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Study on Seombody Drying (섬바디의 건조에 관한 연구)

  • 박경규
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.56-63
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    • 1976
  • An experimental work was conducted to develop an optimum operating system of various hay drying systems ; sun-drying with long hay, sun-drying after chopping, sun-drying after crushing, heated air drying after chopping using batch-type dryer and heated air drying after crushing using tunnel-type dryer. Seombody having 60 cm long and initial moisture content of approximately 79 % in wet basis was used for the experiment. The criteria selected for determining the optimum operating condition were the drying performance rate, the production cost and quality of dried matter of each drying systems. The result of this study are summarized as follows : 1. Drying characteristics of leaves of long stem hay, chopped seombody and crushed one were obtained by maintaining the oven temperature at 70 degrees centigrade. The required drying times for various samples to approximately 15% moisture content in wet basis were about 50 min .for leaves ; 160 min. for crushed hay ; 250 min. for chopped hay ; 340min. for ling hay and more than 360 min .for stems. The drying time of crushed hay was required about 50 % of that for the uncrushed long hay. Such a significant difference of drying of time between the leaf and long stem may indicate that an effective drying of seombody may not be achieved unless any kind of special process treatment for the whole hay is undertaken. 2. In each individual drying system, the following conclusions were drawn: a. After 8 days sun-drying on concrete floor under good days with average tempe\ulcornerrature at $256{\circ}C$ and relative humidity at 55% at 2 P.M., the moisture content of long hay was still above 25 5'~ and the leaf loss during drying caused by wind and rough handling was more than 50 ~G. b. It was possible to dry the chopped seombody by sun-drying down to about 10 % moisture content within 5 days, however, a stock of heat and discolouration phenomena were observed during the drying, which may be due to the increased deposit-density by chopping, resulting in lowering the quality of the dried product. c. Sun-drying for the crushed material by hay-conditioner was required about 4 days to reduce the moisture content to about 10 %, keeping the quality of dried product at good grade. o. The optimum deposit-depth of the chopped seombody in the batch-type dryer used was about 28cm with about 42kg/hr of drying performance rate. However, it was necessary to overturn the materials between the upper and lower layers in order to obtain a good quality of dried product. d. The drying performance rate by the tunnel-type drier was highest among those of drying systems tested, giving the rate of approximately 400kg/day. 3. On reviewing the individual drying system for seombody, it was possible to draw conclusion that the best system was tunnel drying with the crushed seombody as far as the performance rate was concerned. However, the methods gives the highest operational cost. The system for the lowest operational cost with good quality of dried product was the sun-drying with the crushed material. Accordingly, it may be recommended that the system of sun-drying for the crushed seombody may be the most feasible system presently applicable to farm-level operation.

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Effects of Drying Methods on Content of Active Components, Antioxidant Activity, and Color Values of Saururus chinensis Bail (건조방법에 따른 삼백초의 유효성분 함량, 항산화능 및 색도)

  • Kim, Min-Ja;Kim, In-Jae;Nam, Sang-Young;Lee, Cheol-Hee;Yun, Tae;Song, Beom-Heon
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.8-13
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    • 2006
  • This study was carried out to investigate drying methods for keeping freshness and active components of aerial part of Saururus chinensis. Chopped samples were prepared using hot air drying, hot air drying + roasting, presteamed + hot air drying, freeze drying, and sun drying. Drying time was shorter $88{\sim}93%$ in hot air drying and freeze drying than in sun drying. Percentage of dry matter was higher in the order of freeze drying > sun drying > hot air drying, and moisture content in the order of sun drying > hot air drying > freeze drying. The contents of total phenolics and quercetin related substances were greater in the order of freeze drying > hot air drying > sun drying, while were decreased due to treatments before or after hot air drying. Electron donating ability (EDA) was highest in freeze drying, and showed a little difference between hot air drying and sun drying, but was increased because of treatments before or after hot air drying. In color values, the a value was lower in the order of freeze drying < hot air drying < sun drying. The contents of active components of plant parts of hot air dried were higher in the order of flower >leaf > chopped sample > stem. EDA showed similar tendency with those. The a value was lower in the order of leaf < chopped sample < flower < stem. As a result, freeze drying of chopped samples or hot air drying of leaf and flower were effective to maintain qualities of aerial part of Saururus chinensis.

Germination Characteristic of Rhizomes of Major Monocotyledonous Weeds in Coconut Plantations of Sri Lanka

  • Senarathne, S.H.S.;Bandara, D.M.B.M.;Sangakkara, U.R.
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.180-187
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    • 2012
  • Panicum maximum, Panicum repens, Imperata cylindrica, Pennisetum polystachion and Cyperus rotundus are five rhizomatous grass weeds that exist and are problematic in the coconut lands of Sri Lanka. Rhizomatous weeds are the most difficult to control because of their vegetative reproduction by underground propagules. Therefore chemical and biological techniques have failed to control these weeds to acceptable levels. Experiments were conducted to investigate the impact of depth of burial, duration of sun drying or duration of air drying rhizomes of the selected weed species on germination. Depth of burial reduced germination of all species. Burying rhizomes at depths less than 10 cm inhibited germination of P. maximum and P. polystachion. Burying depths below 30~40 cm inhibited germination of all species. Sun drying or air drying rhizomes for durations less than 5 days inhibited germination of P. maximum and P. polystachion. Germinations of all species were inhibited by sun drying rhizomes for 15 days or air drying rhizomes for 20 days. Sun drying of rhizomes of all species for five days reduced the moisture content to a greater extent than air drying. The results indicated that burying rhizomes at the depthsbelow 30~40 cm, sun drying rhizomes for durations beyond 15 days or air drying rhizomes for durations beyond 20 days would be effective in controlling germination of these species. The investigations of the experiments also suggest that keeping rhizomes on the soil surface without burying, sun drying rhizomes or air drying rhizomes for durations of 5~15 days would produce weak plants.

Effects of the rainfall-rewetted paddy on the quality of the milledrice (벼의 재흡습이 도정미의 품질에 미치는 영향)

  • 정창주;김용운;강화석
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.76-86
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    • 1979
  • This study was conducted to find out the effects of rainfall occurring during the paddy sun-during process of traditional paddy harvesting operations on the quality of milld rice. Rice varieties used for the experiment were MINEHIJARI variety a japonica and SUWEON 264 vareity , a sister-line of TONG-IL . Sun-drying days after the paddy cutting, times of storm occurrance during sun-drying period, and storm duration were treated as variables. The results is summarised as follows : 1. Brown rice recovery exposed to rainfall during the sun-druing period were ranged 81.6-82.1% and 79.4-80.2% for MINEHIKARI and SUWEON 264 varieties, respectively. which showed negligible effect by rainfall. 2. Milling recovery of MINEHIKARI variety was not affected by storm duration but by the by the sun-drying days after cutting as the sun-drying days increased to eight and four days when the variety met the rainfall one and two times, respectively. The range of milling recoveries of MINEHIKARI variety were 75.18-74.07% and 75.24-73.46% as the variety met the rainfall one and two times, respectively, and it were estimated that up to 0.9% and 1.5% of milling recovery would be reduced by one and two times of rainfall during sun-drying period. 3. The milling recovery of SUWEON 264 variety was affected only by the increase of drying days after cutting when it met one time of rainfall during the sun-drying period, while it was begun to reduce by the storm duration more than 11hours as the drying paddy met two times of rainfall. The milling reveries of the paddy met one and two times of rainfall were ranged 74.24-73.21% and 74.02-72.36% which were estimated to be reduced up to 0.9 % and 1.8% by the increase of the drying days after cutting and storm duration , respectively. 4. The head rice recovery of MINEHIKARI rice variety showed notable decrease as the drying days after cutting increased, and also it was greatly reduced even by the five hours of storm duration when one time of rainfall occurred but it was not affected by storm duration when the rainfall occurred two times. Head rice recoveries of MINEHIKARI met one and two times of rainfall during the sun-drying period were 65. 15 -40.85% and 61.86 - 30.03 %, which showed terrible reduction as much as up to 25% and 35% compared to that which did not met rainfall during the sun-drying process. 5. Head rice recovery or SUWEON 264 variety was very much reduced as the sum-drying days after cutting increased. Storm duration less than five hours during the sun-drying process did not affect on the decrease of head rice recovery when the variety was exposed to one time of rainfall, while storm duration affected considerably on the reduction of head rice recovery of SUWEON 264 variety exposed to two times of rainfall. The range of head rice recovery, 56.43 - 33.94% and 51.28 - 21.03% , for the paddy exposed to rainfall one and two times were evaluated that up to 24% and 37% of reduction in head rice recovery would be brought about compared to the head rice recovery of the sundriedpaddy that did not met the rainfall.

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Comparison of Dried Hot Pepper Quality and Production Efficiency by Drying Methods (건조방법에 따른 건고추의 품질특성과 생산효율 비교)

  • Jo, Myeoung Hee;Shin, Jong Hwa
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.356-362
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    • 2018
  • Hot pepper is a kind of seasoning vegetables, which is a major item in the Korean vegetable market. Since the use of hot pepper is processed into pepper powder, which is a powder form of dried hot pepper, improvement of quality and productivity of dried hot pepper is important. Therefore, this experiment was conducted to suggest proper drying method by comparing the changes of hot pepper powder ingredients considering production cost according to the drying method. As a drying method, we used sun drying and heat drying which are widely used in practice. We also compared the productivity and quality of dried hot pepper by applying a dehumidifying drying method using a dehumidifier. Drying rate of hot pepper was highest of 85.1% at heat drying. Accordingly moisture content of hot pepper powder was lowest of 13.5% at heat drying. The American Spice Trade Association (ASTA) color value, which influenced the coloring of red pepper, showed higher in heat drying and dehumidified drying treatment than the sun drying treatment. The content of capsaicinoids was higher at sun drying treatment than that of at both heat drying and dehumidified drying treatments. The content of sugar was higher at heat drying and dehumidified drying treatment where drying time was relatively short than that of sun drying treatment. Also, there was no significant difference in sugar content between the two treatments. The production cost of dried hot pepper with dehumidified drying was 9.9% more efficient than heat drying. Through this study, it was found that heat and dehumidified drying method were effective in increasing sugar content and coloring of hot pepper powder. In order to improve the capsaicinoid content of red pepper, it is considered that appropriate drying temperature and drying time should be added in the process of heat drying and dehumidified drying.

Quality of Single-Harvested Red Peppers by Drying Methods (일시 수확한 고추의 건조방법별 품질)

  • Chung, Koo-Min;Hwang, Jae-Moon
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.329-333
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    • 2003
  • Fruits of 'Manita', a red pepper cultivar, and 'HL', a cultivar bred for single-harvest, cultivated by direct sowing method were harvested simultaneously. The red fruits were freeze-, sun-, indoor-, hot-air $(65^{\circ}C)$, and excessive hot-air (50% longer time) dried. For Manita. ASTA values of freeze- and indoor-dried red pepper were the highest $(153.6{\sim}168.4)$, and those of sun- and hot air-dried ones were $119.2{\sim}131.5$. Excessive hot-air drying decreased the redness by about $9{\sim}15%$ compared to normal hot-air drying. For HL, ASTA values $(150.3{\sim}171.7)$ of indoor-dried red peppers were much higher than other dried peppers. Red pigment in HL was destroyed easily during sun drying, showing values of only $49.2{\sim}69.2$. By excessive hot-air drying, the redness did not decrease, compared to normal hot-air drying. The organic acid contents of both cultivars were higher in sun- and hot-air-dried ones than freeze- and indoor-dried ones. Copsaicinoid contents of both cultivars decreased up to 22% by excessive hot-air drying compared to normal hot-air drying. Sugar contents were lower in all drying methods other than freeze drying for both cultivars.

Drying characteristics and quality of red ginseng using far-infrared rays

  • Ning, Xiaofeng;Lee, Junsoo;Han, Chungsu
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.371-375
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    • 2015
  • Background: The current typical drying methods for red ginseng are sun drying and hot-air drying. The purpose of this study was to investigate drying characteristics of red ginseng by using far-infrared drying. Methods: The far-infrared drying tests on red ginseng were conducted at two drying stages: (1) high temperature for 24 h drying and (2) low temperature drying until the final moisture content was $13{\pm}0.5%$ (wet basis). The high temperature drying stage included three drying chamber temperature conditions of $60^{\circ}C$, $65^{\circ}C$, and $70^{\circ}C$. The low temperature drying stage was conducted at temperatures of $45^{\circ}C$ and $50^{\circ}C$. Drying characteristics were analyzed based on factors such as drying rate, color changes, energy consumption, and saponin content. The results were compared with those of the hot-air and sun drying methods. Results: The results revealed that increases in drying temperature caused a decrease in drying time and energy consumption for far-infrared drying. The saponin content decreased under all drying conditions after drying, the highest value (11.34 mg/g) was observed at drying conditions of $60{\sim}50^{\circ}C$. The sun drying condition showed the lowest color difference value when compared with far-infrared and hot-air drying. Conclusion: The far-infrared drying showed a faster drying rate, higher saponin content, lower color difference value, and a decrease in energy consumption than seen in hot-air drying.

Design and Utilization of Solar Collector for Drying Agricultural Products (농산물(農産物) 건조(乾燥)를 위(爲)한 태양열(太陽熱) 집열기(集熱機)의 제작(製作) 및 이용(利用)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Koh, Hak Kyun;Kum, Dong Hyeug
    • Journal of Biosystems Engineering
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.48-57
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    • 1982
  • In order to improve the quality of traditionally sun-dried red peppers and to increase the efficiency of drying performance, three types of solar dryers were designed and built, and drying performance of the solar dryers was compared to traditional sun drying. Results obtained from the experiment are summarized as fallows: 1. The air temperature and relative humidity profiles over a 8-hour period measured at the specified locations in the drying chamber of solar dryers appeared to have large variation in each dryer. The rate of drying increased with the temperature rise in the drying chamber of the solar dryer. 2. In general. drying with solar dryers proceeded faster than traditional sun drying. With A'-type of solar dryer developed in the second experiment it was possible to dry red peppers in seven days from an initial moisture content of 80% to safe storage conditions. The drying time with the A'-type solar drier was 50% shorter compared to traditional sun drying. 3. Red peppers appeared to have an increasing or constant-rate drying period until the weight of the product was reduced to about one half the initial weight, followed by a falling-rate drying period. When the dried red peppers were exposed to the atmospere during the night, the moisture content increased as much as 6%, which is much higher than for the grains. 4. It was suggested from the experiment that either a heat storage system or a supplemental heating system in the solar dryer was desirable for more efficient drying operation. 5. It was shown that the solar dryer developed in this study may be suitable for drying other vegetables and fishes, and also offered additional advantages of saving in drying time, maintaining sanitation and minimizing contamination by dust, insects and unfavorable weather condition.

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Effects of Drying Methods on Anthocyanin Contents of Colored Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cv. Boanchalbori

  • Song, Tae Hwa;Park, Tae Il;Han, Ouk Kyu;Yoon, Chang;Kang, Hyen Jung;Park, Kuang Geun
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.234-239
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    • 2013
  • This study investigated the effects of drying methods and drying time on the changes in anthocyanin content in colored barley. Colored barley cultivar Boanchalbori was harvested at a time when the anthocyanin content was the most and dried in afield. The harvested barley was then treated by two methods, sun drying and shade drying, for 4, 8, 24, and 32 h. The moisture content of the sun-dried barley decreased slightly faster than shade-dried samples, but the difference was not statistically significant. Chemical analysis indicated that the samples dried under shaded conditions had slightly higher crude fiber and lower nitrogen free extract, but the difference was not statistically significant. There was no difference in the total digestible nutrients between the two methods. In the case of sun-dried barley, the anthocyanin content decreased compared to the control and shade-dried samples after drying for 4 h (p < 0.05), was maintained at a constant level at 24 h, and then decreased at 32 h. In case of shade-dried barley, the anthocyanin content decreased gradually with the drying time, and a significant decrease was found at 24 h of drying (p<0.05) as compared to the control. The shade-dried method was more successful in reducing anthocyanin loss than the sun-dried method (p<0.05). There was a slight decrease in 1,1-Diphenyl-2-Picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging with drying time in the shade-dried method, and a significant decrease after 4 h with the sun-dried method. These results showed that covering with a two-layer awning was advantageous to dry colored barley in the field conditions.

A Study on the Thermal Characteristics of the Large Low Temperature Vacuum Dryer for Biological Drying (생체 건조용 대형 저온진공건조기의 열적 특성에 관한 연구)

  • 김경근;성부용;정한식;최순열;문수범
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Engineering
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.427-434
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    • 2000
  • In tradition, there have been two kinds of drying methods, which are sun drying and artificial drying. The sun drying method which has been adopted traditionally has been replaced by the hot-air drying method which is one of the most general methods of artificial drying, with its simple drying system, low initial cost of drying plant, and easy operating method. But the hot-air drying method has some defects; (1) much energy loss happens due to the discharge of hot air during the drying process, (2) control of drying rate is not easy on account of changing relative humidity of inlet air for uniform hot air temperature, (3) high temperature of foods in drying process brings about the production of low-grade drying products. Vacuum drying takes advantage of energy saving and mass production because it reduces the drying time by increasing the drying rate under low temperature condition. The aim of this paper is to develop the low temperature vacum dryer, with low initial investments and operating costs, easy operating method and trouble-free operation.

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