Clitical concentrations in plant appeared to be 20 ppm for head(flower), 25 for leaf, 15 for stem and 10 for root. Boron concentration among positional leaves was greatly decreasing in the upper leaves. 3. Soils low in boron were relatively higher in calcium, silica and pH than in normal soil but relationship between boron and organic matter or other nutrients was uncertain. 4. The content of Ca and P is high in the head of boron deficient plant but low in root. Plants deficient in boron also showed a tendency of high N and low K but no clear tendency was shown in Mg and Fe. 5. Symptoms of boron deficinicy were yellowing of upper leaves, browning and drying of upper part of stem, cracking and blackening of stem and roots resulting short stem and poor growth.

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Reversine, Cell Dedifferentiation and Transdifferentiation (Reversine과 세포의 역분화 및 교차분화)

  • Moon, Yang Soo
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.394-401
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    • 2020
  • As embryonic stem cells become pluripotent, they may cause tumor development when injected into a host. Therefore, researchers are focusing heavily on the therapeutic potential of tissue-specific stem cells (adult stem cells) without resultant tumor formation. Adult stem cells can proliferate for a limited number of generations and are restricted to certain cell types (multipotent). Mature tissue cell types in mammals cannot be intrinsically dedifferentiated or transdifferentiated to adult stem cells. Hence, the technology of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) for reprogramming adult somatic cells was introduced in 2006, ushering in a new era in adult stem cell research. Although iPSCs have been widely used in the field, the approach has several limitations: instability of the reprogramming process, risk of incomplete reprogramming, and exposure to transgenes integrated into the cell genome. Two years before the introduction of the iPSC technique, the synthetic small molecule 2,6-disubstituted purine, called reversine, was introduced. Reversine can induce the dedifferentiation of committed cells into multipotent progenitor-type cells by reprogramming and converting adult cells to other cell types under appropriate stimuli. Thus, it can be used as a chemically induced multipotent cell agent to overcome the limitations of iPSCs. Also, as an alternative therapeutic approach for treating obesity, it can be used to generate beige cells by browning white adipocytes. While reversine has the potential to act as an anti-cancer agent, this review focuses on its role in differentiation, dedifferentiation, and transdifferentiation in somatic cells.

Improvement of RT-PCR Sensitivity for Fruit Tree Viruses by Small-scale dsRNA Extraction and Sodium Sulfite

  • Lee, Sin-Ho;Kim, Hyun-Ran;Kim, Jae-Hyun;Kim, Jeong-Soo
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.142-146
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    • 2004
  • Woody plant tissues contain great amounts of phenolic compounds and polysaccharides. These substances inhibit the activation of reverse transcriptase and/or Taq polymerase in RT-PCR. The commonly used multiple-step protocols using several additives to diminish polyphenolic compounds during nucleic acid extraction are time consuming and laborious. In this study, sodium sulfite was evaluated as an additive for nucleic acid extraction from woody plants and the efficiency of RT-PCR assay of commercial nucleic acid extraction kits and small-scale dsRNA extraction was compared. Sodium sulfite was used as an inhibitor against polyphenolic oxidases and its effects were compared in RNA extraction by commercial extraction kit and small-scale double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) extraction method for RT-PCR. During nucleic acid extraction, addition of 0.5%-1.5%(w/v) of sodium sulfite to lysis buffer or STE buffer resulted in lighter browning by oxidation than extracts without sodium sulfite and improved the RT-PCR detection. When commercial RNA extraction kit was used, optimal concentrations of sodium sulfite were variable according to the tested plant. However, with dsRNA as RT-PCR template, sodium sulfite 1.5% in STE buffer improved the detection efficiency of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) and Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV) in fruit trees, and reduced the unspecific amplifications signi-ficantly. Furthermore, when viruses existed at low titers in host plant, small-scale dsRNA extractions were very reliable.

Change of Water Content and Disease Development on Pinus thunbergii Seedlings Inoculated with Bursaphelenchus xylophilus (소나무재선충 인공접종에 의한 해송묘목의 병 발달 및 수분함량 변화)

  • Yoon, Jun-Hyuck;Woo, Kwan-Soo;Moon, Yil-Seong;Koo, Yeong-Bon;Lee, Do-Hyung
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.97 no.6
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    • pp.570-575
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    • 2008
  • This study was carried out to provide basic information on physiological changes of 4-year-old seedlings of Pinus thunbergii inoculated with pine wood nematodes by analyzing changes of symptom development, stem and needle water content and nematode populations in stem. Twenty days after inoculation, needles were discolored as an external symptom, and xylem drying and pith browning occurred at the above and below of the inoculation sites as an internal symptom. However, xylem drying began to occur 10 days after inoculation, which was determined by the difference in drying status of xylem and cortex between control and inoculated seedlings. Although population of pine wood nematode increased from 5 to 10 days after inoculation, it has increased dramatically from 10 to 20 days after inoculation when both internal and external symptoms appeared. As the time passed by after inoculation with pine wood nematodes, water content of stem and relative water content in current needles and branch gradually decreased. As the number of nematodes increases, water content of stem and relative water content of current needles and branches decreased significantly. There was a positive relationship between the number of nematodes and xylem drying and/or disease development, but the number of nematodes rapidly decreased as seedlings become severely diseased.

Early Disease Development and Stem and Leaf Water Content in the Seedlings of Pinus koraiensis Inoculated with Pinewood Nematodes in a Greenhouse

  • Woo, Kwan-Soo;Yoon, Jun-Hyuek
    • The Plant Pathology Journal
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.241-246
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    • 2009
  • Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis Sieb. et Zucc.), a five-needle pine, has recently been suffering pine wilt disease caused by non-native pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Three-year-old Korean pine seedlings were inoculated with 10,000 pathogenic nematodes in a greenhouse to investigate disease development, water content and the density of nematodes in stems. Needle dehydration, xylem drying and pith browning started 20 days after inoculation (DAI). There were significant differences between seedlings inoculated with nematodes and control seedlings in the relative water content of stems and leaves at 20 and 30 DAI. At 60 DAI, all remaining seedlings inoculated with nematodes had died, but control seedlings all remained alive. The average number of nematodes recovered from stems of Korean pine dramatically increased from 10 to 20 DAI, and then decreased at the end of the experiment at 60 days. This study suggests that the relative water content of stems and leaves in current-year branches could be used as a useful physiological indicator for early diagnosis of pine wilt disease.