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A Survey on Diseases and Insect Pests in Sweet Persimmon Export Complexes and Fruit for Export in Korea (단감수출단지 과원과 수출단감 병해충 조사)

  • Jung, Young Hak;You, Eun Ju;Son, Daeyoung;Kwon, Jin Hyeuk;Lee, Dong Woon;Lee, Sang Myeong;Choo, Ho Yul
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.53 no.2
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    • pp.157-169
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    • 2014
  • Between 2010 and 2012, diseases and insect pests of sweet persimmon were surveyed at sweet persimmon export complexes and non-export orchards in Suncheon, Jeonnam Province; Jinju, Changwon (Dongeup and Bukmyeon), and Gimhae, Gyeongnam Province; and Ulzu, Ulsan. The following diseases were found in the sweet persimmon orchards: angular leaf spot (Cercospora kaki), anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Colletotrichum acutatum), circular leaf spot (Mycosphaerella nawae), powdery mildew (Phyllactinia kakicola), and gray mold (Botrytis cinerea). Circular leaf spot was the most frequent and serious disease, and C. gloeosporioides and C. acutatum were found on fruits. Thirty-three insect pest species that belonged to 32 genera of 20 families in 5 orders were found in the sweet persimmon orchards; the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, was also found in the surveyed orchards. Apolygus spinolae, Pseudaulacaspis cockerelli, and Adoxophyes orana were widely found in the surveyed orchards; Spodoptera litura and Homona magnanima were also recorded. Damage by insect pests was low, and the quarantine insect pests peach pyralid moth (Dichocrocis punctiferalis) and persimmon fruit moth (Stathmopoda masinissa) were rarely or not found in the sweet persimmon export complexes. In addition, other quarantine insect pests, such as persimmon false spider mite (Tenuipalpus zhizhilashviliae) and Japanese mealybug (Planococcus kraunhiae), were not detected. These quarantine insect pests were also not found in the sorting places, storage houses, and fruits for export; however, scale insects and two-spotted spider mites were found at a low rate. Although anthracnose (C. acutatum) infested fruit was found in the storage houses, only one in Jinju and Gimhae.

Analysis of pesticide residues on sweet persimmon harvested from systemized orchards for exporting to USA (대미수출을 위한 병해충 방제 체계 적용 농약살포 단감원에서 수확한 단감의 잔류 농약량 조사)

  • Kim, Young-Sub;Choo, Ho-Yul;Park, Chung-Gyoo;Lee, Dong-Woon
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.166-172
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    • 2005
  • Temporary control schedules were tested at sweet persimmon orchards to development new control programs to meet the quarantine requirements of USA in 2002. The 'USA export-type control orchards' were spayed with pesticides (azoxystrobin, carbaryl, cyhexatin, fenarimol, mancozeb, methoxyfenozide, spinosad and trifluxistrobin) which were possibly adaptable to the poem trees in USA. Pesticide residues in the sweet persimmon fruits harvested from USA export-type control orchards were analyzed. Azoxystrobin, mancozeb, trifloxystrobin, spinosad, carbaryl, and cyhexatin were not detected by the experimental methods. The residues of fenarimol and methoxyfenozide in sweet persimmon of USA export-type control orchards were 0.016-0.020 ppm and 0.022-0.029 ppm, respectively. These levels are quite below the maximum residue limit level of USA (below 0.1 ppm in fenarimol and 7 ppm in methoxyfenozide). These results suggest that new control programs could be developed by modifying the USA export-type control schedule tested in this study to meet the quarantine requirements of USA, if we could suppress the damage of plant bugs.

Survey on Pest Management Practice and Scheme of Increasing Income in Sweet Persimmon Farms in Korea (단감원의 병해충 관리 실태와 소득 증대 방안에 대한 농가 의식조사)

  • Lee, Dong-Woon;Lee, Seong-Wook;Park, Chung-Gyoo;Choo, Ho-Yul;Shin, Chang-Hoon;Lee, Gyoo-Chul
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.45-49
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    • 2001
  • As a series of studies to develop pest management system for sweet persimmon production matched with the quarantine criterion of sweet persimmon-imported county, a survey was conducted by questionnaire on pest management practice and scheme of increasing income in sweet persimmon farms in Korea. Above 80% of sweet persimmon farmers was over fifties in age. The greatest limiting factor for sweet persimmon production was thought to be disease by the farmers. Percentage of farmers who answered that the most important pest is anthracnose cause by Gloeosporium kaki, and stink bugs was 64.6% and 73.5%, respectively. In particular, the farmers did not consider Dichocrocis punctiferalis, a main targer insect for quarantine in USA, as serious problem. Obtaining information on pest management practice or decision-making on both selection of pesticide and time of pesticide application depended highly on their own experience with the highest proportion. Eight to nine times of pesticide applications a year was highest among farms with 56.6%. More than 80% of farmers recorded the diary of pesticide application. farmers considered increasing cost for pest management as the greatest problem with 35.4% in proportion, and 34.5% of farmers pointed out that increase in export is essential for increasing farm income with highest proportion.

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Responses of Young 'Fuyu' Persimmon Trees to Summer Fertilization Rate and Leaf-fruit Ratio

  • Choi, Seong-Tae;Kim, Seong-Cheol;Ahn, Gwang-Hwan;Park, Doo-Sang;Kim, Eun-Seok;Choi, Jae-Hyeok
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.49 no.5
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    • pp.577-583
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    • 2016
  • Small-sized persimmons produced by high crop load are better accepted in the export markets. However, maintaining high crop load frequently results in weakness of tree vigor, deterioration of fruit quality, and increase of the risks for alternate bearing. This experiment was conducted to determine the combined effects of fertilization rate and leaf-fruit (L/F) ratio on container-grown 3-year-old 'Fuyu' persimmon trees. Application of 3.6-g N, 2.1-g $P_2O_5$, 2.7-g $K_2O$, 2.7-g CaO, and 0.6-g MgO was for the control fertilization rate (CF) and that of a 3-fold CF was for the high fertilization rate (HF). Commercial fertilizers were surface-applied to a container on July 6, July 17, and August 10 in three equal aliquots. Single tree for each fertilization rate was assigned for 12 L/F ratios (5, 6.3, 7.7, 9, 10.4, 13, 15.5, 18, 21, 24, 27, and 33) mostly by fruit thinning or rarely by defoliation on July 1. HF did not affect the yield, weight and soluble solids of the fruits but decreased skin color. As L/F ratio increased, yield decreased but average weight, skin color, and soluble solids of fruits increased. With HF, N and K concentrations in leaves, fruits, and shoots increased to some extent but soluble sugars in dormant shoots decreased. Many shoots were cold-injured with low L/F ratio especially at the HF. HF did not increase number of flower buds the next spring either on a shoot or on a tree basis but increased shoot length, compared with the CF. Increasing L/F ratio markedly increased number of flower buds and shoot growth the following year at both fertilization rates. Therefore, an appropriate combination of fertilization rate and L/F ratio should be necessary to maintain stable fruit production and tree vigor at high crop load.

The exporter's attitude on the coordination of agro-food export in Korea (농식품 수출조직화 방안에 대한 수출업체 의식 연구)

  • Kim, Kyung-Phil;An, Kwang-Hwan
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.307-313
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    • 2012
  • The purpose of this study is to provide basic information on exporter's coordination methods from the attitude of agro-food exporters. The implications are; Firstly, most of exporters believe that the agro-food export raises farmer's competitiveness rather than it does the farmhouse's income increase. Secondly, The stabilization of the farm-gain income by exporting agricultural products are most important in order to reinforce the cohesion between farmers and exporters. Thirdly, the exporters intend to participate in establishing and operating a large-scale producers' organization and marketing company under export polices. So, it is necessary that the government drive to coordinate the exporters and producers.

Packages of Persimmons Exported from Korea to USA and Temperature Conditions during Sea Transport (미국 수출 단감 포장의 현황 및 수송 중 컨테이너 온도관리 실태)

  • Ahn, Gwang-Hwan;Lee, Dong-Sun
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF PACKAGING SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.17-23
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    • 2009
  • Current status on consumption and packaging of sweet persimmons in USA was surveyed by visiting the market, and three sea shipments were conducted as model export trial from Korean to USA with measurement in ship container temperature and fruit quality. Strategy to promote the export of Korean persimmons was derived. There have been gradual decrease in the price of persimmons due to their increases production, but there seems potential growth in consumption of the fruits from Asian, Hispanic and American people. Compared to the fruits from other countries, Korean persimmons are desired to have higher soluble solid content with stronger red color, but too large sizes are not favored in American market. There has often been temperature fluctuation in shipment container during the sea transport to USA, resulting in surface blackening, skin black spotting and flesh softening. Plastic bag packages with inappropriate unitizing crimping were found to sometimes build up unproper modified atmosphere (high $O_2$ and low $CO_2$) giving high rate of physiological injury.

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Residue Studies of Difenoconazole and Thiamethoxam during Cultivation of Sweet Persimmon for Export (수출용 단감에 대한 Difenoconazole과 Thiamethoxam의 잔류특성 연구)

  • Chang, Hee-Ra;Kang, Hae-Rim;Do, Jung-A;Oh, Jae-Ho;Hwang, In-Kyun;Kwon, Ki-Sung;Im, Moo-Hyeog;Kim, Kyun
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.31 no.3
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    • pp.248-254
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    • 2012
  • BACKGROUND: In order to elucidate residual characteristics of difenoconazole and thiamethoxam by treatment to sweet persimmons for one year and to generate the data for the maximum residue limit (MRL) establishment for those pesticides in or on sweet persimmon. METHODS AND RESULTS: Systemic fungicide difenoconazole WP (10% a.i.) and systemic insecticide thiamethoxam WG (10% a.i.) were sprayed onto 12~25-years-old sweet persimmons according to its preharvest interval (PHI), respectively, and then fresh sweet persimmons were harvested at 0, 1, 3, 7, 14, 21 days after treatment from pesticide-sprayed plots at each 3 sites. The analytical methods were evaluated to limit of quantification, linearity, specificity, reproducibility and recoveries. The crop samples were extracted with acetone and performed dichloromethane partition process. The extracted samples of difenoconazole were analyzed by GC-ECD and the thiamethoxam extracted samples were analyzed by HPLC with good sensitivity and selectivity of the method. The average recoveries of difenoconazole ranged from 87.5 to 99.5% with the percentage of coefficient variation in the range 4.1~7.6% at three different spiking levels(0.02, 0.2 and 2.0 mg/kg). And the average recoveries of thiamethoxam and clothianidin ranged from 88.8 to 98.9% and 83.2 to 96.6% with the percentage of coefficient variation in the range 3.6~5.0% and 3.8~9.4% at three different spiking levels(0.02, 0.2 and 2.0 mg/kg), respectively. The residue amounts ranges of difenoconazole were 0.2~0.56 mg/kg and the residue amount was decreased below the MRL level, 1.0 mg/kg, after 1 day harvest. The residue amounts ranges of thiamethoxam were 0.08~0.28 mg/kg and the residue amount was decreased below the MRL level, 0.5 mg/kg, after 1 day harvest. And the residue amount of clothianidin was below then 0.03 mg/kg for only one test site of 14 and 28 day samples. CONCLUSION: As a result, the residual amounts of difenoconazole and thiamethoxam were not exceeded the MRL of established criteria for sweet persimmon. The biological half-lives of difenoconazole and thiamethoxam were 13.6, 19.4, 16.3 and 10.0, 15.3, 14.0 days at each three test sites, respectively.

An aspect of quarantine insect pest occurrence with different management system in sweet persimmon orchard (단감원의 방제 체계에 따른 검역대상 해충 발생 양상)

  • Lee, Dong-Woon;Park, Jae-Wan;Park, Chung-Gyoo;Choo, Ho-Yul;Kim, Young-Sub
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.228-237
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    • 2003
  • Temporary control schedules were tested at sweet persimmon orchards to development new control programs to meet the quarantine repuirements of America in 2001 and 2002. The 'MRL-type control orchards' were sprayed with chemicals which were possibly adaptable to the pome trees in America. A control schedule consisted of those chemicals registered for persimmon in Korea was incorporated in the 'domestic-type control orchards'. The efficacy of these two control type against insect pests was compared with that of a conventional control schedule. In 2001, MRL orchard and domestic orchard were sprayed 7 and 6 times, and two conventional orchards were 6 and 9 times, respectively. In 2002, acaricide was added once to the MRL orchards at late September to reduce the density of mites on harvested fruits. However no insecticide to plant bug control could be applied to the MRL orchards, because no insecticide against bugs was registered for pome trees in America. This resulted in 7 times of applications in MRL and domestic orchards. The conventional orchard was sprayed 9 times. Only the occurrence of the peach pyralid moth, Dichocrocis puntiferalis (PPM) out of 4 quarantine inset species was observed. The PPM was observed during growing season in MRL, domestic, and conventional orchards. However no fruits damaged by PPM larvae were observed after mid October and after harvest. In 2002 only 1 fruit out of 1,350 fruits inspected in June was damaged by the larvae of PPM at MRL orchards. A fungus-feeding mites and collembolan were under calyx of vested fruits. In 2001 they were found on 45.3% of harvested fruits at MRL orchard. However the percentage of fruits with mites in 2002 was greatly reduced to 3.5% at MRL orchard, presumably because of a added application of acaricide at late September. However percentage of fruits damage by hemipteran bugs at harvesting time was quite high 11.3 % at MRL orchards, because no application of insecticide against plant bugs.