• Title, Summary, Keyword: synthetic medium

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A New Synthetic Medium for Lactic Lactococci: Application to Marine lactic Acid Bacteria

  • KIM Joong K.;BAJPAI Rakesh K.
    • Korean Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences
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    • v.28 no.6
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    • pp.812-813
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    • 1995
  • Lactococcal cells are nutritionally fastidious and thus, generally cultured either in milk or M17 medium (Terzaghi and Sandine, 1975). In this study, Lactococcus cremoris wild-type (KH) and its less­proteolytic mutant (KHA1) cells were grown on the M17 medium or with modified M17 medium by replicated parallel experiments. The modified M17 medium had the same composition as M17 medium, except that lactose was replaced by glucose. Analyses of culture-broth samples, in which the M17 and the modified M17 media were used, were conducted by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). But, working with these media created noisy problems in analyses of samples. Therefore, a new semi-synthetic medium was developed on the basis of nutritional requirements (Morishita et al., 1981). The composition of the semi-synthetic medium determined on the basis of the nutritional requirements and the composition of milk, is presented in Table 1. The composition of M17 medium is also presented and compared in the table. L. cremoris KH and KHA1 cells were grown again on the new synthetic medium containing glucose or lactose. The broth samples were then drawn and analyzed by HPLC. Clearer separations of fermented products were achieved from the new medium than those with the M17 and the modified M17 media. In comparison with the M17 or the modified M17 media, growth on the new medium was good (Kim et al, 1993). Additional fermentations were also carried out at a controlled pH of 7.0, where enhanced growth of lactococcal cells was obtained. In the fermentations, samples were also analyzed for the concentrations of sugar and lactic acid. The results showed that the new synthetic medium was as good as or better than the M 17 and the modified M 17 media. This is because casein hydrolysate in the synthetic medium provided a ready supply of amino acids and peptides for L. cremoris KH and KHA1 cells. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) including Lactococcal cells have been known to be an effective means of preserving foods, at the same time as giving particular tastes in fields of dairy products. LAB also have always occupied an important place in the technology of sea products, and marine LAB have known to be present in traditional fermented products (Ohhira et al, 1988). To apply the new synthetic medium to marine LAB, two different LAB were isolated from pickled anchovy and pollacks caviar and were grown on the new media in which various concentrations of NaCl $(3, 5, 7 and 10\%)$ added. They were also grown on the medium solution in natural seawater $(35\%o\;salinity)$ and on the solution of natural seawater itself, too. As seen in Fig. 1, Marine LAB were grown best on the synthetic medium solution in natural seawater and the higher concentrations of NaCl were added to the medium, the longer lag-phase of growth profile appeared. Marine LAB in natural seawater were not grown well. From these results, the synthetic medium seems good to cultivate cells which are essential to get salted fish aged. In this study, it showed that the new synthetic medium provided adequate nutrition for L. cremoris KH and KHA1 cells, which have been used as cheese starters (Stadhouders et al, 1988). Using this new medium, the acid production capability of starter cultures could be also measured quantitatively. Thus, this new medium was inferior to the M17 or the modified M17 medium in culturing the cheese starters and in measuring fermentation characteristics of the starter cells. Moreover, this new medium found to be good for selected and well-identified marine LAB which are used in rapid fermentations of low-salted fish.

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Synthetic Permeable Medium Filtration for Secondary Effluent Reclamation (방류수 재이용을 위한 합성투과 여재 여과)

  • Park, Ki Young;Maeng, Sung Kyu;Kim, Ki-pal;Kweon, Ji Hyang;Yoon, Hyon-Hee;Ahn, Kyu Hong
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.3-7
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    • 2005
  • In the present study a feasibility of a novel filtration process using synthetic for secondary effluent reclamation was investigated. Polyurethane was chosen as a filter medium among tested three media. Compressibility and up-flow velocity were changed to determine the optimum operation for the system. An equation was introduced to express the relationship between the removal efficiency and up-flow velocity. In pilot study, the synthetic medium filtration with compression showed very stable effluent quality without clogging trouble, though the system operated with 3 times higher filtration rate and much longer backwashing interval than conventional systems.

Comparison of synthetic seismograms referred to inhomogeneous medium (불균질 매질에 따른 인공 합성 탄성파 자료 비교)

  • Kim, Young-Wan;Jang, Seung-Hyung;Yoon, Wang-Joong;Suh, Sang-Yong
    • 한국지구물리탐사학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.197-202
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    • 2007
  • Most of seismic reflection prospecting assumes subsurface formation to be homogeneous media. These models are not capable of estimating small scale heterogeneity which is verified by well log data or drilling core. And those synthetic seismograms by homogeneous media are limited to explain various changes at field data. So we developed a inhomogeneous velocity model which can estimate inhomogeneity of background medium to implement numerical modeling from homogeneous medium and inhomogeneous medium on the model. Background medium using three autocorrelation functions in order to generate inhomogeneous velocity media was according to dominant wavelength of background medium and correlation length of random medium. And then we compared shot gathers. The results show that numerical modeling implemented at inhomogeneous medium depicts complex wave propagation of field data.

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Nitrate Removal From Synthetic Medium With aquatic Macrophytes (수생식물을 이용한 질산염 제거에 관한연구)

  • Bashyal, Sarita;Cho, Hae-Yong;Lee, Byung-Kyu
    • Proceedings of the KAIS Fall Conference
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    • pp.1105-1107
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    • 2010
  • The removal of nitrate from aqueous solutions of a synthetic medium was examined using two different aquatic plants, such as Hydrocharis dubia and Salvinia sp. The selected macrophytes were incubated in the laboratory in the container containing a previously prepared soultion of NH4NO3. Hydrocharis dubia reduced the nitrate level to 60.4% in a synthetic medium containing 100mg/L of nitrate. The efficiency of nitrate removal was further increased 78% with initial nitrate concentration of 300mg/L.

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Anticancer and Antioxidant Activities of Coriolus versicolor Culture Extracts Cultivated in the Citrus Extracts. (감귤 농축액에서 배양한 운지버섯 배양추출물의 항산화 및 항암활성)

  • 이세진;문성훈;김택;김진용;서정식;김대선;김율리아;김영준;박용일
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.362-367
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    • 2003
  • Coriolus versicolor was grown in a defined synthetic liquid medium and citrus extracts, and the culture extracts were examined for antioxidant activity, nitrite scavenging activity, and in vitro anticancer activity against HeLa, PC-3, HepG2, and A-549 cells. Whereas the culture extracts obtained from the synthetic medium and the un-inoculated citrus extract showed 60 and 22% of the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenger activity, the culture extracts obtained from the citrus extracts medium exhibited antioxidant activity up to 89%. The nitrite scavenging activity of the culture extracts obtained from the citrus extracts medium and the synthetic liquid medium, and the un-inoculated citrus extract at pH 1.2 were up to 67, 55, and 34%, respectively. The culture extract obtained from the synthetic liquid medium inhibited the growth of HeLa, PC-3, HepG2, and A-549 up to 66, 23, 18, 10% at 48 h of incubation, respectively; however, the culture extract obtained from the citrus extracts medium inhibited the growth of HeLa, PC-3, HepG2, and A-549 up to 75, 82, 55, and 82%, respectively. As a negative control, the un-inoculated citrus extract was examined in the same way and inhibited the growth of HeLa, PC-3, and HepG2 cells 20, 6, and 15% at 48 h incubation, respectively; the inhibition of A-549 cell growth was negligible. These results clearly showed that the fermentation of C. versicolor in the citrus extracts rather than in the defined synthetic medium significantly enhanced the anticancer activity, antioxidant activity, and nitrite scavenging activity.

Development of Bovine IVM/IVF Ebmryos Cultured in TCM-199 and Synthetic Oviduct Fluid(SOF) Medium with without Co-culture System (TCM-199배양액과 Synthetic Oviduct Fluid(SOF)에서 배양된 소 체외수정란의 체외발육)

  • 양부근;박춘근;김종복;정희태;김정익
    • Korean Journal of Animal Reproduction
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.243-248
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    • 1993
  • Bovine embryos at 2-to 8-cell produced by in vitro matured/in vitro fertilized(IVM/IVF) were cultured in TCM 199 or Synthetic oviduct fluid(SOF) with 10% fetal bovine serum(FBS) or cocultured with cumulus or bovine oviduct epithelial cell(BOEC) in TCM-199 or SOF medium. In experiment 1, the proportions of embryos developed to morula and blastocysts stages in TCM 199 medium were higher when they were co-cultured with cumulus cell(29%) or BOEC(33%) than that of TCM 199 with 10% FBS(12%, P<0.01). In experiment 2, embryos deived from IVM/IVF were cultured in SOF with 10% FBS or cocultured with cumulus cell or BOEC in same medium. The higher development rates of IVM/IVF embryos developed beyond morula stages were obtained in cumulus cell co-culture group(39%) than those of BOEC group(26%) and SOF with 10% FBS group(17%, P<0.01). The present results indicated that the early development of IVM/IVF embryos can be maintained efficienty in SOF with cumulus cell co-culture.

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New synthetic medium for growth of mycelium of Pleurotus species (느타리속(Pleurotus species) 균의 균사 배양을 위한 새로운 합성 배지)

  • Park, Won-Mok;Kim, Gyu-Hyun;Hyeon, Jae-Wook
    • The Korean Journal of Mycology
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    • v.23 no.3
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    • pp.275-283
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    • 1995
  • The nutritional requirements of mycelial growth for Pleurotus spp. were studied. As the carbon sources, soluble starch and dextrin, nitrogen sources, arginine and ammonium tartrate, and calcium sources, $CaCO_3$ enhanced mycelial growth. Optimum C/N ratio was 100 : 1. On the base of results from the experiment on nutritional requirements, the following receipe is suggested for growth of Pleurotus spp.; starch 15 g, arginine 3.484 g, ammonium tartrate 3.06 g, $CaCO_3$ 0.314 g, $KH_2PO_4$ 8.138 g, $K_2HPO_4$ 1.584 g, $MgSO_4{\cdot}7H_2O$ 1.5 g for P. sajor-caju and 2.5 g for P. ostreatus. $FeSO_4{\cdot}7H_2O$ 0.02 g, $ZnSO_4{\cdot}7H_2O$ 0.03 g, $MnSO_4{\cdot}7H_2O$ 0.02 g, optimum pH 6.0. This new synthetic medium is tentatively designated as Park's medium.

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Effects of Some Amino Acids on Ammonia Secretion and Extracellular Protease Activity by Three Oomycetes in Synthetic Medium with or without Glucose

  • Ali, Esam H.
    • Mycobiology
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.23-29
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    • 2005
  • The effects of different concentrations of three amino acids as carbon and or nitrogen sources on mycelial dry weights, changes in pH values of synthetic medium, ammonia secretion and extracellular protease activity by three zoosporic fungi, pathogens of fish and shellfish, were studied. As compared with the control, the addition of isoleucine and aspartic acid as nitrogen sources were generally stimulative for mycelial dry weight production whereas phenylalanine was inhibitory irrespective to the tested fungal species. When amino acids served as carbon and nitrogen sources, the mycelial dry weights of the three fungi were increased (mostly non-significantly) relative to untreated control but weights were decreased as the concentrations of the three amino acids raised. The addition of individual amino acids as carbon and nitrogen sources to the medium significantly increased pH values of the medium comparable to the control. The addition of each of the three amino acids as carbon and nitrogen sources to the medium significantly induced ammonia secretion by the three species of zoosporic fungi. Ammonia secretion in synthetic medium amended with amino acids as nitrogen source raised by the three zoosporic fungi relative to untreated control except in case of Achlya racemosa treated with isoleucine. Extracellular protease activity was almost promoted in case of Achlya proliferoides and Saprolegnia furcata cultures treated with isoleucine and aspartic acid individually in presence of glucose and vice versa in case of phenylalanine. However, extracellular protease activity of A. racemosa decreased compared with the control at various concentrations of isoleucine and both phenylalanine and aspartic acid assumed inconsistent effects. Extracellular protease activity of the three zoosporic fungi in the medium devoid of glucose varied depending upon zoosporic fungal species, the tested amino acid and the applied concentrations. The values of protease activity were approximately less two folds than that obtained in presence of glucose.

Analyses on Environment-friendliness of Root Barrier Materials based on Fish Toxicity Test (어독성 실험에 따른 방근재 친환경 특성 분석)

  • Woo, Ji-Keun;Kim, Sung-Kyun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.42-51
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    • 2010
  • The purpose of this study is to analyze the characteristics of environment-friendliness of Root Barrier materials based on comprehensive experiments on harmfulness of Root Barrier materials and fish toxicity of Oryzias latipes mortality to verify eco-toxicity of each method of construction and Root Barrier material, which are to be applied by taking eco-toxicity into account when building ecological flows in upper areas on natural and artificial grounds. As a result, the following conclusions have been reached in this study: 1. In regard of the harmfulness analyzed, each material showed a different result of analytical value in each lab tank. Compared to lab tank, pH (la), DO (lb), T-N (VI) and T-coli (la) were in the same grade, but COD, SS, T-P and F-coli were less than that of control, respectively increased or decreased by material were analyzed. 2. In the experiment of fish toxicity, Barrier sheet was found to have 66.7% of fish mortality, indicating strong fish toxicity. Synthetic rubber system root barrier sheet (20.0%) was analyzed to have medium fish toxicity, while Synthetic resin system root barrier-waterproof sheet (3.3%), Synthetic rubber system membrane root barrier sheet (3.3%) and Synthetic resin system root barrier sheet (0.0%) showed relatively lower mortality and fish toxicity. To sum up such results as found in the experiment mentioned so far, the values of harmfulness and root penetration resistance analyzed were different in each lab tank, but there was absolutely little correlation with the mortality gained from the experiment on fish toxicity. In the experiment of fish toxicity, environment-friendly root barrier materials were analyzed, and it was found that Synthetic resin system root barrier sheet, Synthetic resin system root barrier waterproof sheet and Synthetic rubber system membrane root barrier sheet are highly environment-friendly. In contrast, Synthetic rubber system root barrier sheet was found to have medium-level environment-friendliness. Also, Barrier sheet was analyzed to have low environment-friendliness.

Statistical Selection of Amino Acids Fortifying a Minimal Defined Medium for a High-level Production of the Kringle Fragments of Human Apolipoprotein(a)

  • Lim, Hyung-Kwon;Kim, Sung-Geun;Jung, Kyung-Hwan;Seo, Jin-Ho
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.90-96
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    • 2004
  • A synthetic defined medium, fortified with amino acids, was developed for the stable production of the kringle fragments of human apolipoprotein(a) (apo(a)), rhLK68. Using a complex rich medium containing yeast extract and a high-cell-density fed-batch culture, the expression level of rhLK68 reached 17% of the total cellular protein, which corresponded to $5\;g\;l^{-1}$ of the culture. To replace the complex media with chemically defined media, several amino acids that positively affect cell growth and gene expression were chosen by a statistical method. The various combinations of the selected amino acids were tested for its fortifying effect on a minimal defined medium. When glutamine only was added, the overall expression level of rhLK68 reached 93% of the complex rich medium increasing the specific expression level by 22.4% and decreasing the cell growth by 24%. Moreover, the addition of glutamine resulted in a 2-fold increase in the concentration of rhLK68 in the culture broth, compared with the minimal defined medium. The synthetic defined media developed in this study could be generally applied to high-cell-density cultures of the recombinant Escherichia coli BL21(DE3), especially for the production of therapeutic proteins that require a strict quality control of the culture media and fermentation processes.