• Title/Summary/Keyword: swelling

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Swelling of Commercial Matrix Tablets Based on Carboxymethyl Cellulose Sodium and Alginic Acid (시판중인 메트릭스 정제의 팽윤력 비교 연구)

  • Kim, Ki Taek;Kim, Ji Su;Park, Ju-Hwan;Lee, Jae-Young;Jo, Yeong Woo;Yang, Jae-Gwon;Jang, Jun Hee;Choi, Eun-Sun;Kim, Dae-Duk
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.60 no.2
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    • pp.73-77
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    • 2016
  • Alginic acid and carboxymethyl cellulose sodium are dietary fibers from plants. They have a swelling property and delay the gastric emptying time, thereby resulting in feeling satiated after oral administration, which may eventually contribute to loss of body weight. The goal of this study was to compare swelling property of three commercial matrix tablets based on alginic acid and carboxymethyl cellulose sodium. When the swelling was determined by the Korean Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (MFDS) guideline, the tablet prepared by direct compression method with highly viscous swelling agent showed the highest swelling in acidic conditions. Water uptake of these tablets was rapid and completed within 30 min. Moreover, when the pH was changed from 2.5 to 6.8 buffer, the water uptake was not significantly changed in all tablets.

Meshed Stab Incision for Severe Swelling after Foot and Ankle Injury: A Technical Report (족부 및 족관절 손상 후 심한 부종에 대한 그물망 절개술: 술기 보고)

  • Hyun, Yoon-Suk;Kim, Gab-Lae;Shin, Sung-Il;Hong, Sung-Yup;Park, Jung-Seob;Choi, Sang-Min
    • Journal of Korean Foot and Ankle Society
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.39-41
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    • 2015
  • Swelling is a body's natural reaction to foot and ankle injury to mount a healing inflammatory response. To some degree, swelling is necessary for healing and is something that cannot be avoided following injury. However, post-traumatic swelling may have an adverse effect on wound healing and surgery can often be delayed due to preoperative swelling. We report on a unique technique of making multiple meshed stab incisions around the site of injury to reduce soft tissue swelling and promote wound healing.

Swelling Behavior of Low Toxic Absorbent Based on Biopolymer (생물고분자로 이루어진 저독성 흡수제의 팽윤거동)

  • Jung, Jin Hee;Kim, Jin;Lee, Ki-Young
    • Polymer(Korea)
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.478-485
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    • 2013
  • In this study, hydrogels with fast swelling and high absorbent properties were prepared using biopolymers approved as a food additive and their swelling properties were characterized. To improve the swelling properties of conventional hydrogels, we formed gas bubbles using a foaming agent in the process of preparing hydrogels and characterized in terms of equilibrium swelling ratio, swelling kinetics and cytotoxicity. In particular, alginate hydrogels observed by a digital microscope have an open-pore channels structure with the sizes of hundreds micrometers. Also, the cell viability of all hydrogels were found to be much higher than that of poly(acrylic acid).

Swelling and Deswelling Behaviors of Thermosensitive Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) Hydrogels with Different Crosslinking Densities (가교도가 다른 열민감성 Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) 수화겔의 팽윤 및 수축 거동)

  • Piao, Zhe Fan;Ko, Jae-Hoon;Kim, Young-Ho
    • Textile Science and Engineering
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    • v.44 no.3 s.282
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    • pp.134-141
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    • 2007
  • Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide)(PNIPAAm) hydrogels were synthesized via radical polymerization of N-iso-propylacrylamide in aqueous medium using ammonium persulfate and N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) as an initiator and a crosslinking agent, respectively. PNIPAAm hydrogels exhibited a critical gel transition temperature (CGTT) at $32{\sim}34^{\circ}C$. Swelling and deswelling behaviors of the hydrogels with different crosslinking densities were analyzed by measuring swelling ratio below and above CGTT. The swelling ratio of the hydrogel below CGTT decreased with increasing MBA concentration, while that above CGTT increased. As MBA concentration increased, the micropore size decreased, however, the number of micropore increased slightly in the freeze-dried hydrogels swollen in water at $25^{\circ}C$ (below CGTT) before drying. The micropore became smaller and denser in the des deswollen state. The swelling ratio of the hydrogels decreased slightly with the repeated swelling and deswelling treatment.

Changes in Fiber Characteristics by Low Concentration Sodium Hydroxide Swelling and Beating (저농도 NaOH 팽윤과 고해에 따른 섬유특성 변화)

  • Kim, Ah-Ram;Choi, Kyoung-Hwa;Cho, Byoung-Uk
    • Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
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    • v.46 no.3
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    • pp.65-72
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    • 2014
  • In this study, effects of alkali swelling at low concentration below 2 percent on properties of hardwood bleached kraft pulp (HwBKP) were elucidated. Swelling treatment of HwBKP was performed at various NaOH concentrations with/without beating. Then, the swelling characteristics of pulp fiber was evaluated by measuring the solvent retention values such as water retention value (WRV) and isopropyl alcohol retention value (LRV). It was found that fiber characteristics were influenced by NaOH swelling even at low alkali concentration and beating treatment as well. The values of WRV and LRV were decreased when the alkali concentration was increased. It is the result from the decreased acidic groups of pulp which were formed during beating. The acidic groups could be neutralized and then removed by alkali. The difference between WRV and LRV was decreased with increasing alkali concentration while the difference was increased when the alkali swollen pulp was beaten. In addition, the crystalline structure of HwBKP was almost not changed while the crystallinity was influenced by swelling treatment at a low alkali concentration.

Swelling Behaviors of Maleic Anhydride-Grafted EPDM by Treatment with Dichloroactic Acid (디클로로아세트산 처리에 따른 무수말레산-그래프트 EPDM의 팽윤 거동)

  • Kwon, Hyuk-Min;Choi, Sung-Seen
    • Elastomers and Composites
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    • v.48 no.1
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    • pp.55-60
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    • 2013
  • Swelling behaviors of raw (Specimen-R) and compressed (Specimen-C) samples of maleic anhydride-grafted EPDM (MAH-g-EPDM) depending on the treatment with dichloroacetic acid were investigated. Structural characteristics of the samples were analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). When the samples were not treated with dichloroacetic acid, the swelling ratio of Specimen-R was greater than that of Specimen-C by about twice and the swelling ratio change was negligible though the process of swelling and drying was repeated. When the samples were treated with dichloroacetic acid, the first swelling ratios were increased but the second ones were decreased. For the Specimen-C, the swelling ratio of the sample without the dichloroacetic acid treatment and the second swelling ratio of the sample treated with dichloroacetic acid were nearly the same. However, for the Specimen-R, the second swelling ratio of the sample treated with dichloroacetic acid was strikingly lower than that of the sample without the dichloroacetic acid treatment. The swelling ratio change according to the dichloroacetic acid treatment was explained by dissociation of the existing crosslinks and formation of new crosslinks.

Design of swelling gastroretentive drug delivery system for sustained release of metformin (메트포르민의 서방출을 위한 팽윤성 위체류 약물전달시스템 설계)

  • Weon, Kwon Yeon;Kim, Se Gie
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.215-222
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    • 2020
  • Metformin is a recommended first-line therapy drug for type 2 diabetes patients. However, compared to other oral antidiabetic drugs (OAD), metformin has a large unit dosage, with bioavailability of 40-60%. This limiting bioavailability is because metformin is absorbed only in the upper gastrointestinal tract as a BCS class 3 drug. Hence, we propose that applying the Gastroretentive Drug Delivery System (GRDDS) and extending drug release time in the stomach will result in improved bioavailability. We selected the swelling type delivery system, as it is considered the most stable gastroretention technology compared to other GRDDSs. We modified the swelling excipient by using a natural swelling excipient to form a swelling tablet made of carrageenan and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC). Our results indicate that the swelling complex tablet made of carrageenan and HPMC has a good swelling ability and shows required sustained release in a dissolution pattern. In addition, the carrageenan complex has a better swelling ability than the marketed metformin tablet, as determined by the ratio, (swelling ability)/(excipient weight). Taken together, our results indicate that the carrageenan complex can be developed as a good swelling excipient. Further optimizations are required for the commercialization of the carrageenan complex.

Postoperative Brain Swelling after Resection of Olfactory Groove Meningiomas

  • Song, Sang-Woo;Park, Chul-Kee;Paek, Sun-Ha;Kim, Dong-Gyu;Jung, Hee-Won;Chung, Young-Seob
    • Journal of Korean Neurosurgical Society
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    • v.40 no.6
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    • pp.423-427
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    • 2006
  • Objective : Postoperative brain swelling after resection of olfactory groove meningiomas by bifrontal interhemispheric transbasal approach is a knotty subject. Pathogenesis and predictive factors were investigated to prevent the problem. Methods : Eighteen patients of olfactory groove meningiomas who had undergone surgery were enrolled and retrospectively analyzed using their clinical and radiological data. Bifrontal inter hemispheric transbasal approach was used in all patients. Magnetic resonance imaging and transfemoral cerebral angiography were available for investigation in 18 and 14 patients respectively. Postoperative clinical course, tumor volume, peritumoral edema, tumor supplying vessels, and venous drainage patterns were carefully investigated in relation to postoperative brain swelling. Results : Seven patients [39%] developed clinically overt brain swelling after surgery. Among them, 4 patients had to undergo decompression surgery. In three patients, attempted bone flap removal was done by way of prevention of increased intracranial pressure resulted from intractable brain swelling and two of them eventually developed brain swelling which could be recovered without sequellae. Abnormal frontal base venous channel observed in preoperative angiography was significant predictive factor for postoperative brain swelling [p=0.031]. However, tumor volume, peritumoral edema, and existence of pial tumor supplying vessels from anterior cerebral arteries were failed to show statistical significances. Conclusion : To prevent postoperative brain swelling in olfactory groove meningioma surgery, unilateral approach to preserve frontal base venous channels or temporal bone flap removal is recommended when it is indicated.

Mucoadhesion, Swelling and Drug Release Characteristics of Hydroxypropylcellulose/Carbopol Solid Dispersions (히드록시프로필셀룰로오스/카르보폴 고체분산체의 점막부착성과 팽윤 및 약물방출특성)

  • Kim, Sang-Heon;Yang, Su-Geun;Shin, Dong-Sun;Lee, Min-Suk;Choi, Young-Wook
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.155-165
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    • 1994
  • Some mucoadhesive polymers such as hydroxypropylcelluose (HPC) and carbopol-934 (CP) have been employed for the preparation of mucoadhesive polymeric systems, and their physical properties including mucoadhesion, swelling, and drug release were evaluated. A new simple experimental technique that can quantitatively measure the bioadhesive properties of various polymeric systems has been developed by the methods of detachment force test. As the polymeric systems, the discs of freeze-dried HPC/CP solid dispersions were prepared. The mucosa used in these tests were upper, middle, and lower parts of small intestine of male rats weighing $300{\sim}350\;g$. Detachment forces were increased as the mole fraction of CP increased in discs of HPC/CP solid dispersions. In the points of intestinal site dependence of mucoadhesion, the solid dispersions revealed non-specific mucoadhesion to the intestine. Swelling and drug release characteristics of mucoadhesive polymeric systems were studied extensively to find out the feasibility for the oral controlled delivery systems. Swelling ratio, expressed as the final height/initial height, has been determined in various pH buffer solutions. Hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) was employed as a model drug for release study. Apparent swelling and drug release rate constants, $K_s$ and $K_r$ respectively, were obtained from the square-root time plot of either swelling ratio or released amount of drug, particularly for the time periods before reaching the equilibrium. As a result, the swelling ratio of HPC/CP solid dispersions was increased as the weight percentage of CP increased. Similarly, the release of HCT from the solid dispersions was dependent on pH changes and CP contents, resulted in the slower release of HCT with the increases of pH and CP contents.

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Partially Hydrolyzed Crosslinked Alginate-graft-Polymethacrylamide as a Novel Biopolymer-Based Superabsorbent Hydrogel Having pH - Responsive Properties

  • Pourjavadi A.;Amini-Fazi M. S.;Hosseinzadeh H.
    • Macromolecular Research
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.45-53
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    • 2005
  • In this study, a series of highly swelling hydrogels based on sodium alginate (NaAlg) and polymethacryl­amide (PMAM) was prepared through free radical polymerization. The graft copolymerization reaction was performed in a homogeneous medium and in the presence of ammonium persulfate (APS) as an initiator and N,N'-methylenebis­acrylamide (MBA) as a crosslinker. The crosslinked graft copolymer, alginate-graft-polymethacrylamide (Alg-g­PMAM), was then partially hydrolyzed by NaOH solution to yield a hydrogel, hydrolyzed alginate-graft-poly­methacrylamide (H-Alg-g-PMAM). During alkaline hydrolysis, the carboxamide groups of Alg-g-PMAM were converted into hydrophilic carboxylate anions. Either the Alg-g-PMAM or the H-Alg-g-PMAM was characterized by FTIR spectroscopy. The effects of the grafting variables (i.e., concentration of MBA, MAM, and APS) and the alkaline hydrolysis conditions (i.e., NaOH concentration, hydrolysis time, and temperature) were optimized systematically to achieve a hydrogel having the maximum swelling capacity. Measurements of the absorbency in various aqueous salt solutions indicated that the swelling capacity decreased upon increasing the ionic strength of the swelling medium. This behavior could be attributed to a charge screening effect for monovalent cations, as well as ionic cross-linking for multivalent cations. Because of the high swelling capacity in salt solutions, however, the hydrogels might be considered as anti-salt superabsorbents. The swelling behavior of the superabsorbing hydrogels was also measured in solutions having values of pH ranging from 1 to 13. Furthermore, the pH reversibility and on/off switching behavior, measured at pH 2.0 and 8.0, suggested that the synthesized hydrogels were excellent candidates for the controlled delivery of bioactive agents. Finally, we performed preliminary investigations of the swelling kinetics of the synthesized hydrogels at various particle sizes.