• Title, Summary, Keyword: stipe

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Component Comparions of the Nutrient Composition of Lentinus Edodes based of Harvest Period (표고버섯의 채취 시기 및 부위별 영양성분 함량 비교)

  • 박홍주;이성현;백오현;조수묵;조용식
    • The Korean Journal of Community Living Science
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.107-112
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    • 2004
  • Many studies have showen that Letinus edodes have a reducing effects on blood pressure and lipid levels in animals with high blood pressure and hyperlipidemia. But the only cap has been on the market as goods and the stipe has been wasted. The price is very variable and is based on harvest time and the part of the plant currenty, there is not much information about the nutritional composition and bio-fuctional effects of Letinus edodes based on harvest time and part. Some farmers have been selling the powder seasoning by drying and pulverizing Letinus edodes including stipe to develop value added, late harvested Letinus edodes and its stipe these days. This study was conducted to investigate and compare the nutritional composition of Letinus edodes harvested at different times (early: E, late: L) and separated by part (cap: C, stipe: S). The 4 kinds of materials were named as early harvested cap (EC) and stipe (ES), and late harvested cap (LC) and stipe (LS) samples were obtained from Mungyeong City Agricultural Technology & Extension Center. The composition analysis of the nutrients in the 4 materials was conducted by using the AOAC method. The proximate components (moisture, protein, fat, fiber, ash, and carbohydrates), minerals and vitamin content were measured. Nutritional composition of Lentinus edodes did not show any significant difference between early and late harvested mushrooms. Nutritional compositions were different according to part. The results demonstrate that the late harvested stipe can also be used as a quality food material.

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Component analysis and immuno-stimulating activity of Sparassis crispa stipe (꽃송이버섯 기부의 성분분석 및 면역활성)

  • Seo, Seung-Ho;Park, Seong-Eun;Moon, Yang-Seon;Lee, Yu-Mi;Na, Chang-Su;Son, Hong-Seok
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.48 no.5
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    • pp.515-520
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    • 2016
  • This study was carried out to investigate the component and immunoregulatory effects of Sparassis crispa stipe. Herein, S. crispa was divided into the pileus and stipe to compare their ingredients (${\beta}-glucan$), antioxidant activity (in vitro), and the immunoregulatory function (cytokines, leukocytes, and spleen weight). The ${\beta}-glucan$ content in each part showed about 1.8 times higher content in the stipe than that in the pileus. The stipe also showed a higher total phenol content and antioxidant activity than the pileus. The cytokines $TNF-{\alpha}$, IL-2, and IL-10 have adjusted in the S. crispa extract-injected groups. In addition, the number of leukocytes was also significantly elevated in the rats administered with the S. crispa stipe extract. These results suggest that the stipe of S. crispa has great potential as an ingredient in functional foods.

Comparison of Antioxidant Activities of Pileus and Stipe from White Beech Mushrooms (Hypsizygus marmoreus) (부위별 흰색 느티만가닥버섯 추출물의 항산화 활성)

  • Kim, Su Cheol;Kwon, Hyun Sook;Kim, Chul Hwan;Kim, Hye Soo;Lee, Chang Yun;Cho, Soo Jeong
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.26 no.8
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    • pp.928-935
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    • 2016
  • Hypsizygus marmoreus (white cultivar), also called white beech mushrooms, are edible mushrooms commercially cultivated in Korea and Japan. This study was carried out to evaluate the antioxidant properties of H. marmoreus. H. marmoreus fruit bodies were divided into pileus and stipe. The pileus and stipe were extracted into water and 80% ethanol and their antioxidant activities were analyzed. The total polyphenol content was highest in the water extract (pileus 1137.39±0.38 mg of GAE (gallic acid equivalents)/100 g, stipe 700.86±0.06 mg of GAE/100 g) compared to the ethanol extract (pileus 923.47±0.18 mg of GAE/ 100 g, stipe 324.05±0.03 mg of GAE/100 g). Ethanol extracts from pileus showed better scavenging ability on DPPH (47.32±0.23% at 10 mg/ml) and ABTS (57.33±0.10% at 10 mg/ml) than the stipe and water extract groups. Water extract from pileus were more effective in reducing power and ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) value than stipe and ethanol extract. The toxicity of water and ethanol extracts was investigated using WST-1 (Water Soluble Tetrazolium salt) assay on the mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. Overall, total polyphenol content and antioxidant activities of extracts from H. marmoreus increased in a dose dependent manner while pileus was showed better total polyphenol content and antioxidant activities than stipe.

The change on characterizations of fruiting body according to the growing temperature in Flammulina velutipes (팽이버섯 생육온도에 따른 자실체의 특성 변화)

  • Jhune, Chang-Sung;Yun, Hyung-Sik;Kong, Won-Sik;Lee, Chan-Jung;Chung, Jong-Chun;Yoo, Young-Bok
    • Journal of Mushroom
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.51-58
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    • 2010
  • Total eight different winter mushroom (Flammulina velutipes) strains were characterized by comparisons of fruiting body morphology, hardness and color after growing at different temperature. Although variations depending on the strains were observed, in general, both stipe length and pilus diameter were shorter while pilus thickness was bigger as growing temperatures were decreased. No significant differences in stipe thickness were observed. The ASI4065 and 4151 had the tallest stipe and the ASI4021 had the shortest stipe. The ASI4103 strain had the biggest pilus diameter. The ASI4153 had most thick pilus, while the ASI 4021 had least thick pilus. Also, the ASI4166 had the most thick stipe and the ASI4065 had the most thin stipe. The hardness of white mushrooms were increased by decreasing growth temperatures, while no relationships between the hardness of brown mushrooms. In most strains, stipe were much stronger than pilei and white mushrooms were harder than brown ones. The strain having most strong stipe was ASI4021. Both ASI 4021 and ASI4166 had the most strong pilus. The color of pilus has much lighter than that of stipe. White mushrooms had high brightness value ranging from 70-90, while brown mushrooms showed low brightness value from 30-70. Saturation value was higher in brown mushrooms. Based on our study, it was shown that environmental conditions had some effects on winter mushrooms, but genetic differences among strains were more important factors to determine most characteristics of winter mushrooms.

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Effects of Fermented Sparassis crispa Stipe Extract Supplemented Diet on the Immune Responses of Philippines Eel, Anguilla bicolor (꽃송이버섯 기부 발효물 첨가 사료가 장어의 면역반응에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Eun-Ju;Seo, Seung-Ho;Park, Seong-Eun;Kang, Min-Soo;Son, Hong-Seok
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.46 no.10
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    • pp.1151-1157
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    • 2017
  • This study examined the immune response of Philippines eel (Anguilla bicolor) to the oral administration of fermented Sparassis crispa stipe extract for 6 weeks. The S. crispa extract fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum showed a higher total phenol content (301.68 ppm) and DPPH radical scavenging activity (63.9%) than those fermented with other strains. Therefore, L. plantarum was selected as a suitable starter culture for the fermentation of S. crispa stipe. The eels were fed a commercial diet supplemented with 1% of fermented S. crispa stipe extract for 6 weeks. The mortality rate of the eels fed the supplemented diet was significantly lower than those of the control after 6 weeks. The lysozyme activity of the serum was increased significantly (12.33 ${\rightarrow}$ 54.66 units) after 6 weeks in the eel fed supplemented diets of fermented S. crispa stipe. The serum of the eel fed the supplemented diet of the S. crispa stipe extract showed higher bactericidal activity. These results suggest that both the S. crispa stipe extract and fermented S. crispa stipe have strong potential to activate the innate immune response of the Philippines eel.

Uronic Acid Composition, Block Structure and Some Related Properties of Alginic Acid(1) Uronic Acid Composition of Alginic Acid from Ecklonia cave (알긴산의 화학적 조성 및 그 물성에 관한 연구(1) 감태 알긴산의 우론산 조성)

  • KIM Dong-Soo;PARK Yeung-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.17 no.5
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    • pp.391-397
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    • 1984
  • The seasonal and portional variation in the composition of uronic acid of alginic acid from Eckionia cava was investigated. The sample was collected from the coast of Ieechun Illkwangmyun, Yangsangun, Kyungnam, Korea, in the period of January to December in 1982. In seasonal variation of the content of alginic acid, the range of variation was larger in the frond than in the stipe, It was the highest content in between February to April, and the lowest in between August to October, and the content was more in the stipe than in the frond. The uronic acid ratio(M/G ratio) was varied seasonaly in a relationship with the variation of the alginic acid content. The maximum M/G ratio appeared in the period of December to March and minimum May to August, and the average values of the M/G ratios in the periods were 3.08, 2.64 in the frond and 2.91, 1.39 in the stipe, respectively. Additively a year mean values were 3.22 in the frond and 2.18 in the stipe.

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Drying Characteristics and Content Change of Major Components of Shiitake Mushroom(Lentinus edodes) 2. Changes in Major Components of Shiitake Mushroom by Drying Temperature (표고버섯의 건조 특성 및 주요성분의 변화 2. 건조온도에 따른 표고버섯의 주요성분 변화)

  • Seo, Jae-Sin;Gang, Seong-Gu;Choe, Byeong-Min
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.279-286
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    • 1997
  • The effect of drying temperature (30, 40, 50, 60$^{\circ}C$) on chemical components of Shiitake mushroom(Lentinus edodss) was investigate. When compared proximate composition on pileus and stipe of raw and dried materials, all of them were found to be higher in the stipe part than in the pileus part. The major components of organic acid were oxalic, citric, malic, malonic and pyroglutaric acid. The contents of free and total amino acids in pileus and stipe were 3458.4, 7640.2mg% for pilueus; 2298.0, 6171.5mg% for stipe on dry basis, respectively. On the other hand, there was no significant difference in the changes of crude ash and organic acids content of Shiitake mushroom among drying temperatures. But the amount of crude fats was increased and that of reducing sugars was decreased with increase of drying temperature. The contents of crude proteins of pileus part of dried materials were increased with increased drying temperature, but those of stile part were gradually decreased. The contents of free amino acids decreased with increase in drying temperature, but those of total amino acids were gradually increased.

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Occurrence of Internal Stipe Necrosis of Cultivated Mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) Caused by Ewingella americana in Korea

  • Lee, Chan-Jung;Jhune, Chang-Sung;Cheong, Jong-Chun;Yun, Hyung-Sik;Cho, Weon-Dae
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.62-66
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    • 2009
  • The internal stipe necrosis of cultivated mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus) is caused by the bacterium Ewingella americana, a species of the Enterobacteriaceae. Recently, Ewingella americana was isolated from cultivated white button mushrooms in Korea evidencing symptoms of internal stipe browning. Its symptoms are visible only at harvest, and appear as a variable browning reaction in the center of the stipes. From these lesions, we isolated one bacterial strain (designated CH4). Inoculation of the bacterial isolate into mushroom sporocarps yielded the characteristic browning symptoms that were distinguishable from those of the bacterial soft rot that is well known to mushroom growers. The results of Gram stain, flagellal staining, and biochemical tests identified these isolates as E. americana. This was verified by pathogenicity, physiological and biochemical characteristics, and the results of an analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences and the fatty acids profile. This is the first report of the isolation of E. americana from cultivated white button mushrooms in Korea.

Chemical Composition and Rheological Properties of Polysaccharides Isolated from Different Parts of Brown Seaweed Undaria pinnatifida (미역(Undaria pinnatifida) 부위별로 추출한 다당의 이화학적 특성)

  • Koo, Jae-Geun
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.53 no.5
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    • pp.665-671
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    • 2020
  • The chemical and rheological properties of fucoidan and alginate prepared from different parts of Undaria pinnatifida (sporophyll, frond, stipe) were investigated. The algal materials were extracted with HCl (pH 2.0, 3 h at 70℃) to prepare fucoidan, and the remaining solid was continuously re-extracted with Na2CO3 (pH 10.0, 70℃, 3 h) to prepare alginic acid. The fucoidan and alginic acid contents in the sporophyll, frond, and stipe were 11.14%, 3.84%, and 1.73% and 22.04%, 37.14%, and 31.74%, respectively. The content of fucoidan and alginate depends on the part extracted. The fucoidan extracted from the sporophyll mainly consists of fucose and galactose, but the fucoidan extracted from frond and stipe contains mannose in addition to fucose and galactose. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy analysis of fucoidan and alginate suggests the presence of sulfate groups (1261 and 840 cm-1) and carboxyl groups (1626 and 1419 cm-1), respectively. Alginate solutions (5%) had a low viscosity of 10.84-31.63 mPa·s. The activation energies of fucoidan and sodium alginate were 14.45-18.38 kJ/mol and 18.61-22.06 kJ/mol, respectively. The D-mannuronic acid/L-guluronic acid (M/G) ratios of alginate showed a relatively high (frond, 3.72; stipe, 2.88; and sporophyll, 1.80).

Uronic Acid Composition, Block Structure and Some Related Properties of Alginic Acid (2) Uronic Acid Block Structure and Some Related Properties of Alginic Acid from Ecklonia cava (알긴산의 화학적 조성 및 그 물성에 관한 연구 (2) 감태 알긴산의 우론산분자 Block 배열 및 그 물성)

  • Kim Dong-Soo;PARK Yeung-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.17 no.6
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    • pp.492-498
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    • 1984
  • We have reported the seasonal and portional variation in the composition of uronic acid of alginic acid from Ecklonia cava in the previous study. In the present paper, uronic acid block structure of alginic acid from Ecklonia cave was investigated, and some related properties such as viscosity, the dependence on temperature and substitution of metallic ion were also discussed. The proportion M block was highest amnog three blocks in both of frond and stipe. The average values of M and G block ratios were $51.6|%\;and\;32.3\%$ in the frond, whereas $45.7\%\;and\;38.6\%$ in the stipe, respectively. The proportions of alternating blocks in the frond and stipe were similar, and the values were $16.1\%$ in the frond and $15.6\%$ in the stipe. The viscosity of $1\%$ sodium alginate solution was almost inversely proportional to the M/G and/or M block ratio. Viscosities were marked maximum from summer to autumn and minimum winter to spring. In the value of lower M/G and M block ratio, the viscosity seemed to have a considerable dependence on temperature. The temperature dependence was more appearant in the alginic acid from the frond (M/G ratio, 0.95; M block, $54.2\%$) collected in July and the stipe (M/G ratio, 1.61; M block $47.6\%$) in April. The affinity with metallic ion appeared higher in order of $Pb^{2+}>Cu^{2+}>Co^{2+}>Zn^{2+}$. The amounts of metallic ion exchange of the $Pb^{2+},\;Cu^{2+},\;Co^{2+}\;and\;Zn^{2+}$ were ranged from 3.4. to 4.7, 2.5 to 3.2, 1.8 to 2.2 and 1.6 to 1.7 meq/(g. sodium alginate), respectively.

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