• Title, Summary, Keyword: synthesis

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Combinatorial Solid Phase Peptide Synthesis and Bioassays

  • Shin, Dong-Sik;Kim, Do-Hyun;Chung, Woo-Jae;Lee, Yoon-Sik
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.38 no.5
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    • pp.517-525
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    • 2005
  • Solid phase peptide synthesis method, which was introduced by Merrifield in 1963, has spawned the concept of combinatorial chemistry. In this review, we summarize the present technologies of solid phase peptide synthesis (SPPS) that are related to combinatorial chemistry. The conventional methods of peptide library synthesis on polymer support are parallel synthesis, split and mix synthesis and reagent mixture synthesis. Combining surface chemistry with the recent technology of microelectronic semiconductor fabrication system, the peptide microarray synthesis methods on a planar solid support are developed, which leads to spatially addressable peptide library. There are two kinds of peptide microarray synthesis methodologies: pre-synthesized peptide immobilization onto a glass or membrane substrate and in situ peptide synthesis by a photolithography or the SPOT method. This review also discusses the application of peptide libraries for high-throughput bioassays, for example, peptide ligand screening for antibody or cell signaling, enzyme substrate and inhibitor screening as well as other applications.

Improved Text-to-Speech Synthesis System Using Articulatory Synthesis and Concatenative Synthesis (조음 합성과 연결 합성 방식을 결합한 개선된 문서-음성 합성 시스템)

  • 이근희;김동주;홍광석
    • Proceedings of the IEEK Conference
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    • pp.369-372
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    • 2002
  • In this paper, we present an improved TTS synthesis system using articulatory synthesis and concatenative synthesis. In concatenative synthesis, segments of speech are excised from spoken utterances and connected to form the desired speech signal. We adopt LPC as a parameter, VQ to reduce the memory capacity, and TD-PSOLA to solve the naturalness problem.

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Induction of Vitellogenin Synthesis by Androgens in Cultured Hepatocytes of the Eel, Anguilla japonica (간세포 배양을 이용한 뱀장어 Vitellogenin 합성에 대한 웅성호르몬의 영향)

  • 권혁추;박홍양
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.259-269
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    • 1996
  • To establish whether or not androgens is responsible for the induction of vitellogenin(Vg) synthesis and secretion, primary hepatocytes prepared from immature eels were used. The results are follows: 1. Eel hepatocytes were prepared using a collagenase perfusion technique. The isolated cells attached efficiently to fibronectin-coated dishes and subsequently formed monolayers in serum-free medium. These cultures maintained in medium for 10 days with minimal cell loss. 2. Estradiol-17$\beta$(E2) alone was insufficient to induce Vg synthesis. The combination of E2 with methyltestosterone(MT) markedly stimulated Vg synthesis. High vg production occurred in MT concentration from 10-6~10-5M in the presence of E2 (10-6M). Testosterone and androsterone were also effective, but progesterone was not effective in inducing Vg synthesis. Neither MT alone nor testosterone and androsterone alone had any effect on Vg synthesis. 3. E2-primed hepatocytes showed Vg synthesis in both media with and without hormones 1 day after culture. In the cultures with the vehicle, MT, or progesterone, the rate of synthesis seemed to decrease with time. But the combination of E2 and MT showed an intense increase in Vg synthesis. Hepatocytes isolated from E2-primed eels also required androgens for continuating of Vg synthesis. 4. These results demonstrate that androgens act together with E2 in synthesis and secretion of eel Vg.

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Effects of Sipyukmiyukieum on DNA Synthesis, cAMP Synthesis and MHC-class II Expression of FRTL-5 Thyroid Cells (십육미류기음(十六味流氣飮)이 FRTL-5 갑상선 세포의 DNA와 cAMP의 합성 및 MHC-class II의 발현에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Byoung-Woo;Yi, Jae-Eun
    • The Journal of Internal Korean Medicine
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.398-408
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    • 2005
  • Objective: Graves' disease encompasses hyperthyroidism and diffused goiter associated with auto-antibodies to the thyroid stimulating hormone(TSH) receptors. In clinical environment, treatments of Graves' disease have many side effects such as recurrence and hypothyroidism. We've studied the effects of Sipyukmiyukieum on DNA synthesis, cAMP synthesis, and MHC-class II expression of FRTL-5 thyroid cells were studied. Methods: DNA synthesis was investigated by using BrdU staining and cAMP synthesis by ELISA kit, and expression of $interferon-{\gamma}$ activated MHC class II by Flow cytometer. Results: After introduction of Sipyukmiyukieum, significant inhibition of DNA synthesis. cAMP synthesis, and expression of $interferon-{\gamma}$ activated MHC class II of FRTL-5 thyroid cells was observed. Conclusions: Judging from these results, Sipyukmiyukieum has potential as a potent herbal treatment for inhibiting the enlargement of goiter, synthesis of abnormal thyroidal hormones, and autoimmuine responses of Graves' disease.

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A New Pruning Method for Synthesis Database Reduction Using Weighted Vector Quantization

  • Kim, Sanghun;Lee, Youngjik;Keikichi Hirose
    • The Journal of the Acoustical Society of Korea
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    • v.20 no.4E
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    • pp.31-38
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    • 2001
  • A large-scale synthesis database for a unit selection based synthesis method usually retains redundant synthesis unit instances, which are useless to the synthetic speech quality. In this paper, to eliminate those instances from the synthesis database, we proposed a new pruning method called weighted vector quantization (WVQ). The WVQ reflects relative importance of each synthesis unit instance when clustering the similar instances using vector quantization (VQ) technique. The proposed method was compared with two conventional pruning methods through the objective and subjective evaluations of the synthetic speech quality: one to simply limit maximum number of instance, and the other based on normal VQ-based clustering. The proposed method showed the best performance under 50% reduction rates. Over 50% of reduction rates, the synthetic speech quality is not seriously but perceptibly degraded. Using the proposed method, the synthesis database can be efficiently reduced without serious degradation of the synthetic speech quality.

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Recent Developments in Synthesis of Colloidal Quantum Dots (콜로이드 양자점 합성의 다양한 연구 개발 동향)

  • Jung, Jae-Yong;Hong, Jong-Pal;Kim, Young-Kuk
    • Journal of Korean Powder Metallurgy Institute
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.346-354
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    • 2018
  • Over the last decade, the study of the synthesis of semiconductor colloidal quantum dots has progressed at a tremendous rate. Colloidal quantum dots, which possess unique spectral-luminescent characteristics, are of great interest in the development of novel materials and devices, which are promising for use in various fields. Several studies have been carried out on hot injection synthesis methods. However, these methods have been found to be unsuitable for large-capacity synthesis. Therefore, this review paper introduces synthesis methods other than the hot injection synthesis method, to synthesize quantum dots with excellent optical properties, through continuous synthesis and large capacity synthesis. In addition, examples of the application of synthesized colloid quantum dots in displays, solar cells, and bio industries are provided.

Trends on Synthesis of Cu Nanoparticles by a Wet Reduction Method (습식 환원법에 의한 Cu 나노입자의 합성 동향)

  • Shin, Yong Moo;Chee, Sang-Soo;Lee, Jong-Hyun
    • Journal of the Microelectronics and Packaging Society
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.11-18
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    • 2013
  • Interest in copper nanoparticles has increased as an alternative for substituting silver nanoparticles because of its lower cost and less electromigration effect than silver. In this paper, the recent research trends and main results in wet-chemical synthesis of sub-100 nm Cu nanoparticles were summarized. The characteristics of synthesis were discussed with a classification such as modified polyol synthesis, modified hydrothermal synthesis, solvothermal synthesis, and the others, focussing on effects of capping agents, reductants, and pH. Information on the oxidation of synthesized copper nanoparticles were additionally commented.