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Effect of the Anthracnose Resistant Transgenic Chili Pepper on the Arthropod Communities in a Confined Field (야외 격리 포장에서 유전자 변형 탄저병 저항성 PepEST 고추가 절지동물 군집에 미치는 영향)

  • Yi, Hoon-Bok;Kwon, Min-Chul;Park, Ji-Eun;Kim, Chang-Gi;Park, Kee-Woong;Lee, Bum-Kyu;Kim, Hwan-Mook
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.326-335
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    • 2007
  • This study was conducted to assess the environmental risks of anthracnose resistant transgenic chili peppers with the PepEST gene on non-target organisms in the agroecosystem environments during the chili pepper growing seasons in 2006. We quantitatively collected arthropods assemblages living on leaves and flowers of chili peppers on June 20, July 25, and August 25 by using an insect vacuum collector to compare the patterns of arthropod community structures between non-transgenic chili peppers (nTR, WT512) and anthracnose resistant transgenic chili peppers (TR, line 68). We found the seasonal difference with the highest species richness and Shannon's diversity in July's sampling among the growing seasons (P<0.05) and each sampling season showed the different arthropod community composition. We also found there was no statistical difference between the two types of crops, nTR and TR, at each sampling time (P>0.05). The significance level of arthropod community showed that there were lots of seasonal difference of functional groups as well as taxa but only the herbivore group in the functional groups was significantly different for the types of plants (P<0.05). So, we further examined the herbivore groups to find any potential damage and identified the possibility of herbivorous damage from some herbivores, grasshoppers, aphids and thrips. Although we couldn't find any adverse effects from the environmental risk assessment between the arthropod community structures on two types of plants from our results, we should keep working for the environmental risk assessment because of the herbivorous potential risk possibility.

A Study on the Development of the Advertising Strategy and Public Service Announcement Materials for National Immunization (예방접종 홍보광고 전략개발 조사연구)

  • Oh, Kuk-Hwan;Lee, Moo-Sik;Kim, Byung-Hee;Na, Baeg-Ju;Kim, Keon-Yup;Hong, Jee-Young;Kim, Young-Taek;Go, Jae-Young;Kim, Young-Suk;Lee, Seok-Gu;Cho, Hyung Won
    • Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.183-204
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    • 2005
  • Objectives: Immunization program is essential public health service under the national responsibility. One of the immunization service of national immunization program is advertising and public relation service, but research for that was rarely conducted. Therefore we conducted the survey for developing advertising strategy of immunization program in 21th century. Methods: Our study subjects were 242 health workers in immunization service department of 169 health centers and 1,193 carers who visited community health center for receiving immunization service of their children. The major questions were general characteristics of the subjects, perceived importance of immunization program, experience of advertising, knowledge and perception about immunization, and items about advertising strategy. Results: Frequently exposed materials in both health workers and carers were TV, community newspapers, and pamphlets. Health workers had high professional knowledges of immunization and carers had high perceptions for need and importance of immunization. Health workers preferred pamphlets and posters as advertising materials and carerers preferred TV and community newspapers. Both health workers and carers preferred green and yellow as advertising posters' color, active and healthy style of immunization advertising, and positive messages of campaign's slogans. Conclusions: Further researches should be conducted for precising long-term immunization advertising strategy in 21th century, and for this we need to develop advertising materials based on public needs and strategy, and evaluate the materials. The national immunization program should be activated throughout more investment of the budgets and human powers.

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Comparison Study of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Using Bone-Patella Tendon-Bone Autograft and Achilles Tendon Allograft (이식건에 따른 관절경하 전방 십자 인대 재건술의 비교 -자가 골-슬개건-골과 동종 아킬레스건의 비교-)

  • Seo, Joong-Bae;Jung, Hong-Geun;Kim, Myung-Ho;Park, Hee-Gon;Yoo, Moon-Jib;Byun, Woo-Sup;Lee, Joo-Hong
    • Journal of the Korean Arthroscopy Society
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.132-136
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    • 2005
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical results of the arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction used by Bone-Patella tendon-Bone autograft and Achilles tendon allograft. Materials and Methods: We reviewed the results of patients who had been managed with arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using different graft such as Bone-Patella tendon-Bone autograft and Achilles les tendon allograft. 60patients (average age, 33.5 years)were retrospectively evaluated. The one group(average age, 33.4 years) was 32 patient who had been managed with arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using Bone-Patella tendon-Bone autograft. The other group(average age, 32.1 years) was 28 patient who had been managed with arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using Achilles tendon allograft. 2 groups were evaluated subjectively by Lysholm knee scoring scale and objectively by KT-2000 arthrometer. The follow-up period was more than a year(average, 18 month). An early rehabilitation protocol was instituted. Results: On Lysholm knee scoring scale, the final evaluation was nearly normal in all patients. We could not find statistical difference among the two groups by KT-2000TM arthrometer. Conclusion: The use of allografts may be an acceptable choice for ACL reconstruction.

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A Study on the Efforts of Technological Innovation by Academia-Industrial Collaboration for Venture Businesses (산학협력이 중소벤처기업의 기술혁신성과에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구)

  • Song, Geon-Ho;Lee, Cheol-Gyu;Yoo, Wang-Jin;Lee, Dong-Myung
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.10 no.11
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    • pp.3340-3353
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    • 2009
  • This paper aims to study the effect of academia-industrial cooperation on the technical innovation of small and medium-sized companies. A survey was conducted on about 1,100 businesses located in the Sihwa-Banwol industrial estate to analyze the consequence of three factors of academia-industrial cooperation. the joint use of equipments, technological support of universities to businesses, and cooperative technological development through technical guidance-on entrepreneurial capability and their knowledge-absorption ability, and ultimately on their technological innovation,. The validity of the survey result was tested through the Structural Equation Model. On the basis of the comparison between companies which have participated in academy-industry cooperation and companies which have not, this paper suggests that venture businesses should take advantage of the cooperation with universities to boost their competitiveness. The analysis of the three individual factors of the academy-industry cooperation based on the Structural Equation Model shows that all of them have remarkable influence on entrepreneurial capability, but that they don't have as much impact on businesses' knowledge absorption ability. However, the outcome of technological innovation of businesses is primarily influenced by entrepreneurial capability rather than their knowledge absorption ability. The survey also shows that the three factors of the cooperation have an equal impact on the competitiveness of companies regardless of their business type or their products' growth stages. As the companies involved in academy industry cooperation outweigh other businesses, in terms of technological innovation, the numbers of new product development, and the numbers of their process improvement cases, this paper argues that new strategies should be taken for the businesses to fully take advantage of academy-industry cooperation.

Assessment of Microbial Decomposition in Soil Organic Matter Accumulation with Depth in Golf Greens (골프장 그린에서 토심별 토양 유기물 집적에 대한 미생물 분해성 평가)

  • Huh, Keun-Young;Kim, In-Hea;Deurer, Markus
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.64-71
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    • 2009
  • Excessive soil organic matter (SOM) is detrimental to turfgrass quality when used intensively in sand-based root zones, thereby affecting the sustainability of turfgrass systems. As part of a major project examining the sustainable management of SOM on golf greens, microbial decomposition on soil organic matter accumulation with depth was assessed and the effect of soil air-condition improvement and Ca fertilization was investigated by soil microbial respiration (SMR). Three soil samples from three depths(0~5, 5~10, and 10~15cm) of 5 year and 30 year old green were analyzed for SOM content. In 30 year old green, SMR and dehydrogenase activity(DHA) were analyzed to assess the soil microbial decomposition with depth. It was then divided into 4 plots: untreated as a control, dolomite-treated, 0~5cm deep section-removed, and 0~5 cm deep section-removed+dolomite-treated. After treatment, three soil samples were taken at 1, 2 and 4 weeks by the above-mentioned method, and analyzed for SMR to better understand SOM decomposition. SOM accumulation in the 0~5cm depth of golf greens can be controlled by intensive cultivation such as coring, but below 5cm is more difficult as the results showed that SOM content below 5cm increased over time. Soil microbial decomposition of organic matter will be necessary to reduce SOM accumulation, but SMR below 5cm was low and wasn't significantly altered by increasing exposure to air and fertilizing with Ca. As a result, aeration treatments such as coring and Ca fertilization might not be effective at improving soil microbial decomposition below 5cm depth in aged greens.

Integrated Test for Screening in Down Syndrome as a Predictor of Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes (임신합병증 예측에 있어 다운증후군 통합 선별검사 지표의 의의)

  • Park, Sang-Won;Kang, Jin-Hee;Lee, Kyong-Jin;Jun, Hye-Sun;Kang, Myoung-Seo;Huh, Ji-Young;Cha, Dong-Hyun
    • Journal of Genetic Medicine
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.74-80
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    • 2009
  • Purpose: To assess the value of first-trimester pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), nuchal translucency (NT) and second-trimester alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), unconjugated estriol (uE3), and inhibin-A in predicting pregnancy complications other than fetal aneuploidy. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study in 3,121 singleton pregnancies with integrated testing was performed at Kangnam CHA hospital between January 2005 and December 2006. Baseline characteristics, pregnancy outcomes, and serum marker levels were obtained by review of the medical records. We analyzed the data to identify associations between the integrated screening markers and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Statistical analyses were performed with the SPSS program. Results: In preterm labor and preeclampsia, high AFP, hCG, and inhibin-A levels and low PAPP-A and NT levels were found to be significantly correlated (P<0.05). Elevated second-trimester inhibin-A levels were associated with preeclampsia (odds ratio 2.843), low birth weight (odds ratio 1.446), and preterm labor (odds ratio 1.287), and while decreased first-trimester PAPP-A levels were associated with preeclampsia (odds ratio 0.51) and preterm labor (odds ratio 0.75). Conclusion: First- and second-trimester maternal serum markers screening can be used for predicting high-risk pregnancies.

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Phosphorous Removal in a Free Water Surface Wetland Constructed on the Gwangju Stream Floodplain (광주천 고수부지에 조성한 자유수면인공습지의 인 제거)

  • Yang, Hong-Mo
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.40 no.1
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    • pp.100-109
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    • 2012
  • Removal rates of $PO_4-P$ and TP in a free water surface wetland system were investigated. The system was established in 2008 on a floodplain in the middle reach of the Gwangju Stream flowing through Gwangju City. Its dimensions were 46 meters in length and 5 meters in width. Two year old Typha angustifloria L. growing in pots were planted on half of the area and Zizania latifolia Turcz on the other half in 2008. Stream water was funneled into the wetlands by gravity flow, and its effluent was discharged back into the stream. The influent volume was controlled by valves and water depth was adjusted by wires. Volume and water quality of inflow and outflow were analyzed from January to December in 2010. Inflow into the system averaged approximately $710m^3/day$ and hydraulic residence time was about 1.5 hours. Average influent and effluent $PO_4-P$ concentration were 0.144 and 0.103mg/L, respectively, and $PO_4-P$ abatement amounted to 28.6%. Influent and effluent TP concentration averaged 0.333 and 0.262mg/L, respectively, and TP retention reached to 20.7%.$PO_4-P$ removal rate(%) during plant growing season(31.448) was significantly high(p<0.001) when compared with that during plant non-growing season(25.829). TP abatement rate(%) during plant growing season(27.230) was also significantly high(p<0.001) when compared with that of the non-growing season(14.856). Major phosphorous removals in the system resulted from adsorption of phosphorous in the litter-soil layers; sedimentation of particulate phosphorous and Ca, Al, Fe bounded phosphates; and absorption of phosphorous by emergent plants. The adsorption and sedimentation occurred throughout the year, however, the absorption took place during plant growing season. This resulted in higher removals of $PO_4-P$ and TP during plant growing season.

Usefulness of Posture Change to Prevent Overlapping of Heart and Other Organs in Myocardial Perfusion SPECT using $^{99m}Tc$ Labeled Compound ($^{99m}Tc$ 표지화합물을 사용한 심근 관류 SPECT 검사에서 심장과 타 장기와의 중첩 방지를 위한 자세 변화의 유용성)

  • Lee, Dong-Hyuk;Oh, Shin-Hyun;Jeong, Seok;Jo, Seok-Won;NamKoong, Hyuk;Kim, Jae-Sam;Lee, Chang-Ho
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.62-69
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    • 2012
  • Purpose: The present study has an objective of effectively separating and making observations on a portion of radiopharmaceutical excreted via digestive organ to remain in the organ and invade a heart shadow. Materials and methods: When heart shadow is blocked by the organ in tests during a resting phase and a loaded phase, additional images were obtained using immobilization device. The immobilization devices were used to tilt the upper body forward from supine position. Results: In the reconstructed image for the separated case, as compared with the case where a part of organ is overlapped with heart, in terms of an overall mean value for each parameter, the end-diastolic volume increased by 2.75 mL, the end-systolic volume decreased by 3.16 mL, the left ventricle cardiac coefficient increased by 3.58%, and the area of defect region decreased by 3.58 and 3.92 cm for loading and resting phase, respectively. Conclusions: In the present study with myocardial perfusion SPECT, overlapped areas of heart and other organs could be effectively separated and visualization by the use of an immobilization device.

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Characterization of Entomopathogenic Fungus from Trialeurodes vaporariorum and Evaluation as Insecticide (온실가루이 병원성 곰팡이의 특성 및 살충제 개발을 위한 평가)

  • Yoon, Hwi Gun;Shin, Tae Young;Yu, Mi Ra;Lee, Won Woo;Ko, Seung Hyun;Bae, Sung Min;Choi, Jae Bang;Woo, Soo Dong
    • Korean Journal of Microbiology
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    • v.49 no.1
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    • pp.64-70
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    • 2013
  • The greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum, is an economically important pest for greenhouse crops because they cause direct damage by feeding on plant nutrients and indirect damage as transmits many virus vectors. It has recently become a serious problem because of the continuous use of insecticide resulting in resistance among greenhouse whitefly population. To overcome these problems, in this study, the biological characteristics and virulence of an entomopathogenic fungus isolated from the cadaver of nymph greenhouse whitefly were investigated. Isolated fungus was identified as Isaria fumosorosea by morphological examinations and genetic identification using sequences of the ITS, ${\beta}$-tubulin, and EF1-${\alpha}$ regions. This fungus was named as I. fumosorosea SDTv and tested for the virulence against nymphs T. vaporariorum and the cold activity, the thermotolerance and the stability of UV-B irradiation on conidia. Mortality rate of greenhouse whitefly showed from 84 to 100% and the virulence increased with increasing conidial concentrations, $1{\times}10^5$ to $10^8$ conidia/ml. Conidia were stable at $35^{\circ}C$, 0.1 $J/cm^2$ of UV irradiation and germinated after 8 days at $4^{\circ}C$. Additionally, the activities of chitinases and proteases produced by I. fumosorosea SDTv were varied according to the medium. In conclusion, I. fumosorosea SDTv which showed high mortality rate against greenhouse whitefly will be used effectively in the integrated pest management programs against the greenhouse whitefly.

A Study on the Usefulness of Auto Dispenser and Optimized Dispensing Method (방사성 의약품 자동 분주장치의 유용성 및 최적화된 분주방법에 관한 고찰)

  • Lee, JeoungEun;Kim, Hosung;Ryu, Jaekwang;Jung, Wooyoung
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.59-66
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: Recently, there is an increase of the number of hospitals using auto dispenser to reduce occupational radiation exposure when drawing up of the $^{18}F-FDG$ dose (5.18 MBq/kg) in a syringe from the dramatic high activity of $^{18}F-FDG$ multidose vial. The aim of this study is to confirm that using auto dispenser actually reduces the radiation exposure for technologists. Also we analyzed the reproducibility of auto dispenser to find optimized dispensing method for the device. Materials and Methods: We conducted three experiments. Comparison of radiation exposure on chest and hands: The chest and hands exposure dose received by technologists during the injection were measured by electronic personal dosimeter (EPD) and ring TLD respectively. Reproducibility of dispensed volume: We draw up the normal saline into 5 and 2 mL syringe using auto dispenser by changing the volume from 1 to 15 mm for 5 times in the same setting of the volume. The weight of 5 normal saline dispensed from the device at same volume was measured using micro balance and calculated standard deviation and coefficient of variation. Reproducibility of dispensed radioactivity: We dispensed 362.6 $MBq{\pm}10%$ of $^{18}F-FDG$ in 5 and 2 mL syringes from the multidose vial of different specific activity. In the same setting of volume, we repeated dispensing for 4 times and compared standard deviation and coefficient of variation of radioactivity between 5 syringes. Results: There was significant difference in the average of chest exposure dose according to the dispensing methods (P<0.05). Also, when dispensing $^{18}F-FDG$ in manual method, exposure dose was 11.5 times higher in right hand and 4.8 times higher in left hand than in auto method. In the result of reproducibility of dispensed volume, standard deviation and coefficient of variation shows decline as the dispensing volume increases. As a result of reproducibility of dispensed radioactivity, standard deviation and coefficient of variation increases as the specific activity increases. Conclusion: We approved that the occupational radiation exposure dose of technologists were reduced when dispensing $^{18}F-FDG$ using auto dose dispenser. Secondly, using small syringes helps to increase reproducibility of auto dose dispense. And also, if you lower the specific activity of $^{18}F-FDG$ in multidose vial below 915-1,020 MBq/mL, you can use auto dispenser more effectively keeping the coefficient of variation lower than 10%.

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