• Title, Summary, Keyword: surface tension

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Investigation of Rock Slope Failures based on Physical Model Study (모형실험을 통한 암반사면의 파괴거동에 대한 연구)

  • Cho, Tae-Chin;Suk, Jae-Uk;Lee, Sung-Am;Um, Jeong-Gi
    • The Journal of Engineering Geology
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.447-457
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    • 2008
  • Laboratory tests for single plane sliding were conducted using the model rock slope to investigate the cut slope deformability and failure mechanism due to combined effect of engineering characteristics such as angle of sliding plane, water force, joint roughness and infillings. Also the possibility of prediction of slope failure through displacement monitoring was explored. The joint roughness was prepared in forms of saw-tooth type having different roughness specifications. The infillings was maintained between upper and lower roughness plane from zero to 1.2 times of the amplitude of the surface projections. Water force was expressed as the percent filling of tension crack from dry (0%) to full (100%), and constantly increased from 0% at the rate of 0.5%/min and 1%/min upto failure. Total of 50 tests were performed at sliding angles of $30^{\circ}$ and $35^{\circ}$ based on different combinations of joint roughness, infilling thickness and water force increment conditions. For smooth sliding plane, it was found that the linear type of deformability exhibited irrespective of the infilling thickness and water force conditions. For sliding planes having roughness, stepping or exponential types of deformability were predominant under condition that the infilling thickness is lower or higher than asperity height, respectively. These arise from the fact that, once the infilling thickness exceeds asperities, strength and deformability of the sliding plane is controlled by the engineering characteristics of the infilling materials. The results obtained in this study clearly show that the water force at failure was found to increase with increasing joint roughness, and to decrease with increasing filling thickness. It seems possible to estimate failure time using the inverse velocity method for sliding plane having exponential type of deformability. However, it is necessary to estimate failure time by trial and error basis to predict failure of the slope accurately.

Effect of Long Term Waterlogging on the Growth and Nutrient Contents of 'Campbell Early' and 'Kyoho' Grapevine Cultivars (장기 침수가 포도 '캠벨얼리'와 '거봉' 품종의 생육과 양분함량에 미치는 영향)

  • Kang, Seok-Beom;Lee, In-Bog;Jang, Han-Ik;Park, Jin-Myeon;Moon, Doo-Khil
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.178-184
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    • 2008
  • This work was carried out to investigate the effect of waterlogging on the growth and nutrient contents of 'Campbell Early' and 'Kyoho' grapevines under the vinyl house condition from June 14 to July 20, 2005. For the trial, seedlings of two-year-old grapevine were transplanted to 40 L pot with a sandy loam soil. Irrigation point of non-waterlogging(control) treatment was controlled at -40 kPa of soil water tension using tensiometer and waterlogging treatments were imposed for 35 days at the water levels of above 10 cm from the soil surface using tap water. The growth of aerial(shoot length, leaf number and stem diameter) and underground(root) parts of 'Campbell Early' and 'Kyoho' grapevines tended to be wholly reduced by waterlogging, while the growth of aerial parts were more severely impaired in 'Kyoho' than in 'Campbell Early' cultivar. The different responses for waterlogging between two grapevines seem to be related with the capacity for absorbing mineral nutrients, because nitrogen content of 'Campbell Early' cultivar leaves was significantly higher than that of 'Kyoho' cultivar although the contents of phosphorus and potassium in leaves of two grapevine cultivars were similarly declined. There was no significant different of fruit quality, such as contents of soluble solid, titratable acidity and weight of berry in 'Campbell Early' between waterlogging and control. In 'Kyoho' cultivar, however, berry weight and titratable acidity were decreased and soluble solid content was increased by waterlogging. It was assumed that waterlogging stress for grapevines promotes maturation and coloring processes of berries by stimulating maturation hormone such as ethylene. In conclusion, 'Campbell Early' cultivar seems to be more tolerable than 'Kyoho' cultivar when comparing the growth responses and nutrient contents between two grapevine cultivars under waterlogging.

The Deposition of Tear Protein according to Soft Lens Materials and The Cleaning Efficacy of Multi-purpose Solution according to the Surfactant Types (소프트렌즈 재질 별 누액단백질 침착 및 계면활성제 종류에 따른 다목적용액의 세척효율)

  • Park, Mijung;Kwon, Young Dae;Lee, Wang Jae;Kim, So Ra
    • Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.179-188
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: The present study was aimed to investigate the cleaning efficacy of multi-purpose solutions containing different types and content of surfactants and their effect on the visible light transmittance of soft lens. Methods: Soft lenses made of different materials (etafilcon A and hilafilcon B) were deposited tear proteins by using the artificial tear and then compared the resulting cleaning efficacy and visible light transmittance after cleaning the lens with 6 types of multi-purpose solutions containing different content of surfactants. Results: The cleaning efficacy of multi-purpose solutions was variously shown as approximately 23~43% according to the active concentration of surfactants and surface tension in multi-purpose solution when etafilcon A lens cleaned with rubbing. The highest cleaning efficacy was detected when cleaned with the multi-purpose solution containing hydrogen peroxide besides surfactant however, the amount of remaining protein was still high on the lens. After washed with multi-purpose solution, the visible light transmittance of lens was in 89.8 to 90.8%. The amount of protein deposited on hilafilcon B lens was very small compared with it on etafilcon A lens even though it was incubated in artificial tears for 7 days, which showed 5~10% of protein amount in etafilcon A lens and the decrease of visible light transmittance was also not significant. In case of rubbing with multi-purpose solution, the cleaning efficacy on hilafilcon B lens was in 45.4 to 67.4% however, the order of cleaning efficacy of multi-purpose solution was different from it on etafilcon A lens. The visible light transmittance of hilafilcon B lens has been restored to the level of new lens. Conclusions: From the result, it is concluded that the appropriate multi-purpose solution should be selected according to the lens material and the amount of protein deposit on the basis of understanding surfactants and active principle for proper care of protein deposit on soft lens and the cleaning with rubbing is more efficient for lens care regardless of manufacturer's guideline.

Anatomical and Physical Properties of Pitch Pine (Pinus rigida Miller) - The Characteristics of Stem, Branch, Root and Topwood - (리기다소나무(Pinus rigida Miller)의 목재해부학적(木材解剖學的) 및 물리학적성질(物理學的性質)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究) - 간(幹), 지(枝), 근(根), 초두목(梢頭木)의 특성(特性)을 중심(中心)으로 -)

  • Lee, Phil Woo
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.33-62
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    • 1972
  • Pitch pine (Pinus rigida Miller) in Korea has become one of the major silvicultural species for many years since it was introduced from the United States of America in 1907. To attain the more rational wood utilization basical researches on wood properties are primarily needed, since large scale of timber production from Pitch Pine trees has now been accomplishing in the forested areast hroughout the country. Under the circumustances, this experiment was carried out to study the wood anatomical, physical and mechanical properties of Pitch Pine grown in the country. Materials used in this study had been prepared by cutting the selected pitch pine trees from the Seoul National University Forests located in Suwon. To obtain and compare the anatomical and physical properties of the different parts of tree such as stem, branch, top and rootwood, this study had been divided into two categories (anatomical and physical). For the anatomical study macroscopical and microscopical features such as annual ring, intercellular cannal, ray, tracheid, ray trachid, ray parenchyma cell and pit etc. were observed and measured by the different parts (stem, branch, root and topwood) of tree. For the physical and mechanical properties the moisture content of geen wood, wood specific gravity, shrinkage, compression parallel to the grain, tension parallel and perpendicular to the grain, radial and tangential shear, bending, cleavage and hardness wree tested. According to the results this study may be concluded as follows: 1. The most important comparable features in general properties of wood among the different parts of tree were distinctness and width of annual ring, transition from spring to summerwood, wood color, odor and grain etc. In microscopical features the sizes of structural elements of wood were comparable features among the parts of tree. Among their features, length, width and thickness of tracheids, resin ducts and ray structures were most important. 2. In microscopical features among the different parts of tree stem and topwood were shown simillar reults in tissues. However in rootwood compared with other parts on the tangential surface distinctly larger ray structures were observed and measured. The maximum size of unseriate ray was attained to 27 cell ($550{\mu}$) height in length and 35 microns in width. Fusiform rays were formed occasionally the connected ray which contain one or several horizontal cannals. Branchwood was shown the same features like stemwood but the measured values were very low in comparing with other parts of tree. 3. Trachid length measured among the different parts of tree were shown largest in stem and shortest in branchwood. In comparing the tracheid length among the parts the differences were not shown only between stem and rootwood, but shown between all other parts of tree. Trachid diameters were shown widest in rootwood and narrowest in branchwood, and the differences among the different parts were not realized. Wall thickness were shown largest value in rootwood and smallest in branchwood, and the differences were shown between root and top or branchwood, and between stem and branch or top wood, but not shown between other parts of tree. 4. Moisture contents of green wood were shown highest in topwood and lowest in heartwood of stem. The differences among the different parts were recognized between top or heartwood and other parts of tree, but not between root and branchwood or root and sapwood. 5. Wood specific gravities were shown highest in stem and next order root and branchwood, but lowest in topwood. The differences were shown clearly between stemwood and other parts of tree, but not root and branchwood. However the significant difference is realized as most lowest value in topwood. 6. In compression strength parallel to the grain compared among the different parts of tree at the 14 percent of moisture content, highest strength was appeared in stem, next order branch and rootwood, but lowest in topwood. 7. In bending strength compared among the different parts of tree at the 14 percent of moisture content clearly highest strength was shown in branchwood, next order stem and root, but lowest in topwood. Though the branchwood has lower specific gravity than stemwood it was shown clearly high bending strength.

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Effects of Wood Particles and Steel Wire Compositions on Physical and Mechanical Properties of the Boards (목재(木材)파아티클과 철선(鐵線) 복합체(複合體)가 보오드의 물리적(物理的) 및 기계적(機械的) 성질(性質)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Park, Heon;Lee, Pill-Woo
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.3-44
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    • 1986
  • In order to obtain the basic physical and mechanical properties of steel wire reinforced particleboard, particleboards were formed with large particles through 2.11 mm (12 meshes) and retained on 1.27mm (20 meshes) sieves and small particles through 1.27mm (20 meshes) and retained on 0.42mm (60 meshes) sieves from the plywood mill wastes of meranti (Shorea spp.) in the form of pallmanchips, applying urea-formaldehyde resin as an adhesive on the particle surface in 10 percent on the oven dried weight of particles, and arranging steel wires of 1mm in diameter 5,10,15,20, and 25mm in longitudinal and transverse direction with crossing in the mid of the board depth in single layer boards, 10mm in longitudinal or transverse direction without crossing in two layers and 10mm in longitudinal and transverse directions with and without crossing in three steel wire layers boards. The stepwise 9-minutes-multi-pressing schedule in 5 minutes at 35 kgf/$cm^2$, 2.5 minutes at 25 kgf/$cm^2$. and 1.5 minutes at 15 kgf/$cm^2$ was applied for $300{\times}200{\times}13$mm board at the temperature of 160$^{\circ}C$ in a hot press. Specific gravity, thickness swelling, bending properties of modulus of rupture (MOR), modulus of elasticity(MOE), work to proportional limit, and work to ultimate load, internal bond (IB), and screw holding power(SHP) of the reinforced boards were analyzed on the wire openings and wire layers. The results obtained are summarized as follows; 1) In specific gravity, particleboards with large particles and small particles had higher value with more steel wire placements and more steel layers composition, 2) Particleboards with large particles in accordance with more steel wire liners composition gave very poor thickness swelling. 3) The mechanical properties of particleboards formed with large or small particles were reinforced with more steel wire layers. Therefore, bending strength was improved in modulus of rupture, modulus of elasticity, and work to ultimate load. Especiallv, particleboards with two or three steel wire layers showed the tension lamination effect when the steels in lower steel wire layer were oriented parallel to the board length. 4) The modulus of rupture, modulus of elasticity, and work to ultimate load in bending varied with opening area, distance of lengthwise wires multipled by distance of transverse wires. Particleboards formed with large particles resulted in higher value in modulus of rupture with 1.5-3 $cm^2$ opening area, 1-2cm distance between transverse wires, and 1.5-2.5cm distance between lengthwise wires. Particle boards formed with small particles showed higher value with 0.5-1.5$cm^2$ or 3.75-6.25 $cm^2$ opening area, 0.5 or 2.5cm distance between transverse wires. 5) In modulus of elasticity, particleboards formed with large particles with one steel wire layer suggested higher value with 5-3$cm^2$ opening area, 1-2.5cm distance between transverse wires and also 1-2.5 cm distance between lengthwise wires. Particleboards formed with small particles showed higher value with 0.75-1.25$cm^2$ or 3-6.25$cm^2$ opening area and 0.5 or 2.5cm distance between transverse wires. 6) Particleboards formed with large particles gaved higher value in work to ultimate load with 1-3$cm^2$ opening area. Particleboards formed with small particles showed increasing tendancy with decreasing opening area. 7) In internal bond and screw holding power, particleboards formed with large particles had increasing value in two and three steel wire layers compositions, but particleboards formed with small particles showed no difference. Particleboards formed with large particles containing one steel wire layer showed no difference in internal bond and screw holding power, and particleboards formed with small panicles containing one steel wire layer resulted in increasing value in internal bond and decreasing value in screw holding power in accordance with increase in opening area.

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