• Title, Summary, Keyword: subacute stage

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A Comparison of Interventions Recorded in Nursing Notes between Actue and Subacute Stage after a Cerebrovascular Accident (신경과 병동에 입원한 노졸중환자의 간호일지에 나타난 급성기와 아급성기의 간호중재 비교)

  • Choi, Ja-Yun;Park, Soon-Joo
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.227-235
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    • 2006
  • Purpose: This study aimed to: 1) determine the core nursing interventions, and 2) compare acute interventions with subacute interventions recorded in the nursing notes of patients with cerebrovascular accidents (CVA). Methods: The nursing records covering the first 10 days of 30 patients with a CVA who were admitted from January to December 2004 at C University Hospital in Korea were examined. Data was collected using the nursing interventions classification (NIC) from January to April 2005. Finally, data analysis was carried out using mean, SD, and paired t-test according to domains, classes, and interventions. Results: The most frequent nursing intervention at both stage was 'Neurologic monitoring'. There were differences in interventions belonging to the 'Physiological: complex,' 'Behavioral,' 'Safety,' and 'Health system' domains between the acute and subacute stages. The frequency of interventions belonging to the 'Immobility management,' 'Neurological management,' 'Tissue perfusion management,' 'Patient education,' 'Risk management,' 'Health system mediation,' and 'Information management' classes at the acute stage was higher compared to the subacute stage. Conclusions: This study found out that nurses relatively recorded more nursing interventions during the acute stage hence the unsuccessful documentation of the subacute stage particularly in describing the specific nursing interventions at this stage.

Impact of Time Interval between Trauma Onset and Burr Hole Surgery on Recurrence of Late Subacute or Chronic Subdural Hematoma

  • Kim, Dae-in;Kim, Jae-hoon;Kang, Hee-in;Moon, Byung-gwan;Kim, Joo-seung;Kim, Deok-ryeong
    • Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
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    • v.59 no.5
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    • pp.498-504
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    • 2016
  • Objective : Although subdural hematoma (SDH) is commonly treatable by burr hole surgery in the late subacute or chronic stage, there is no clear consensus regarding appropriate management and exact predictive factors for postoperative recurrence also remain unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate risk factors associated with recurrence of SDH that requires burr hole surgery in the late subacute or chronic stage. We also identified the appropriate timing of surgery for reducing the recurrence. Methods : We retrospectively reviewed 274 patients with SDH in the late subacute or chronic stage treated with burr hole surgery in our hospital between January 2007 and December 2014. Excluding patients with acute intracranial complications or unknown time of trauma onset left 216 patients included in the study. Results : Of 216 patients with SDH in the late subacute or chronic stage, recurrence was observed in 36 patients (16.7%). The timing of the operation in patients with late subacute stage (15-28 days) resulted in a significant decrease in recurrence (RR, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.17-0.65; p=0.001) compared to chronic stage (>28 days). Otherwise, no significant risk factors were associated with recurrences including comorbidities and surgical details. Conclusion : The results indicated that time from trauma onset to burr hole surgery may be important for decreasing the risk of recurrence. Therefore, unless patients can be treated conservatively without surgery, prompt surgical management is recommended in patients diagnosed as having late subacute or chronic subdural hematoma treatable by burr hole surgery, even when neurological deficits are unclear.

Effects of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on Motor Recovery in Lower Extremities of Subacute Stage Incomplete Spinal Cord Injury Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial

  • Ji, Sang-Goo;Cha, Hyun-Gyu;Kim, Myoung-Kwon
    • Journal of Magnetics
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.427-431
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    • 2015
  • The aim of this study was to investigate whether repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can improve motor recovery in the lower extremities of the patients with subacute stage spinal cord injury (SCI). This study was conducted with 19 subjects diagnosed with paraplegia because of SCI. The experimental group included 10 subjects who underwent active rTMS, and the control group included 9 subjects who underwent sham rTMS. The SCI patients in the experimental group underwent conventional rehabilitation therapy, and active rTMS was applied daily to the hotspot of the lesional hemisphere. The SCI patients in the control group underwent sham rTMS and conventional rehabilitation therapy. The participants in both the groups received therapy five days per week for six weeks. Latency, amplitude, and velocity were assessed before and after the six-week therapy period. A significant difference in post-treatment gains for the latency and velocity was observed between the experimental and control groups (p < 0.05). However, no significant differences in the amplitude were observed between the two groups (p > 0.05). The results of this study indicate that rTMS may be beneficial in improving motor recovery in the lower extremities of subacute stage SCI patients.

A Comparative Study with Lumbar Disc Herniation under Conservative Treatment according to the Duration (요추 추간판탈출증 환자의 발병시기에 따른 보존적 치료 결과 비교 연구)

  • Youn, You-Suk;Lee, Jong-Soo;Ha, In-Hyuk;Kim, Joo-Won;Kwon, Hyeok-Joon
    • Journal of Korean Medicine Rehabilitation
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.135-145
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    • 2008
  • Objectives : To investigate therapeutic outcomes of back pain modalities in patients with disc herniation according to the duration by treated with herbal medicine, chuna, acupuncture, bee-venom acupuncture. Methods : We separated 36 patients with disc herniation into three group according to duration; acute patients within 4 week, subacute patients within 5-12 week, and chronic group within 13-24 week. 36 patients with lumbar disc herniation were treated with chuna therapy, acupuncture, bee-venom acupuncture one times a week and took herbal medicine after a meal two times daily. The patients' symptoms were assessed 1 week, 2 week, 4 week, 8 week by Visual analogue scale(VAS), Oswestry disability index(ODI), 36-Item short-form health survey(SF-36). Results : 1. ODI of disability of daily activities showed significantly decreased in acute stage group compared to subacute and chronic stage groups(P<0.05). 2. Physical functioning(PF), bodily pain(BP), social functioning(SF) score of SF-36 showed significantly increased in acute stage group compared to subacute and chronic stage groups(P<0.05). Conclusions : This study suggests that acute stage group compared to subacute and chronic stage groups in patients with lumbar disc herniation is the more effective to improve symptoms treated with herbal medicine, chuna therapy, acupuncture, bee-venom acupuncture.

Production of Plasma Leptin and Expression of Interferon-γ Inducible Protein-10 (IP-10), Monokine Induced by Interferon-γ (Mig) and Interleukin-8 (IL-8) mRNA in Kawasaki Disease

  • Lee, Young-Hwan;Kim, Won-Duk;Kim, Hee-Sun
    • IMMUNE NETWORK
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    • v.2 no.4
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    • pp.202-207
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    • 2002
  • Background: Kawasaki disease is an acute febrile illness with systemic vasculitis which primarily affects children, We examined the production of leptin in plasma and gene expressions of CXC chemokines in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with Kawasaki disease. Methods: Consecutive 39 samples from 13 patients according to the different clinical stages (acute, subacute, convalescent) of Kawasaki disease were collected. The plasma leptin levels according to clinical stages of Kawasaki disease were examined by ELISA and the expression of IP-10, Mig and IL-8 mRNAs in 39 samples (13 samples of each stage) from 13 cases were examined by RT-PCR. Results: There were not significant changes of plasma leptin levels according to the clinical stages of Kawasaki disease. The mean values of plasma leptin concentrations during each of the stages (n=13, p>0.05, pg/ml) were $335.8{\pm}549.0$ in acute, $358{\pm}347.6$ in subacute, and $443.6{\pm}645.9$ in convalescent stage. The mRNAs of IP-10, Mig, and IL-8 were expressed in 13/13 (100%), 2/13 (15%), 9/13 (69%) during acute stage, 13/13 (100%), 6/13 (46%), 13/13 (100%) during subacute stage, and 13/13 (100%), 4/13 (31%), 10/13 (77%) during the convalescent stage, respectively. In three patients, the production of leptin and expression of IP-10 mRNA were dramatically decreased according to the process of the clinical stages. In five patients with prominent cervical lymphadenopathy, the expression of IL-8 mRNA during the subacute stage was more elevated than the acute and convalescent stages. Conclusion: This data suggests that the production of leptin and the gene expressions of IP-10, Mig and IL-8 seem to have no significant correlation to the clinical stages of Kawasaki disease. However, expression patterns of IP-10, Mig and IL-8 mRNA may be related to the specific clinical manifestations, and the expression of IP-10 may also be correlated to leptin levels with pericardial involvement.

Altered Peripheral Nerve Excitability Properties in Acute and Subacute Supratentorial Ischemic Stroke (급성 및 아급성 천막상 허혈성 뇌졸중에서 발생하는 말초신경 흥분성 변화)

  • Seo, Jung Hwa;Ji, Ki Whan;Chung, Eun Joo;Kim, Sang Gin;Kim, Oeung Kyu;Paeing, Sung Hwa;Bae, Jong Seok
    • Annals of Clinical Neurophysiology
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.64-71
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    • 2012
  • Background: It is generally accepted that upper motor neuron (UMN) lesion can alter lower motor neuron (LMN) function by the plasticity of neural circuit. However there have been only few researches regarding the axonal excitability of LMN after UMN injury especially during the acute stage. The aim of this study was to investigate the nerve excitability properties of the LMNs following an acute to subacute supratentorial corticospinal tract lesion. Methods: An automated nerve excitability test (NET) using the threshold tracking technique was utilized to measure multiple excitability indices in median motor axons of 15 stroke patients and 20 controls. Testing of both paretic and non-paretic side was repeated twice, during the acute stage and subacute stage. The protocols calculated the strength-duration time constant from the duration-charge curve, parameters of threshold electrotonus (TE), the current-threshold relationship from sequential sub-threshold current, and the recovery cycle from sequential supra-threshold stimulation. Results: On the paretic side, compared with the control group, significant decline of superexcitablity and increase in the relative refractory period were observed during the subacute stage of stroke. Additionally, despite the absence of statistical significance, a mildly collapsing in ('fanning in') of the TE was found. Conclusions: Our results suggest that supratentorial brain lesions can affect peripheral axonal excitability even during the early stage. The NET pattern probably suggests background membrane depolarization of LMNs. These features could be associated with trans-synaptic regulation of UMNs to LMNs as one of the "neural plasticity" mechanisms in acute brain injury.

Diffusion-weighted MR imaging findings of intracerebral hematoma (뇌실질내의 확산강조영상 소견)

  • 박창숙;최순섭;오종영;박병호;김기욱;남경진;이영일
    • Investigative Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.21-27
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    • 2002
  • Purpose : To evaluate diffusion-weighted imaging findings of intracerebral hematoma according to the time sequence. Materials and methods : Seventeen patients with intracerebral hematoma were studied. Diffusion weighted images using 1.5 tesla MRI machine were obtained with b-value of $1000{\;}sec/\textrm{mm}^2$. The patients were grouped as hyperacute stage(within 12 hours, 5 patients), acute stage(within 3 days, 4 patients), subacute stage(within 3 weeks, 4 patients), and chronic stage(after 3 weeks,4 patients). The signal intensities were analysed as bright, high, iso, low and dark at the central and peripheral portions of the hematoma in each stage, and compared with those of T2 and T1 weighted images. Results : The signal intensities of the central and peripheral portion of the intracerebral hematoma on diffusion-weighted images were high and dark in hyperacute stage, dark and high-bright in acute stage, and high-bright and dark in subacute and chronic stages. The patterns of signal change of hematoma on diffusion-weighted image according to the time sequence were similar to those on T2-weighted image, but changed early and prominently. Conclusion : The intracerebral hematoma on diffusion-weighted image showed unique central and peripheral signal intensity according to the time sequence. Central portions show high to bright signals in hyperacute, subacute and chronic stage, and dark signal in acute stage, and peripheral portions show dark signals in hyperacute, subacute and chronic stage, and high to bright signal in acute stage.

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Findings Regarding an Intracranial Hemorrhage on the Phase Image of a Susceptibility-Weighted Image (SWI), According to the Stage, Location, and Size

  • Lee, Yoon Jung;Lee, Song;Jang, Jinhee;Choi, Hyun Seok;Jung, So Lyung;Ahn, Kook-Jin;Kim, Bum-soo;Lee, Kang Hoon
    • Investigative Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.107-113
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: Susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI) is a new magnetic resonance technique that can exploit the magnetic susceptibility differences of various tissues. Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) looks a dark blooming on the magnitude images of SWI. However, the pattern of ICH on phase images is not well known. The purpose of this study is to characterize hemorrhagic lesions on the phase images of SWI. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively enrolled patients with ICH, who underwent both SWI and precontrast CT, between 2012 and 2013 (n = 95). An SWI was taken, using the 3-tesla system. A phase map was generated after postprocessing. Cases with an intracranial hemorrhage were reviewed by an experienced neuroradiologist and a trainee radiologist, with 10 years and 3 years of experience, respectively. The types and stages of the hemorrhages were determined in correlation with the precontrast CT, the T1- and T2-weighted images, and the FLAIR images. The size of the hemorrhage was measured by a one- directional axis on a magnitude image of SWI. The phase values of the ICH were qualitatively evaluated: hypo-, iso-, and hyper-intensity. We summarized the imaging features of the intracranial hemorrhage on the phase map of the SWI. Results: Four types of hemorrhage are observed: subdural and epidural; subarachnoid; parenchymal hemorrhage; and microbleed. The stages of the ICH were classified into 4 groups: acute (n = 34); early subacute (n = 11); late subacute (n = 15); chronic (n = 8); stage-unknown microbleeds (n = 27). The acute and early subacute hemorrhage showed heterogeneous mixed hyper-, iso-, and hypo-signal intensity; the late subacute hemorrhage showed homogeneous hyper-intensity, and the chronic hemorrhage showed a shrunken iso-signal intensity with the hyper-signal rim. All acute subarachnoid hemorrhages showed a homogeneous hyper-signal intensity. All parenchymal hemorrhages (> 3 mm) showed a dipole artifact on the phase images; however, microbleeds of less than 3 mm showed no dipole artifact. Larger hematomas showed a heterogeneous mixture of hyper-, iso-, and hypo-signal intensities. Conclusion: The pattern of the phase value of the SWI showed difference, according to the type, stage, and size.

Burr hole drainage using urokinase for treatment of subacute subdural hematoma (아급성기 경막하 혈종 치료시 천공술 후 urokinase를 이용한 혈종배액술)

  • Kim, Min-Su;Kim, Seong-Ho;Kim, Oh-Lyong
    • Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.8-12
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    • 2015
  • Background: Enlargement of subdural hematomas is relatively rapid in subacute stage of hematoma with clinical deterioration, which eventually necessitates surgery. The purpose of this study is to investigate the feasibility and safety of burr hole drainage using urokinase for management of patients with subacute subdural hematoma (SASDH). Methods: Nine patients with SASDH were treated by burr hole drainage using urokinase. Under local anesthesia a catheter was inserted into the hematoma through a burr hole. Burr hole drainage was followed by hematoma thrombolysis with instillation of urokinase (10,000 units) every 12 hours. Drainage was discontinued when a significant decrease of hematoma was observed on cranial computed tomography. Results: The patients' median age was 70 years (range, 62-87). The median Glasgow Coma Scale score before surgery was 15 (range, 11-15). Drainage was successfully performed in all patients. All patients had Glasgow Outcome Scale scores of 5 at discharge. There was no surgery-related morbidity or mortality. Conclusion: A burr hole drainage using urokinase could be a safe, feasible and effective minimally invasive method with low morbidity in treatment of selected patients with SASDHs.

Change of Magnetic Motor Evoked Potentials in Hemiparesis due to Cerebral Infarction (뇌경색에 의한 편측부전마비에서 자기운동유발전위의 변동)

  • Lee, Ju Ho;Park, Young Huk;Kim, Kwang Soo;Yoo, Kyung Moo
    • Annals of Clinical Neurophysiology
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.99-105
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    • 1999
  • Background and Objectives : The Motor evoked potentials (MEP) study may be useful in the evaluation of the degree of impairment in the motor nervous system and in the determination of the prognosis. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the status of central nervous system in acute and subacute state of cerebral ischemia by comparing the changes of MEP in the initial and follow-up study. Methods : Twenty patients with hemiparesis caused by ischemic stroke were recruited for this study. We tested MEP within 7 days and followed-up after 14 days after symptom onset. The cerebral motor cortex area, cervical area for upper extremity and lumbar area for lower extremity were stimulated by transmagnetic stimulator. The central motor conduction time(CMCT) was measured with the difference in MEP caused by stimulating the vertical area and spinal area. The CMCT of hemiparetic patients were classified into three groups-normal, delayed, and no evoked MEP groups. Results : The CMCT in hemiparetic side of acute ischemic stroke patients were singnificantly delayed (P < 0.05) compared with the control group. The CMCT of hemiparetic side in the follow-up study showed no sinificantly difference in comparison to the control group. The prognosis of motor improvement was better in the groups of delayed MEP than the groups of no evoked MEP. Conclusion : The CMCT of hemiparetic and contralateral sides were delayed in acute ischemic stroke, compared with control group and were returned to normal boundaries in subacute state. But in the most cases with no MEP response in the initial study, also showed no MEP response in the follow-up study. The recovery occurred in the subacute state in cases with mild hemiparesis, whereas recovery did not occur in the subacute stage in case with severe hemiparesis.

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