• Title, Summary, Keyword: structured lipids

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Enzymatic production and industrial application of structured lipids (재구성 지질의 효소적 생산과 산업적 이용)

  • Lee, Soo Jeong;Song, Ye Jin;Lee, Jung Eun;Choi, Eun Ji;Kim, Byung Hee
    • Food Science and Industry
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    • v.51 no.2
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    • pp.148-156
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    • 2018
  • Structured lipids are lipids in which the composition and/or positional distribution of fatty acids have been chemically or enzymatically modified from their natural biosynthetic form. Because structured lipids have desired nutritional, physicochemical, textural or physiological properties for applications in processed foods, functional foods, or nutraceuticals, many research activities have been aimed at their commercialization. The enzymatic production of structured lipids using lipases as the biocatalysts has a big potential in the future market due to the specificity or selectivity of the lipases. This article introduced some examples of specialty structured lipids that have been enzymatically produced and have been utilized as commercialized products. The commercialized products include medium- and long-chain triacylglycerols, human milk fat substitutes, cocoa butter equivalents, trans-free plastic fats, low-calorie fats/oils, and health-beneficial fatty acid-rich oils.

Effect of Structured Lipids Containing CLA on Hepatic Antioxidant Enzyme Activity in Rats Fed a Normal Diet

  • Kim, Hye-Jin;Lee, Ki-Taek;Lee, Mi-Kyung;Jeon, Seon-Min;Park, Myung-Sook
    • Nutritional Sciences
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.138-143
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    • 2004
  • Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) has been shown to have a range of biological activities, including anti-carcinogenic, anti-atherosclerotic, anti-adipogenic and anti-diabetogenic effects. Recent reports also showed that CLA has free radical scavenging capacity, which may have health benefits for human beings. The current study was performed to investigate the effect of structured lipid (SL)-containing CLA on plasma lipids and hepatic antioxidant enzyme activity. Sprague-Dawley mts were fed 5% and 10% SL-containing normal diet for 6 wks and these groups were compared to rats fed 5% and 10% corn oil. In plasma lipids, total-cholesterol was not affected by fat source or dietary fat level while triglyceride level decreased significantly in groups fed 10% fat diet compared to the other groups. Plasma thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level decreased significantly in the S5 and S10 groups compared to the C5 and C10 groups, although hepatic TBARS level was not altered by fat source. On the other hand, in terms of hepatic antioxidant enzyme activity, superoxide dismutase activity increased in the S10 group, whereas catalase activity decreased in the S10 group. Glutathione peroxidase activity decreased significantly in the SL groups compared to the C5 group. Glutathione reductase activity increased and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity decreased in the C10 group compared to the C5 and C5 groups. In conclusion, the free radical scavenging activity of CLA seemed to suppress oxidative stress, which reduced lipid peroxidation resulting in lower hepatic antioxidant enzyme activity.

Enzymatic synthesis of asymmetric structured lipids containing 1,2-disaturated-3-unsaturated glycerol using acyl migration (효소적 Acyl migration을 이용한 비대칭형 재구성지질(1,2-disaturated-3-unsaturated glycerol)의 합성 및 분석)

  • Hyeon, Jin-Woo;Lee, Ki-Teak
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.367-375
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    • 2013
  • The enzymatic interesterification was performed to produce structured lipids (SLs) with palm mid fraction (PMF) and stearic ethyl ester (STEE) for 1, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 hr at $80^{\circ}C$. The reaction was catalyzed by Lipozyme TLIM (immobilized lipase from Thermomyces lanuginosus, amount of 20% by weight of total substrates) in a shaking water bath set at 180 rpm. The optimum condition for synthesis of asymmetric SLs were: substrate molar ratio 1:0.5 (PMF:STEE, by weight), reaction time 6 hr, enzyme 20% (wt%, water activity=0.085) of total substrate and reaction temperature $80^{\circ}C$. After reaction at optimized condition, triacylglycerols (symmetrical and asymmetrical TAGs) from reactants were isolated. POP/PPO (1,3-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl glycerol or 1,2-palmitoyl-3-oleoyl glycerol), POS/PSO (palmitoyl-oleoyl-stearoyl glycerol or palmitoyl-stearoyl-oleoyl glycerol), SOS/SSO (1,3-stearoyl-2-oleoyl glycerol or 1,2-stearoyl-3-oleoyl glycerol) were obtained by solvent fractionation. Finally, refined SLs contained stearic acid of 16.91%. Solid fat index and thermogram of the refined SLs were obtained using differential scanning calorimetry. The degree of asymmetric triacylglycerol in the refined SLs was analyzed by Ag-HPLC equipped with evaporated light scattering detector (ELSD). The refined SLs consisted of symmetric TAG of 41.15 area% and asymmetric TAG of 58.85 area%.

Synthesis of Structured Lipids from Corn Oil and Conjugated Linoleic Acid in the Continuous Type Reactor (연속식 반응기를 이용한 Conjugated Linoleic Acid 함유 재구성지질의 합성 연구)

  • 박래균;이기택
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.32 no.8
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    • pp.1200-1205
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    • 2003
  • Structured lipids (SL) were synthesized by transesterification of corn oil and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in the continuous type reactor using sn-1,3 specific Rhizomucor miehei lipase. The parameters of reaction were observed in terms of flow rate, temperature, and substrate molar ratios. The highest incorporation of CLA was obtained with 1 mL/min flow rate, 55$^{\circ}C$ and 1 : 3 (corn oil/CLA) molar ratio, showing 10.26 ㏖%. When different reaction temperatures and substrate ratios were studied, the highest incorporation was obtained at $65^{\circ}C$ (17.33 ㏖%) and 1 : 5 (corn oil/CLA) ratio (17.50 ㏖%), respectively. After pancreatic lipase analysis, most of all CLA were found at sn-1,3 position. The iodine values of obtained SLs ranged from 110 to 120. From the neutral lipid analysis by normal-phase HPLC, produced SLs composed of 99.35 ∼ 99.89% triacylglycerols, 0.11 ∼ 0.51% 1,2- and 1,3-diacylglycerols, and 0.06 ∼ 0.22% monoacylglycerols.

Enzymatic Synthesis and Characterization of Structured Lipids from Docosahexaenoic Acid - Enriched Fish oil and Soybean oil (어유와 대두유로부터 기능성 유지의 효소적 합성)

  • Kim, Yu-Mi;Jeon, Mi-Sun;Lee, Jeung-Hee;Lee, Ki-Teak
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.437-444
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    • 2008
  • Structured lipids(SLs) were synthesized by enzymatic interesterification with DHA-enriched fish oil(containing 27% docosahexaenoic acid) and soybean oil in the hatch-type reactor. The interesterification was performed for 24 hr at $55^{\circ}C$ and TLIM(immobilized lipase from Thermonyces lanuginosa, 10% by weight of total substrates) was mixed with 180 rpm of shaking. The fish oil and soybean oil were interesterifed with several weight ratio(fish oil : soybean oil, 2:8, 3:7, 4:6, 5:5, w:w), Reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography with an evaporative light-scattering detector separated the triglyceride species of SLs. The products contained the newly synthesized peaks. Especially, one of peaks was distinctively increased with the increasing weight ratio from 2:8 to 5:5 while the peak of trilinolein (LLL) decreased vice versa. The effect of antioxidants such as catechin, BHT(Butylated hydroxytoluene), and their combinations on the oxidative stability in SL were investigated. Oxidative stability was carried out under oven test at $60^{\circ}C$ over 72 hr thereafter SLs were analyzed for total fatty acid content, rancimat, peroxide value, electronic nose and TBARS value. Among all combinations of antioxidant, the highest stability was obtained from 200 ppm of catechin. Besides, total tocopherol ($\alpha$, $\gamma$, and $\delta$-tocopherol), iodine and saponification value were analyzed in which iodine and saponification value of SLs were 151.19 and 182.35.

Enzymatic Production of Structured Lipids from Capric Acid and Conjugated Linoleic Acid in Soybean Oil

  • Shin, Jung-Ah;Lee, Ki-Teak
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Postharvest Science and Technology of Agricultural Products Conference
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    • pp.164.1-164
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    • 2003
  • In this study, medium-chain fatty acid (MCFA) metabolized in the liver for quick energy and CLA exhibited biological activity were used for synthesis of structured lipids (SLs). SLs were synthesized by acidolysis of soybean oil, capric acid (C10:0) and CLA with Chirazyme L-2 lipase as biocatalysts. The effect of enzyme load (2, 4, 6, 8, 10% w/w substrates) was investigated. Production of SL (scale-up) was performed with a 1:2:2 molar ratio (oi1/C10:0/CLA) for 24 h at 55$^{\circ}C$ in a stirred batch reactor (420 rpm). The reaction was catalyzed by Chirazyme L-2 lipase (24.48g, 4% w/w substrates). The scale-up result showed that capric acid and total CLA were incorporated 4.9%, 4.1% (mole%), respectively, in soybean oil. Then, physio-chemical property and flavor characteristic of produced SL-soybean oil were analyzed. Therefore, SL-soybean oil containing C10:0 and CLA was successfully synthesized and may be beneficial in desirable food and nutritional applications.

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Production of Lipase-catalyzed Structured Lipids from Mustard Oil with Capric acid

  • Hu, Jiang-Ning;Alim, Md. Abdul;Lee, Jeung-Hee;Adhikari, Prakash;Lee, Ki-Teak
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.574-577
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    • 2009
  • To reduce the content of undesirable erucic acid in mustard oil (MO), it was enzymatically modified with capric acid using immobilized lipase TL IM to produce structured lipid (SL). After reaction, the content of erucic acid was reduced up to 21.7% under the performed reactions in this study. Meanwhile, unsaturated fatty acids existing at sn-2 position (oleic acid, linoleic acid, and linolenic acid) in MO were not much changed.

Production of Lipase-catalyzed Structured Lipid from Olive Oil with Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

  • Kahveci, Derya;Can, Ash;Ozcelik, Beraat
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.79-83
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    • 2009
  • Acidolysis of olive oil with omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) was carried out to produce a structured lipid. Novozym $435^{(R)}$ from Candida antarctica was used as the biocatalyst. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to determine optimum conditions for lipase-catalyzed enrichment of olive oil. Three factors, 5 levels, central composite design was used. The effects of incubation time, temperature, and substrate mole ratio on incorporation ratio (n-3 fatty acids/total fatty acids, %) were investigated. From the evaluation of response surface graphs, the optimal conditions for incorporation of long chain n-3 PUFAs into olive oil were $40-60^{\circ}C$ for temperature, 30-45 hr for reaction time, and 3:1-5:1 (n-3 fatty acids/olive oil) for substrate mole ratio. Experiments conducted under optimized conditions predicted by the model equation obtained from RSM yielded structured lipids with 50.8% n-3 PUFAs. This value agreed well with that predicted by the model. Oxidative stability tests showed that the product was more susceptible to oxidation than unmodified olive oil. Antioxidant addition improved the oxidative stability of the product.