• Title/Summary/Keyword: streamflow

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Assessment of Ecological Streamflow for Maintaining Good Ecological Water Environment (수생태 환경유지를 위한 하천생태유량 산정)

  • Jung, Chung-Gil;Lee, Ji-Wan;Ahn, So-Ra;Hwang, Soon-Jin;Kim, Seong-Joon
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.58 no.3
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    • pp.1-12
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    • 2016
  • The objective of this study is to analyze the relationship between stream water quality of TN (total nitrogen), TP (total phosphorus), and BOD (Biochemical Oxygen Demand) and TDI (Trophic Diatom Index) score determined by physico-chemical factors, biomass, and standing crops of epilithic diatoms, and to estimate the required amount of ecological streamflow for good water environment of Trophic Diatom. For the main stream of Chungju dam watershed of South Korea, total 100 field data of 3 years (2008~2010) measured in May and September were used to derive the relationship between water quality and TDI. Trophic Diatom had high correlation (0.55 determination coefficient) with TN. Using the relationship, the required streamflow was evaluated by using the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) for good Trophic Diatom water environment through T-N water quality maintenance. The SWAT simulated 8 years (2003~2010) stream discharges and T-N water quality along the main stream. From present garde C (score range: 30.0~45.0) to grade A (score above 60.0) of TDI, the May needs additional streamflow of $63.1m^3/sec$ (+36.7 % comparing with the present streamflow of $172.0m^3/sec$) at the watershed outlet.

A Feasibility Study on Supplying Stream Minimum Flow Using Detention Storage in Developing Planned District (단지계획지구 홍수저류지의 하천유지유량 공급방안 연구)

  • Noh Jaekyoung;Park Hyun-goo
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
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    • 2005.05b
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    • pp.1219-1223
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    • 2005
  • This study was accomplished to confirm the possibility of supplying stream minimum flow from detention storage which was determined to reduce peak flows of flood within developing planned district. The results analyzed was summarized as follows; Firstly, Sin-gil district situated in Ansan city was selected, of which watershed area has $0.56km^2$. And detention storage was determined to $5,370m^3$ from analyzing flood volume by the SCS unit hydrograph method. Secondly, using Visual Basic ver 6.0, a detention storage water balance model was developed, in which simulation was based on conditioning storage inflow and outflow according to streamflow volume or rate state. And streamflow was simulated using the DAWAST model. Thirdly, detention operation scenarios were consisted of the combinations with inflow referencing streamflow of 5mm/day, 10mm/day and outflow referencing streamflow of 1mm/day, 2mm/day. The developed detention storage water balance model was operated to simulate daily water storages of detention sized on flood by scenarios. Stream minimum flows were able to be supplied during 209 days to 237 days per a year, total volume of stream minimum flows supplied for this period was analyzed to reach 27 to $55\% of yearly streamflow volume. If inflow criteria of streamflows to detention was considered to be established on a theoretical condition, it is expected to supply stream minimum flows of 20 to $30\% of yearly streamflow from stream to detention. Also to maximize function of supplying urban stream minimum flow from detention storages, sewage waters within developing planned district have to be treated and entered to detention inflow together with streamflows to enrich function of detention planned to reduce flood volumes.

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Analysis of Baseflow Contribution to Streamflow at Several Flow Stations (수계별 주요 유량 지점에 대한 강수량과 기저유출 기여도 분석)

  • Choi, Youn Ho;Park, Youn Shik;Ryu, Jichul;Lee, Dong June;Kim, Yong Seok;Choi, Joongdae;Lim, Kyoung Jae
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.441-451
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    • 2014
  • Streamflow is typically divided into two components that are direct runoff and baseflow, it is required to analyze and estimate behaviors of those two flow components to understand watershed characteristics so that watershed management plan can be effective in pollutant reductions. Since pollutant load behaviors in a stream or river are variable by flow component behaviors, best management practices need to be applied in a watershed based on the pollutant load behaviors varying with flow components. Thus, baseflow behaviors were analyzed separating baseflow from streamflow data collected from fifteen streamflow gaging stations in the 4 major river watersheds which are the Han river, Nakdong river, Guem river, and Yeongsan Somjin river watersheds. Moreover, precipitation trends throughout the 4 River Systems were investigated, thus daily precipitation data were collected from sixty-five locations. The Hank river watershed displayed the largest precipitation (925.2 mm) in summer but the lowest precipitation (71.8 mm) in winter, indicating the watershed has the most fluctuating precipitation characteristic. While the precipitation trends in the Four River Systems varied, a distinct feature in baseflow trends was not found, moreover baseflow percentages to streamflow were typically greater than 50% in the Four River Systems. As shown in this study, it would be expected significant amount of pollutants could be contributed to the stream in the form of baseflow at the watershed.

Real-Time Application of Streamflow Forecast Using Precipitation Forecast (단기 예측강우를 활용한 실시간 유량 예측기법의 적용)

  • Kim, Jin Hoon;Yoon, Won Jin;Bae, Deg Hyo
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.11-23
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    • 2005
  • The objective of this study is to develop a short-term precipitation-streamflow coupling method for real-time river flow forecast. The coupled method is based on the RDAPS model for precipitation and atmospheric simulation and the SFM model for streamflow simulation. The selected study area is the 2,703-km$^2$ Soyang River basin with outlet at Soyang dam site. The rainfall-runoff event from 18 to 24 July 2003 is selected for the performance test of predicted precipitation and streamflow. It can be seen that the simulated basin-scale precipitation from the RDAPS can be useable as an input for SFM hydrologic model. Short-term hydrometeorological simulations using the RDAPS and SFM model were well captured important hydrometeorological characteristics in this study area. It is concluded that atmospheric precipitation forecast would be useful for streamflow forecast.

Stochastic Modelling of Monthly flows for Somjin river (섬진강 월유출량의 추계학적 모형)

  • 이종남;이홍근
    • Water for future
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.281-291
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    • 1984
  • In our Koreans river basins there are many of monthly rainfall data, but unfortrnately streamflow data needed are rare. Analysing monthly rainfall data of Somjin river basin, the stochastic theory model for calculation of monthly streamflow series of that region is determined. The model is composed of Box & Jenkins stansfer function plus ARIMA residual models. This linear stochastic differenced time series equation models can adapt themselves to the structure and variety of rainfall, streamflow data on the assumption of the stationary covarience. The fiexibility of Box-Jenkins method consists mainly in the iterative technique of building an AIRMA model from observations and by the use of autocorrelation functions. The best models for Somjin river basin belong to the general calss: $Y_t=($\omega$o-$\omega$_1B) C_iX_t+$\varepsilon$t$ $Y_t$ monthly streamflow, $X_t$ : monthly rainfall, $C_i$ :monthly run-off, $$\omega$o-$\omega$_1$ : transfer parameter, $$\varepsilon$_t$ : residual The streamflow series resulted from the proposed model is satisfactory comparing with the exsting streamflow data of Somjin gauging station site.

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Pollutant Load Characteristics by Baseflow in a Small Agricultural Watershed (농업소하천 유역의 기저유출에 의한 오염부하특성)

  • Shin, Yongchul;Lyou, Changwon;Choi, Ye Hwan;Lim, Kyuong Jae;Choi, Joongdae
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.244-249
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    • 2006
  • Natural environment of Weolgokri watershed has been well preserved as a traditional agricultural watershed. A year record of streamflow, $NO_3-N$, T-N and T-P concentrations data (April 2004 - Mar. 2005) were examined to estimate annual and seasonal patterns of pollutant loads in streamflow and baseflow from the agricultural watershed. To estimate pollutant loads from baseflow, baseflow component was separated from streamflow using the digital filter method in the Web-based Hydrograph Analysis Tool system and loads of $NO_3-N$, T-N and T-P from streamflow and baseflow were evaluated. The $NO_3-N$, T-N, and T-P loads from streamflow were 13.85 kg/ha, 45.92 kg/ha and 1.887 kg/ha, respectively, while corresponding loads from baseflow were 7.43 kg/ha, 24.70 kg/ha, 0.582 kg/ha, respectively. It was found that $NO_3-N$ and T-N loads were contributed slightly more by the baseflow (53% and 53% of Total-loads) than by the direct runoff (47% and 47% of Total loads). However, only 30% of total T-P load was contributed by the baseflow. It is recommended that one needs to assess pollutant load contribution by the baseflow to identify appropriate pollution control strategies for an effective watershed management.

Climate Elasticity of Korean Streamflows (기후변동에 대한 한국 하천유량의 탄력성)

  • Jung, Il-Won;Chang, Hee-Jun;Bae, Deg-Hyo
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
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    • v.43 no.10
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    • pp.851-864
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    • 2010
  • We investigated the sensitivity of Korean streamflows to climate variation. Historical dam inflows and climate data for eight multi-purpose dam sites were collected and examined to determine key factors affecting streamflow change. The results show that annual streamflow primarily responds to change in precipitation rather than temperature. However, the combination of less precipitation and high temperature induces a more serious decrease in streamflow than does similar precipitation and with low temperature. This result indicates that Korean water resources could be more vulnerable to drought due to increasing temperature caused by global warming. To estimate spatial differences in climate sensitivity, we also calculated climate elasticity for 109 mid-size watersheds using streamflow simulated by the Precipitation Runoff Modeling System (PRMS). Climate elasticity ranges over 1.5~1.9, indicating that a +20% increase in annual precipitation leads to a +30~+38% increase in annual streamflow.

Using Bayesian tree-based model integrated with genetic algorithm for streamflow forecasting in an urban basin

  • Nguyen, Duc Hai;Bae, Deg-Hyo
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
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    • 2021.06a
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    • pp.140-140
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    • 2021
  • Urban flood management is a crucial and challenging task, particularly in developed cities. Therefore, accurate prediction of urban flooding under heavy precipitation is critically important to address such a challenge. In recent years, machine learning techniques have received considerable attention for their strong learning ability and suitability for modeling complex and nonlinear hydrological processes. Moreover, a survey of the published literature finds that hybrid computational intelligent methods using nature-inspired algorithms have been increasingly employed to predict or simulate the streamflow with high reliability. The present study is aimed to propose a novel approach, an ensemble tree, Bayesian Additive Regression Trees (BART) model incorporating a nature-inspired algorithm to predict hourly multi-step ahead streamflow. For this reason, a hybrid intelligent model was developed, namely GA-BART, containing BART model integrating with Genetic algorithm (GA). The Jungrang urban basin located in Seoul, South Korea, was selected as a case study for the purpose. A database was established based on 39 heavy rainfall events during 2003 and 2020 that collected from the rain gauges and monitoring stations system in the basin. For the goal of this study, the different step ahead models will be developed based in the methods, including 1-hour, 2-hour, 3-hour, 4-hour, 5-hour, and 6-hour step ahead streamflow predictions. In addition, the comparison of the hybrid BART model with a baseline model such as super vector regression models is examined in this study. It is expected that the hybrid BART model has a robust performance and can be an optional choice in streamflow forecasting for urban basins.

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Enhancing streamflow prediction skill of WRF-Hydro-CROCUS with DDS calibration over the mountainous basin.

  • Mehboob, Muhammad Shafqat;Lee, Jaehyeong;Kim, Yeonjoo
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
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    • 2021.06a
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    • pp.137-137
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    • 2021
  • In this study we aimed to enhance streamflow prediction skill of a land-surface hydrological model, WRF-Hydro, over one of the snow dominated catchments lies in Himalayan mountainous range, Astore. To assess the response of the Himalayan river flows to climate change is complex due to multiple contributors: precipitation, snow, and glacier melt. WRF-Hydro model with default glacier module lacks generating streamflow in summer period but recently developed WRF-Hydro-CROCUS model overcomes this issue by melting snow/ice from the glaciers. We showed that by implementing WRF-Hydro-CROCUS model over Astore the results were significantly improved in comparison to WRF-Hydro with default glacier module. To constraint the model with the observed streamflow we chose 17 sensitive parameters of WRF-Hydro, which include groundwater parameters, surface runoff parameters, channel parameters, soil parameters, vegetation parameters and snowmelt parameters. We used Dynamically Dimensioned Search (DDS) method to calibrate the daily streamflow with the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) being greater than 0.7 both in calibration (2009-2010) and validation (2011-2013) period. Based on the number of iterations per parameter, we found that the parameters related to channel and runoff process are most sensitive to streamflow. The attempts to address the responses of the streamflows to climate change are still very weak and vague especially northwest Himalayan Part of Pakistan and this study is one of a few successful applications of process-based land-surface hydrologic model over this mountainous region of UIB that can be utilized to have an in-depth understanding of hydrological responses of climate change.

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Realtime Streamflow Prediction using Quantitative Precipitation Model Output (정량강수모의를 이용한 실시간 유출예측)

  • Kang, Boosik;Moon, Sujin
    • KSCE Journal of Civil and Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.30 no.6B
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    • pp.579-587
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    • 2010
  • The mid-range streamflow forecast was performed using NWP(Numerical Weather Prediction) provided by KMA. The NWP consists of RDAPS for 48-hour forecast and GDAPS for 240-hour forecast. To enhance the accuracy of the NWP, QPM to downscale the original NWP and Quantile Mapping to adjust the systematic biases were applied to the original NWP output. The applicability of the suggested streamflow prediction system which was verified in Geum River basin. In the system, the streamflow simulation was computed through the long-term continuous SSARR model with the rainfall prediction input transform to the format required by SSARR. The RQPM of the 2-day rainfall prediction results for the period of Jan. 1~Jun. 20, 2006, showed reasonable predictability that the total RQPM precipitation amounts to 89.7% of the observed precipitation. The streamflow forecast associated with 2-day RQPM followed the observed hydrograph pattern with high accuracy even though there occurred missing forecast and false alarm in some rainfall events. However, predictability decrease in downstream station, e.g. Gyuam was found because of the difficulties in parameter calibration of rainfall-runoff model for controlled streamflow and reliability deduction of rating curve at gauge station with large cross section area. The 10-day precipitation prediction using GQPM shows significantly underestimation for the peak and total amounts, which affects streamflow prediction clearly. The improvement of GDAPS forecast using post-processing seems to have limitation and there needs efforts of stabilization or reform for the original NWP.