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강원지역 보건진료원에 관한 업무 분석 연구

  • Jo, Won-Jeong;Lee, Gyeong-Ja
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Community Health Nursing
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.172-173
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    • 1989
  • 본 연구는 전국의 보건진료원이 하는 업무를 분석하여 우리나라 보건진료원 제도 정착에 도움을 주는 기초자료를 제공하는 연구의 일환으로 강원도 지역에서 실시하였다. 연구대상은 강원도에 있는 보건진료원 전수로 하였고 이중 응답자수는 108명이었다. 연구도구는 문헌과 간호교육자들에 의해 작성 된 구조화된 설문지를 사용하였으며 수집된 자료는 SPSS를 이용하여 빈도, 백분율, 평균 및 피어슨 상관계수를 구하였고 유의성 검정을 위해서 t-test, ANOVA의 통계방법을 사용하였다. 본 연구결과를 통하여 얻은 결론은 다음과 같다. 1) 조사대상자인 보건진료원의 평균 연령이 31.5세이며 과반수의 보건진료원이 30세 미만 이었고 기혼자가 마혼자보다 약간 많았다. 보건진료원의 반수 이상이 현재 가족과 동거하고 있었고 학력은 3년제 간호전문대학 졸업자가, 경력은 3년 미만인 사람이 대부분이었으며 종교를 가진 사람이 대부분 이었으며 종교를 가진 사람이 안가진 사람보다 더 많았다. 또한 보건진료원의 근무지역 조건은 대부분이 을지에서 근무하고 있었고 대부분의 보건진료원이 신축된 보건진료소 시설에서 업무를 수행하고 보건진료소 내의 숙소에서 거주하는 것으로 냐타났다. 2) 보건진료원이 담당하는 평균 주민수는 1,660.8명 이었으며 과반수 정도의 보건진료원이 $501\sim1,000$명이 이상적인 적정 담당 주민수라고 생각하고 있었다. 강원도 주민의 연평균 보건진료소 이용자수는 4,099.3명 이었고 이용 주민수가 5,000명 이상인 보건진료소도 11개소 12.9 %나 되었다. 3) 보건진료소 사업대상지역 내에 있는 보건 의료기관은 약방 및 약종상이 62.1 %로 가장 많이 분포되어 있었고 보건지소도 16 %나 사업대상지역 내에 함께 있는 것으로 나타났다. 지역주민의 보건의료기관 이용은 보건진료소가 59.0 % 로 지역주민이 가장 많이 이용하고 있었고 보건 진료원이 가장 많이 이용하는 의뢰기관은 뱅 의원이 66 %, 보건소가 36.4 %로 나타났다. 또한 보건진료소의 보건의료기관과의 협조관계는 보건소와는 과반수 정도가 잘 협조하고 있다고 응답 한 반면 보건지소와 잘 협조하고 있다고 응답한 율은 37.6 % 밖에 안되었다. 4) 보건진료원이 업무영역 수행 정도를 살펴 보면 5점 만점에 통상질환관리가 3.69점, 사업 운영 관리 및 지도는 3.45점, 모자보건 및 가족계획은 3.28 점, 지역사회 조직 및 개발은 3.27 점, 보건정보체계 개발 및 수집은 3.17 점, 사업 계획 수립은 3.14 점, 지역사회 보건관리는 3.13 점의 순으로 나타났다. 보건진료원의 업무영역을 l 일 8 시간으로 하여 l 주 44 시간을 기준으로 측정하면 통상질환관리 18.56시간, 지역사회 보건관리 5.67 시간, 모자보건 및 가족계획 5.52 시간, 사업 운영관리 및 지도 4.10시간, 지역사회 조직 및 개발 3.05 시간, 보건정보체계 개발 및 수집 2.94 시간, 사업계획 수립 2.89시간의 순으로 나타났다. 5) 보건진료원의 업무영역별 수행 소요시간의 상판판계를 살펴보면 지역사펴 조직 및 개발을 위 해 소요한 시간은 사엽계획 수립 소요시간 및 보건정 보체계 관리 소요시간과 순상관관계를, 사업 계획 수립 소요시간은 지역사회 보건관리, 모자보건 및 가족계획 관리 소요시간 및 보건정보체제 관리 소요시간과 순상관관계를 나타냈다. 또한 통상질환관리 소요시간은 지역 사회 조직 및 개발, 사업계획 수립, 지역사회 보건관리와 모자보건 및 가족계획 관리, 사업운영 관리 및 지도, 보건정보체계 관리 소요시간과 역상관관계를 나타내었다. 6) 보건진료원의 총 업무수행 정도를 잘펴보면 업무수행 점수의 평균은 87.5점이었으며 보건진료원의 근무지가 병지이고 보건진료소의 시설상태가 나쁜 경우 업무수행 점수가 높은 것으로 나타났으며 업무수행 정도와는 별 차이가 없었다.

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Studies on the Seroepidemiology of Helminthic Diseases in Korea (우리나라의 주요 기생충질환(寄生蟲疾患)에 대한 혈청역학적(血淸疫學的) 조사(調査))

  • Rim, Han-Jong;Lee, Joon-Sang;Joo, Kyoung-Hwan;Chung, Myung-Sook
    • Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.48-60
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    • 1991
  • In a seroepidemiological study in several areas of Korea, the ELISA technique was performed to determine prevalence of some important helminthic diseases in our nation during March $15^{th}$ to June $30^{th}$. 1991. In this survey the serum antibody positive rates of anisakiasis, toxocariasis, clonorchiasis, paragonimiasis, cysticercosis, and sparganosis were measured. Among, 6,704 cases examined, 19.7% showed positive antibody titer at least one of the six items studied. Overall positive antibody rate was 8.1% in anisakiasis, 5.6% in toxocariasis, 3.6% in clonorchiasis, 1.7% in paragonimiasis, 4.5% in cysticercosis, and 2.6% in sparganosis respectively. In Pusan port southeastern part of Korea, antibody positive rate of anisakiasis was 2.9%, and clonorchiasis was 2.8% among 450 examine. In TaeJ$\check{o}$n city, central part of Korea. toxocariasis(6.7%) and anisakiasis(3.7%) showed high serologic positive rate. Of the 875 persons in Chunche$\check{o}$n gun(=province), northern central rural area of South Korea, anisakiasis was revealed as 3.4% seropositivity. In Tonghae port, eastern coast of South Korea. 9.9% of population examined showed positive antibody titer in anisakiasis. Of the 1,122 persons examined in Southern part of Cholla-Namdo(Southwestern coastal area of Korea), anisakiasis was 16.9%, cysticerocosis was 12.7% and the paragonimiasis was 3.3% respectively. In some localized area of Cholla-Pukdo, anisakiasis was 9.3% and cysticekosis was 4.3% among 702 cases examined. In some localized area of Kyungsang-Pukdo, anisakiasis was 10.6%. and toxocariasis was 16.1% among 900 cases examined. And finally, in Cheju-do, southern island of Korea, anisakiasis showed high positive rate(6.7%). Because cross reactions between related helminth group may disturb the analysis of these data, use of further developed techniques such as EITB(enzyme-linked immunoelectrotransfer blot) was considered as a essential tools for the study. We thought that probably most of the positive cases of cysticerosis were taeniasis cases. We can't rule out taeniasis even though EITB was employed as far as crude worm extract or cystic fluid of cysticercus was used as antigen. It was well Known that toxocariasis and anisakiasis also showed cross reactivity. However, the data presented here focus on seropositive rate of several helminthic diseases in Korea, not true prevalence rate of helminthiases, and to wait for more expensive purified antigen in sufficient amount for epidemiologic use is not necessary because increased immunologic sensitivity had little effect on epidemiologic sensitivity. We, here, suggest that ELISA should be applied as soon as possible to the evaluation of prevalence of tissue invading parasitic diseases, and a review of the antibody positive rate obtained in this study would be a basic data for controlling program of parasitic diseases in Korea.

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Residue of Fungicide Myclobutanil and Change of Soil Microflora in Upland Soil at Different Evironmental Conditions (환경차이에 따른 밭토양 중 살균제 Myclobutanil의 잔류 및 토양미생물상 변화)

  • Han, Seong-Soo;Choi, Chan-Gyu;Jeong, Jea-Hun;Baek, Seung-Hwa
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.28-44
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    • 1995
  • Residue level of myclobutanil[2-p-chlorophenyl-2-(1H-1,2,4-trizol-l-yl-methyl) hexane nitril] and number of soil microorganism were investigated at different environmental conditions such as the sterile and the non-sterile soils, moisture content, pH, temperature, application rate, and soil types under laboratory and field to study the effect of those factors on degradation characteristics of this fungicide and change of microflora in soil. Decomposition rate of myclobutanil was 3.9 times faster in the non-sterile soil than in the sterile soil, 1.6 times in the field than in the laboratory, 1.4 times in the concentration of 10ppm than in that of 20ppm, and 1.2 times in the clay loam soil than in the silty loam soil. Degradation rate of myclobutanil was the fastest at pH 9.0 among the tested pHs and the latest at pH 5.5. Degradation rate of myclobutanil was in order of $27^{\circ}C$ > $37^{\circ}C$ > $17^{\circ}C$. Otherwise, the effect of soil water content on myclobutanil degradation was found not clear. Number of microorganism in the non-sterile soil was remarkedly more than that in the sterile soil. Numbers of microbes were not significantly different between treatment plot and non-treatment plot of myclobutanil at the different conditions of soil moisture content, pH, temperature and soil type. Numbers of fungi and total microbes were more in the treatment than in the non-treatment of myclobutanil at field test but the same trends were not found at laboratory test. Within non-treatment of myclobutanil, numbers of microbes were not significantly different under the various condition of pH, application rate, and soil type in laboratory and upland field. The number of bacteria were more in 60% moisture content of water holding capacity than in 40% and the number of fungi were more in $17^{\circ}C$ of soil temperature than in $37^{\circ}C$. Within the application plot of myclobutanil, numbers of microbes were not significantly different at various pH in laboratory and upland field. The number of bacteria and total microbes were more in 80% moisture content of water holding capacity than in 40% and 60% and actinomycetes were more at $27^{\circ}C$ in the clay loam soil than at $17^{\circ}C$ in the silty loam soil.

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A Study on the Standardization of QSCC II (Questionnaire for the Sasang Constitution Classification II) (사상체질분류검사지(四象體質分類檢査紙)(QSCC)II의 표준화(標準化) 연구(硏究) - 각 체질집단의 군집별(群集別) Profile 분석을 중심으로 -)

  • Kim, Sun-Ho;Ko, Byung-Hee;Song, Il-Byung
    • The Journal of Korean Medicine
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.337-393
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    • 1996
  • The purpose of this study is to evaluate and standardize the four scales of Questionnaire for the Sasang Constitution Classification  II (QSCCII). QSCCII is newly prepared by statistical item analysis and is designed to examine its diagnostic discriminability. QSCCII is administered to 1366 random informants. From the survey, we could get the data for the standardization. The criteria of standardization are based on the data from 265 informants who are examined by professionals. Collectted data are analyzed by internal consistency, variation analysis(ANOVA), Duncan test and discrimination analysis of SPSS PC+ V4.0 program. The results are as follows reliability of four scales for QSCCII is relatively valid. The internal consistency of Tae-yang(太陽) (太陽) scale is Cronbach's a=0.5708. That of So-yang(少陽) scale is a=0.5708. That of Tae-eum(太陰) scale is a =0.5922. That of So-eum(少陰) scale is a=0.6319. 2. There is a significant difference between each group through variation analysis of four scales. 3. The process of standardization is based on the average value and standard deviation with respect to age and sex difference of each criteria 4. This study suggests a source of standardization of Sasang Constitution Classification by providing norms in which the differences of age, sex, and number of items are taken into deep consideration. QSCC Ⅱ, therefore, can be applied to every age(the 10's to the 60's) and sex groups. 5. The recalculation of the raw-score to standard value (T-score) shows that the diagnostic discriminability (Hit-ratio: 70.08%) of QSCC Ⅱ brings about 37% improvement than proportional chance criteria (33.33%). Especially, Hit-ratios of Tae-eum In(74.5%) and So-eum In(70.8%) are higher than that of So-yang In(60.0%). 6. QSCC has discriminability only to male informants. Compared with QSCC, however, QSCC II has relatively efficient discriminability both to male and female informants. 7. These results would be a demonstration of the fact that the QSCC II could be used as a tool for sasang constitution classification.

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THREE DIMENTIONAL FORCE ANALYSIS OF FORCE SYSTEM IN CONTINUOUS ARCHWIRE BY FINITE ELEMENT METHOD (CONTINUOUS ARCHWIRE의 FORCE SYSTEM에 대한 3차원 유한 요소법적 연구)

  • Row, Joon;Ryu, Young-Kyu
    • The korean journal of orthodontics
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.17-32
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    • 1996
  • It is important to understand the operating mechanism and force system of fixed appliance that most effective for individual tooth movement in various orthodontic appliances. The archwire system of fixed appliance is devided into 3 types, which is continuous arch, segmented arch and sectional arch. The last two types have longer interbracket distance and simple force operating points, so it is easy to control force system by operator. But the continuous arch has shorter interbracket distance and various bracket geometry, so it is hard to control and anaylze the force system. The purpose of this study was three dimentional force and moment analysis of continuous arch system by finite element method, which is similar situation to three dimentional elastic beam in structural engineering. Several sample form of various bracket geometry and artificial lower crowding typodont made by author were constructed, analyzed and compared each other. The results were as follows : 1. The force magnitude is linear proportional to the degree of displacement or tilting of the bracket. 2. The force magnitude is inversely non-linear proportional to the interbracket distance. 3. In three dimensional typodont model, while the force can be compared with that of the sample form in the area where adjacent bracket geometry is simple, the force is much more than the expected value in the area where adjacent bracket geometry is complex.

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A STUDY ON METAL RELEASE OF TIN ION-PLATED STAINLESS STEEL ORTHODONTIC APPLIANCES (TiN 피막 처리된 스테인레스강 교정용 장치물의 금속 유리에 대한 연구)

  • KIM, Myung-Sook;Sung, Jae-Hyun;Kwon, Oh-Won
    • The korean journal of orthodontics
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.43-54
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    • 1995
  • This study was conducted to examine the metal release of TiN-plated stainless steel orthodontic appliances by constructing the simulated orthodontic appliances equivalent to maxillary half arch, by dividing into TiN-plated and TiN-nonplated Bloops and by dividing again these groups into welded and nonwelded groups. And then, the total quantity of metal release was obtained by measuring the amounts of both soluble and precipitated nickel and chromium after immersing in artificial saliva for 15 days. And then, the corrosion appearance of surface structure was observed by using SEM. The results of this study were summarized as follows. 1. The total amounts of released nickel and chromium showed that the TiN-plated group after welding(Group 1) was 25.46 ${\mu}g$, respectively, and 17.4 ${\mu}g$, while the TiN-nonplated group after welding(Group III) was 54.69 ${\mu}g$, respectively, and 85.27 ${\mu}g$. Then, the TiN-Plated group indicated less amounts of metal release(p<0.05). 2. The total amounts of the TiN-plated group without welding(Group II) was 0.05${\mu}g$ and 0.34${\mu}g$, respectively. Then, it was shown that the TiN-plated group without welding(Group II) indicated less metal release than that of the TiN-Plated group after welding(Group I)(p<0.01, p<0.05). 3. When observing their surface structure, there were a lot of precipitate and pitting corrosion in the groups with welding(Group I & III), when the TiN-plated group(Group I) showed lower level than the TiN-nonplated group(Group IIII). On the other hand, the groups without welding(Group II & IV) indicated a little of pitting corrosion. 4. In case of observation with the naked eyes, it was shown that there were significant disco1oration and corrosion in the groups with welding(Group I & III), while there was no any remarkable change in the groups without welding(Group II & IV).

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A STUDY OF DENTAL CROWDING AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO MANDIBULAR INCISOR SHAPE BY MODEL ANALYSIS IN ADOLESCENTS (청소년 석고 모형 분석에 의한 하악절치 형태와 치아밀집의 상관관계에 관한 연구)

  • Surh, Jeong-Eun;Baik, Hyoung-Seon
    • The korean journal of orthodontics
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    • v.25 no.5
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    • pp.593-604
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    • 1995
  • Mandibular incisor crowding is one of the most common features of malocclusion and is interesting characteristic in view of relapse and stability after orthodontic treatment. There are many potential factors in the etiology of lower anterior crowding. The tooth size variation is one of them, but biologic significance for the faciolingual width of the teeth has been overlooked. Peck and Peck reported that persons with ideal mandibular incisor alignment were shown to have incisor with smaller mesiodistal and larger faciolingual dimensions than persons with incisor crowding. On the basis of these findings they suggested MD/FL index as a clinical guideline for the assessment for lower incisor crowding. The present study was undertaken to examine the relationship between mandibular incisor crowding and mandibular incisor dimension, and determine their correlation with arch length discrepancy. 154 dental casts of people from 11 to 17 years of age were made, and were divided into normal group with irregularity index less than of 1, and crowding group with irregularity index greater than 1.The casts were measured and analyzed statistically. The results were as follows. 1. The mean mesiodistal width for mandibular incisor was larger in crowding group, and has significant difference in central inciosr measurement. There are no significant differences in the faciolingul width and MD/FL index. 2. Irregularity index has significant correlation coefficients with mesiodistal width and MD/FL index for mandibular incisor in crowding group, but no correlation with faciolingual width. It also has correlation with maxillary and mandibular arch length discrepancy, total tooth material, mandibular intercanine width, and mandibular inter first premolar width. 3. Upper and lower arch length discrepancy have significant correlation with mesiodistal width of mandibular incisor and overbite, but have no correlation with faciolingual width. Lower arch lenth discrepancy has significant correlation with MD/FL index for mandibular incisor and upper arch length discrepancy has correlation with MD/FL index for mandibular lateral incisor. 4. Significant differences were observed between normal and crowding group for the mandibular arch length discrepancy and overbite.

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Sprouting Characteristics and Herbicidal Responses of Purple Nutsedge (향부자 괴경의 출아특성과 제초제에 대한 반응)

  • Kim, J.S.;Shin, W.K.;Kim, T.J.;Cho, K.Y.
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.120-127
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    • 1994
  • To establish an efficient herbicide screening method for purple nutsedge(Cyperus rotundus) control, its sprouting characteristics, tuber production and responses on several herbicides were investigated under greenhouse condition. The tubers stored at $4^{\circ}C$ after sterilization with the diluted prochloraz(Spotac) solution showed higher sprouting than the non-sterilized did. The harvested tubers were not dormant, and the sterilized tubers which stored at low temperature had a sprouting capability of about 80% after 6 months. If the fresh weight of purple nutsedge tubers was decreased to below 48%, they could not sprout. However, the tubers soaked in water and then stored at low temperature could sprout by 88% even 6 months later. Sprouting and initial growth of tuber were much better at $35^{\circ}C$-day/$25^{\circ}C$-night than at 30/$20^{\circ}C$ or 25/$15^{\circ}C$. The half-sected tubers, which were prepared by setting the intact tuber of above 1.2g latitudinally, were shown similar initial growth to the intact but those sected crucifically were not. These results suggest that the half-sected tuber itself can be used as a material on herbicide screening. About 1000 tubers could be harvested when 10 tubers planted in a pot($56{\times}35{\times}16cm$) filled with the artificial soil were cultivated in greenhouse of $35^{\circ}C$-day/$25^{\circ}C$-night for 3 months(April-July, 1993). Chlorimuron, Bentazon and Norflurazon were selected as the standards for the screening because of providing relatively effective control on purple nutsedge in both soil-surface and foliar spray treatment.

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A Study on the Standardization of QSCCII (Questionnaire for the Sasang Constitution Classification II) (사상체질분류검사지(四象體質分類檢査紙)(QSCC)II의 표준화(標準化) 연구(硏究) -각(各) 체질집단(體質集團)의 군집별(群集別) Profile 분석(分析)을 중심(中心)으로-)

  • Kim, Sun Ho;Go, Byeong-Hui;Song, Il-Byeong
    • Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.187-246
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    • 1996
  • The purpose of this study is to evaluate and standardize the four scales of Questionnaire for the Sasang Constitution ClassificationII (QSCCII). QSCCII is newly prepared by statistical item analysis and is designed to examine its diagnostic discriminability. QSCCII is administered to 1366 random informants. From the survey, we could get the data for the standardization. The criteria of standardization are based on the data from 265 informants who are examined by professionals. Collected data are analyzed by internal consistency, variation analysis(ANOVA), Duncan test and discrimination analysis of SPSS PC+ V4.0 program. The results are as follows 1) The reliability of four scales for QSCCII is relatively valid. The internal consistency of Tae-yang(太陽) scale is Cronbach's ${\alpha}=0.5708$. That of So-yang(少陽) scale is ${\alpha}=0.5708$. That of Tae-eum(太陰) scale is ${\alpha}=0.5922$. That of So-eum(少陰) scale is ${\alpha}=0.6319$. 2) There is a significant difference between each group through variation analysis of four scales. 3) The process of standardization is based on the average value and standard deviation with respect to age and sex difference of each criteria. 4) This study suggests a source of standardization of Sasang Constitution Classification by providing norms in which the differences of age, sex, and number of items are taken into deep consideration. QSCCII, therefore, can be applied to every age(the 10's to the 60's) and sex groups. 5) The recalculation of the raw-score to standard value (T-score) shows that the diagnostic discriminability (Hit-ratio : 70.08%) of QSCCII brings about 37% improvement than proportional chance criteria(33.33%). Especially, Hit-ratios of Tae-eum In(74.5%) and So-eum In(70.8%) are higher than that of So-yang In(60.0%). 6) QSCC has discriminability only to male informants. Compared with QSCC, however, QSCCII has relatively efficient discriminability both to male and female informants. 7) These results would be a demonstration of the fact that the QSCCII could be used as a tool for sasang constitution classification.

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Comparison of Urine Iodine/Creatinine ratio between Patients following Stringent and Less Stringent Low Iodine Diet for Radioiodine Remnant Ablation of Thyroid Cancer (갑상선암의 방사성요오드치료를 위한 저요오드식이 방법 차이에 따른 소변 중 요오드/크레아티닌 비의 비교)

  • Roh, Jee-Ho;Kim, Byung-Il;Ha, Ji-Su;Chang, Sei-Joong;Shin, Hye-Young;Choi, Joon-Hyuk;Kim, Do-Min;Kim, Chong-Soon
    • Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
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    • v.40 no.6
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    • pp.322-326
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    • 2006
  • A low iodine diet (LID) for $1{\sim}2$ weeks is recommended for patients who undergoing radioiodine remnant ablation. However, the LID educations for patients are different among centers because there is no concrete recommendation for protocol of LID. In this investigation, we compared two representative types of LID protocols performed in several centers in Korea using urine iodine to creatinine ratio (urine I/Cr). Methods: From 2006, April to June, patients referred to our center for radioiodine remnant ablation of thyroid cancer from several local hospitals which had different LID protocols were included. We divided into two groups, stringent LID for 1week and less stringent LID for 2 weeks, then measured their urine I/Cr ratio with spot urine when patients were admitted to the hospital. Results: Total 27 patients were included in this investigation (M:F=1:26; 13 in one-week stringent LID; 14 in two-week less stringent LID. Average of urine I/Cr ratio was $127.87{\pm}78.52{\mu}g/g$ in stringent LID for 1 week, and $289.75{\pm}188.24{\mu}g/g$ in less stringent LID for 2 weeks. It was significantly lower in stringent LID for 1 week group (p=0.008). The number of patients whose urine I/Cr ratios were below $100{\mu}g/g$ was 6 of 13 in stringent LID for 1 week group, and 3 of 14 in less stringent LID for 2 weeks group. Conclusion: Stringent LID for 1 week resulted in better urinary I/Cr ratio in our investigation compared with the other protocol. However it still resulted in plenty of inadequate range of I/Cr ratio, so more stringent protocol such as stringent LID for 2 weeks is expected more desirable.