• Title/Summary/Keyword: synergism

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Effect of Mixing 2, 4-D with Other Herbicides on Growth of Different Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Cultivars (2, 4-D와 제초제(除草劑) 혼합처리(混合處理)가 수도(水稻)의 생육(生育)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Shin, D.H.;Moody, K.;Zapata, F.J.;Kim, K.U.
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.277-284
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    • 1990
  • The response of rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars to mixtures of 2, 4-D(2, 4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) and other herbicides was investigated to determine if there was an interaction between them. When 2, 4-D was applied, shoot growth of Taipei 309 was more affected than that of IR28 at all concentrations used. In contrast, when thiobencarb (S-[(4-chlorophenyl)methyl]diethylcarbamothioate), butachlor [N-(buthoxymethyl) -2-chloro-N-(2, 6-diethylphenyl) acetamide], and glyphosate [N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine] were applied, the shoot growth of Taipei 309 was less affected than that of IR28 at all herbicide concentrations. Combination of 2, 4-D and the lowest thiobencarb concentration was antagonistic for shoot length for both cultivars, but at higher concentrations, it was synergistic. Synergism for shoot fresh weight between 2, 4-D and thiobencarb was observed with IR28 at all concentrations but, for Taipei 309, synergism was observed only at lower 2, 4-D concentrations. Mixing 2. 4-D with butachlor resulted in greater inhibition in shoot length and fresh weight of IR28 than Taipei 309 at all concentrations indicating a synergistic interaction. With combinations of 2, 4-D and glyphosate, an antagonistic interaction for shoot length was observed for both cultivars. A synergistic interaction for shoot fresh weight was observed with IR28 when combinations of the highest concentration of glyphosate and 2, 4-D were applied but there was an antagonistic interaction with Taipei 309.

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Pharmacodynamics of anticancer activity of tirapazamine and paclitaxel against human NSCLC

  • Park, Jong-Kook;Kang, Jin-Hyoung;Kuh, Hyo-Jeong
    • Proceedings of the PSK Conference
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    • pp.228.1-228
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    • 2002
  • Hypoxia in solid tumors is known to contribute to intrinsic chemoresistance. Tirapazamine(TPZ). a hypoxia-selective cytotoxin. showed synergism with radiation or cytotoxic agents. Paclitaxel(PTX) is a highly active anti-cancer agent against Non small cell lung cancer(NSCLC), however. due to poor penetration into central hypoxic region of tumor tissue. combination with TPZ has been suggested to enhance its efficacy. (omitted)

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Transformer Differential Relay by Using Neural-Fuzzy System

  • Kim, Byung Whan;Masatoshi, Nakamura
    • 제어로봇시스템학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.157.2-157
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    • 2001
  • This paper describes the synergism of Artificial Neural Network and Fuzzy Logic based approach to improve the reliability of transformer differential protection, the conventional transformer differential protection commonly used a harmonic restraint principle to prevent a tripping from inrush current during initial transformer´s energization but such a principle can not performs the best optimization on tripping time. Furthermore, in some cases there may be false operation such as during CT saturation, high DC offset or harmonic containing in the line. Therefore an artificial neural network and fuzzy logic has been proposed to improve reliability of the transformer protection relay. By using EMTP-ATP the power transformer is modeled, all currents flowing ...

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Induction of Iron Superoxide Dismutase by Paraquat and Iron in Vitreoscilla $C_1$ (Vitreoscilla $C_1$에서 paraquat와 Iron에 의한 Iron Superoxide Dismutase의 유도)

  • 박기인
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.18 no.6
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    • pp.517-521
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    • 2003
  • Superoxide dismutase which is metalloenzyme that decomposes superoxide radicals into hydrogen peroxide and molecular oxygen. Vitreoscilla has FeSOD. Expression of FeSOD to paraquat was largely constitutive. This suggests that the basal level of FeSOD is sufficient to provide protection against superoxide generated during normal aerobic metabolism. Induction of SOD by iron supports that insertion of the active site metal into the corresponding apoprotein. The effect of paraquat on induction by iron seemed that iron brought the synergism effect in SOD activity with paraquat. It suggests that the relief of growth inhibition is due to protection against the lethality of O$_2$afforded by the elevated SOD. There may be control of FeSOD activity posttranslationally. Posttranslation control of enzyme function is particularly feasible for a metalloenzyme, for which conversion of apo- to holoenzyme may be the rate-limiting or regulatory step.

Antibacterial Activity and Inhibition of Resistance in Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by Maneung-hwan Ethanol Extract (만응환(萬應丸) 에탄올 추출물의 메티실린 내성 포도상구균에 대한 항균활성 및 내성억제 효과)

  • Na, Yong-su;Kim, Jong-gyu;Song, Yung-sun
    • Journal of Korean Medicine Rehabilitation
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.31-45
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    • 2020
  • Objectives In this study, we investigated the antimicrobial activity of a 70% ethanol extract of Maneung-hwan (MEH), which is prescribed by practitioners of oriental medicine for use against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Methods The antibacterial activity of MEH against MRSA strains was evaluated using the disc diffusion method, broth microdilution method (minimal inhibitory concentration, MIC), checkerboard dilution test, and time-kill test. The mechanism of action of MEH was investigated by bacteriolysis using detergents or ATPase inhibitors Additionally, mRNA and protein expression were investigated by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and western blot assay, respectively. Results The MIC of MEH was 25~1,600 ㎍/mL against all the tested bacterial strains. We showed that MEH extract exerts strong antibacterial activity. In the checkerboard dilution test, the fractional inhibitory concentration index of MEH in combination with antibiotics indicated synergism or partial synergism against S. aureus. The time-kill study indicated that the growth of the tested bacteria was considerably inhibited after a 24-h treatment with MEH and selected antibiotics. To measure the cell membrane permeability, MEH (3.9 ㎍/mL) was combined with Triton X-100 (TX) at various concentrations N,N-dicyclohexylcarbodimide (DCCD) was also tested as an ATPase inhibitor. TX and DCCD cooperation against S. aureus exhibited synergistic action. Accordingly, the antimicrobial activity of MEH in the context of cell membrane rupture and ATPase inhibition was assessed. Additionally, the expression of genes and proteins associated with resistance was reduced after exposing MRSA to MEH. Conclusions These results suggest that MEH possesses antibacterial activity and acts as a potential natural antibiotic against MRSA.

Activities of Ketonic Fraction from Leptospermum scoparium alone and Synergism in Combination with Some Antibiotics Against Various Bacterial Strains and Fungi (Leptospermum scoparium 추출물중 케톤체 분획물의 항균력 및 항생제와의 병용효과)

  • 김은희;이계주
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.43 no.6
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    • pp.716-728
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    • 1999
  • Whole oil and ketonic fraction (KF) of Leptospermum scoparium have been tested for their antimicrobial activity and combination effect with several antibiotics against various bacterial strains and fungi by using microbiological assay methods. Antibacterial activities of KF against a number of test strains were 2-3 fold stronger than those of whole oil. MICs of the KF were $65~125{\;}{\mu\textrm{g}}/ml$ against seven gram positive bacterial strains, $65~250{\;}{\mu\textrm{g}}/ml$ against 19 methicillin resistance Staphylococcus aureus strains, and $65~50{\;}{\mu\textrm{g}}/ml$ against 14 quinolone resistance strains. However, KF showed little or no activity against gram negative bacteria. MICs of the KF were $16~250{\;}{\mu\textrm{g}}/ml$ against more than 50% of the anaerobic bacterial strains tested. KF showed the higher antibacterial activity than bacitracin against 10 strains of Bacteroids thetaiotaomicron, or three strains of Bacteroides ovatus, and the more active than ciprofloxacin against one strain of Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and three strains of Bacteroids ovatus. The MICs of KF was 63 and $250{\;}{\mu\textrm{g}}/ml$ against Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans, respectively. Antibacterial activities of KF in combination with 19 antibiotics against 14 strains and with four antifungal agents against one fungal strain were determined by paper strip diffusion method. While most of combination showed additivity, KF showed synergism with bacitracin, exfadroxil, cephradin, and meropenem for 29~57% of the strains tested. However, ofloxacin, enoxacin, sparfloxacin showed antagonism with KF for 43~71% of the strains. KF alone and in combination with bacitracin, gentamycin, neomycin, itraconazole, fluconazole, terfinafine and ketoconazole against five bacterial strains or one fungus strain synergistic effect was demonstrated against 33% of strains examined with FIC index value below 0.5 by checkerboard study. Synergistic effect of KF with gentamicin against Staphylococcus epidermidis 329 (QRS) was found by time-kill study.

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