• Title, Summary, Keyword: substantia nigra

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Distribution and Ultrastructure of Dopaminergic Neurons in the Substantia Nigra of Mongolian Gerbil (Meriones unguiculates) (모래쥐 흑색질의 도파민성 신경세포의 분포와 미세구조)

  • Choi, Wol-Bong;Yoon, Sang-Seon;Ko, Byoung-Moon;Jo, Seung-Mook;Nam, Seong-Ahn;Choi, Chang-Do
    • Applied Microscopy
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.461-472
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    • 1997
  • The substantia nigra of the Mongolian gerbil was studies by tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry and immunoelectron microscopy with preembedding method. The purpose was to obtain information on the distribution and ultrastructure of the Tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive and dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra, in order to provide the necessary background for the gerbil. Large number of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive neurons were located in the compact part of substantia nigra. Findings in the gerbil, compared to observations in the other species, included the presence of prominent bundles of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive cytoplasmic processes passing in the dorsoventral direction from pars compacta into pars reticulata at middle and caudal levels of the substantia nigra, and the presence of a distinct tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive substantia nigra pars lateralis. Tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive neurons had well-developed cell organelles, especially rough endoplasmic reticulum, free ribosome and poly-ribosome, and showed the infoldings of the nuclear envelope. We anticipate that the present description of the cellular organization of the tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive dopaminergic area in the substantia nigra of gerbil will be useful for the animal experimental model of Parkinson's disease.

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Exofocal Damage to the Substantia Nigra by Transient Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion in Rats

  • Jin, Changbae;Yanai, Kazuhiko;Araki, Tsutomu;Watanabe, Takehiko
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology
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    • pp.215-215
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    • 1996
  • The present study examined chronic effects of transient focal cerebral ischemia on the substantia nigra, a remote exofocal area, using immunohistochenmical and receptor autoradiographic techniques. Transient focal cerebral ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion for 60 or 90 min followed by reperfusion using silicone-coated 4-0 nylon monofilament in male Wistar rats. After 1- or 2-week reperfusion following transient MCA occlusion, there were partial losses of tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive dopaminergic neurons, incieases in glial fibrillary acidic protein-immunoreactive cells (gliosis), decreases in [$^3$H]YM-09151-2 binding for dopamine D$_2$ receptors, and marked atrophy in the ipsilateral substantia nigra. The precise mechanism(s) of exofocal damage to the substantia nigra is remained to be elucidated.

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The study of dopaminergic immunoreactive cell distribution in mesencephalon of korean native goat newborn (한국재래산양 신생아 중뇌에서의 Tyrosine Hydroxylase 면역반응세포 분포에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Dong-Dae
    • Journal of Korean Physical Therapy Science
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    • v.6 no.4
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    • pp.201-207
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    • 1999
  • I investigated that tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive cells distribution in mesencephalon of korean native goat newborn by immunohistochemical method. The results obtained in this study were summarized as following. 1. It were observed TH-IR cells in substantia nigra pars compacta, ventral tegmental area, substantia nigra pars reticular, central linear nucleus and retrorubral field of Midbrian. 2. TH-IR cells were observed that to mass on several areas in substantia nigra pars compacta and substantia nigra pars reticular. 3. TH-IR cell process observed short or non and it were protruded irregular direction.

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Dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra and ventral tegmentum in the stripped field mouse(apodemus agrarius coreae) (야생등줄쥐 흑색질 및 배쪽피개의 dopamine성 신경세포)

  • Jeong, Young-gil;Kim, Kil-soo;Lee, Chul-ho;Yoon, Won-kee;Hyun, Byung-hwa;Oh, Yang-seok;Won, Moo-ho;Kim, Moo-kang
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.489-497
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    • 1997
  • The distributions characteristics of neurons displaying immunoreactivity to the catecholamine synthetic enzymes, tyrosine hydroxylase(TH), dopamine-${\beta}$-hydroxylase(DBH), and phenylethanolamine-N-methyltransferase(PNMT) were examined in the adjacent sections of the substantia nigra & ventral tegmentum of the Striped Field Mouse(Apodemus agrarius coreae). None of these cell groups displayed either DBH or PNMT immunoreactivity. Many TH-immunoreactive neurons were present in the substantia nigra & ventral tegmentum. The major dopaminergic cell(TH-positive, DBH- & PNMT-negative) group in the midbrain was present in the pars compacta of substantia nigra and adjacent ventral tegmentum. And smaller dopaminergic cell groups Were found in the pars reticulata of the substantia nigra and central liner nucleus.

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A Study on Acupuncture-generated Blood-Oxygen-Level Dependant Signals in Substantia Nigra and Other Areas in Extrapyramidal Tract (대뇌흑질과 추체외로에서 자침에 의한 BOLD 신호)

  • Choe, Il-Hwan;Park, Hi-Joon;Yoon, Hyo-Woon;Shin, Hyung-Chul;Lee, Sang-Hoon;Lee, Yun-Ho;Lim, Sabina
    • Journal of Acupuncture Research
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.211-219
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    • 2008
  • 목적 : 전통적으로 태충($LR_3$)과 양릉천($GB_{34}$)은 운동기능과 관련된 질환에 사용되어 왔다. 우리는 두뇌에 신경독을 주입하여 파킨슨병 쥐모델을 제작하였고, 쥐는 운동기능이 손상되고 도파민성 신경세포가 선택적으로 소멸하였다. 병증 모델 쥐에게 태충과 양릉천에 자침한 결과 운동기능이 개선되고 신경세포보호효과가 나타남을 관찰한 바 있다. 이에 실제로 태충과 양릉천에 자침하여 운동기능과 관련된 추체외로 영역에서 신경의 활성화가 나타나는지를 fMRI를 통하여 관찰하였다. 방법 : 자침은 수기침을 선택하였으며, 혈위는 (1) 태충, (2) 양릉천, (3) 태충+양릉천의 세군데를 설정하였고, 자침에 대한 대조자극으로 피부자극을 채택하였다. fMRI 스캐너는 3T를 사용하였고 뇌신경 활성화의 신호는 BOLD(blood-oxygen-level dependant)를 관찰하였다. 두뇌에서 관찰부위는 중뇌를 중심으로 추체외로로 한정하였다. 결과 : 태충에 자침하였을 때 두뇌의 substantia nigra, subthalamic nucleus, red nucleus, pons 등이 활성화 되었다. 양릉천에 자침하였을 때 substantia nigra, subthalamic nucleus, caudate nucleus, thalamus가 활성화 되었다. 태충과 양릉천에 동시에 자침하였을 때는 substantia nigra, subthalamic nucleus, red nucleus, globus pallidus가 활성화되었다. 대조자극에 의해서는 위의 영역들이 활성화되지 않았다. 결론 : 태충, 양릉천, 태충+양릉천 자극은 대뇌에서 추체외로 영역을 활성화시키며 특히 substantia nigra의 활성화는 파킨슨병과 같은 질환의 조절가능성을 시사한다.

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Electrical properties and ATP-sensitive K+ channel density of the rat substantia nigra pars compacta neurons (랫드 흑질 신경세포의 전기적 특성과 ATP-sensitive K+채널의 전류밀도)

  • Han, Seong-kyu;Park, Jin-bong;Ryu, Pan-dong
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.40 no.2
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    • pp.275-282
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    • 2000
  • Substantia nigra is known to highly express glibenclamide binding site, a protein associated to ATP-sensitive $K^{+}$ ($K_{ATP}$) channel in the brain. However, the functional expression of $K_{ATP}$ channels in the area is not yet known. In this work, we attempted to estimate the functional expression of $K_{ATP}$ channels in neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNC) in young rats using slice patch clamp technique. Membrane properties and whole cell currents attributable to $K_{ATP}$ channel were examined by the current and voltage clamp method, respectively. In SNC, two sub-populations of neurons were identified. Type I (rhythmic) neurons had low frequency rebound action potentials ($4.5{\pm}0.25Hz$, n=75) with rhythmic pattern. Type II (phasic) neurons were characterized by faster firing ($22.7{\pm}3.16Hz$, n=12). Both time constants and membrane capacitance in rhythmic neurons ($34.0{\pm}1.27$ ms, $270.0{\pm}11.83$ pF) and phasic neurons ($23.7{\pm}4.16$ ms, $184{\pm}35.2$ pF) were also significantly different. The current density of $K_{ATP}$ channels was $6.1{\pm}1.47$ pA/pF (2.44~15.43 pA/pF, n=8) at rhythmic neurons of young rats. Our data show that in SNC there are two types of neurons with different electrical properties and the density of $K_{ATP}$, channel of rhythmic neuron is about 600 channels per neuron.

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Ultrastructural Study on the Substantia Nigra of the Head-Irradiated Rats (머리에 방사선 상해를 받은 흰쥐 흑색질의 미세구조)

  • Bae, Hack-Gun;Yang, Nam-Gil;Ahn, E-Tay;Ko, Jeong-Sik;Park, Kyung-Ho;Kim, Jin-Gook
    • Applied Microscopy
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.30-45
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    • 1992
  • An experimental study on the acute irradiation effects on the substantia nigra of head-irradiated rats were carried out. Rats anesthetized with sodium thiopental, were exposed only on their head areas with a single dose of 3,000 rads or 6,000 rads, respectively. Radiation was produced by Mitsubishi linear accelerator at the speed of 200 rads/min. Aminals were sacrificed on 6 hours, 2 days and 6 days following irradiations. By the perfusion fixation through the heart, rats were fixed with 1% glutaraldehyde-1% paraformaldehyde solution. Two hours later, brains were exposed and immersed in the same fixatives over night. Tissue blocks from subtantia nigra were punched out, and they were refixed in the 2% osmium tetroxide solution. Blocks were dehydrated through alcohol series, and embedded in the araldite mixture. Ultrathin sections were stained with uranyl acetate and lead citrate solutions, From the ultrastructural study, following results were made: 1. Six hours after irradiation, severe depletion of synaptic vesicles was occurred in the many axon terminals of the nigral neuropil. 2. Dramatical decrease of lysosomes and dense granules was observed. 3. Two days following irradiation, alterations of ribosomes, granular endoplasmic reticula, mitochondria, etc, were noticed. 4. Many of the malformations were seen to be repaired on the 6th day. 5. Above results were interpreted as follows. At the acute stage of heavy irradiation, neurotransmitters in the substantia nigra are released severely. But they are recovered within 6 days. It is concluded that acute head-irradiation may result severe disturbance of nigral motor control function during the first few days.

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MANGANESE-INDUCED PARKINSONISM: IS SUBSTANTIA NIGRA INNOCENT OR GUILTY\ulcorner

  • Jong Min Kim;Chang Won Park;Jeong Ja O;Bo Kyung Lee;Kyung Won Seo;Soo Kyung Seo;Kwang Jin Kim;Kyu Bong Kim;Jong Won Kim
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Toxicology Conference
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    • pp.164-164
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    • 2001
  • Manganese (Mn) intoxication causes a parkinsonian syndrome. It may be difficult to distinguish Mn-induced parkinsonism from idiopathic Parkinson disease (IPD). Neuropathological descriptions on the brains with Mn intoxication showed the preferential damage in the globus pallidus and substantia nigra pars reticularis.(omitted)

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Combinatorial modulation of the spontaneous firings by glutamate receptors in dopamine neurons of the rat substantia nigra pars compacta

  • Kim, Shin-Hye;Park, Yu-Mi;Sungkwon Chung;Uhm, Dae-Yong;Park, Myoung-Kyu
    • Proceedings of the Korean Biophysical Society Conference
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    • pp.40-40
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    • 2003
  • Spontaneous firing rate and patterns of dopaminergic neurons in midbrain are key factors in determining the level of dopamine at target loci as well as in the mechanisms such as reward and motor coordination. Although glutamate, as a major afferent, is reported to enhance firing rate, the detailed actions of NMDA-, AMPA/kainate-, and metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR) on filing patterns are not clear. Thus we have investigated the role of glutamate receptors on the spontaneous firing activities using the network-free, acutely isolated dopamine neurons from substantia nigra pars compacta(SNc) of the 9-14 days rat. The isolated cells showed spontaneous regular firings of near 2.5 Hz, whose rate was enhanced by glutamate at submicromolar levels (0.3 $\square$M) but abolished by high concentrations more than 10 $\square$M.

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Effects of Dopamine Agonists on Primary Cultured Neurons from Various Brain Regions

  • Kim, Kyeong-Man
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.16-22
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    • 1994
  • Using 2 to 4 day-old postnatal rats, primary brain cell cultures were made from various brain regions (substantia nigra, hippocampus, striatum, and nucleus accumbens). Whole-cell patch clamp technique was used for electrophysiological studies. Neurons cultured from substantia nigra were characterized more in detail to test whether these cultured neurons were appropriate for physiological studies. Immunocytochemical and electrophysiological properties of these cultured neurons agreed with those from other in vivo or in vitro studies suggesting that cultured neurons maintained normal cytological and physiological conditions. Modulation of ionic channels through dopamine receptors were studied from brain areas where dopamine plays important roles on brain functions. When neurons were clamped near resting membrane potential (-74mV), R(+), R(+)-SKF 38393, a specific D$_1$receptor agonist, activated cultured striatal neurons, and dopamine itself produced biphasic responses. Responses of cultured hippocampal neurons to dopamine agonists were kinds of mirror images to those from striatal neurons; D$_1$receptor agonists inhibited hippocampal neurons but quinpirole, a D$_2$receptor agonist, activated them. Neurons cultured from nucleus accumbens were inhibited by dopamine.

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