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Comparison between REML and Bayesian via Gibbs Sampling Algorithm with a Mixed Animal Model to Estimate Genetic Parameters for Carcass Traits in Hanwoo(Korean Native Cattle) (한우의 도체형질 유전모수 추정을 위한 REML과 Bayesian via Gibbs Sampling 방법의 비교 연구)

  • Roh, S.H.;Kim, B.W.;Kim, H.S.;Min, H.S.;Yoon, H.B.;Lee, D.H.;Jeon, J.T.;Lee, J.G.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.46 no.5
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    • pp.719-728
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    • 2004
  • The aims of this study were to estimate genetic parameters for carcass traits on Hanwoo(Korean Native Cattle) and to compare two different statistical algorithms for estimating genetic parameters. Data obtained from 1526 steers at Hanwoo Improvement Center and Hanwoo Improvement Complex Area from 1996 to 2001 were used for the analyses. The carcass traits considered in these studies were carcass weight, dressing percent, eye muscle area, backfat thickness, and marbling score. Estimated genetic parameters using EM-REML algorithm were compared to those by Bayesian inference via Gibbs Sampling to find out statistical properties. The estimated heritabilities of carcass traits by REML method were 0.28, 0.25, 0.35, 0.39 and 0.51, respectively and those by Gibbs Sampling method were 0.29, 0.25, 0.40, 0.42 and 0.54, respectively. This estimates were not significantly different, even though the estimated heritabilities by Gibbs Sampling method were higher than ones by REML method. Since the estimated statistics by REML method and Gibbs Sampling method were not significantly different in this study, it is inferred that both mothods could be efficiently applied for the analysis of carcass traits of cattle. However, further studies are demanded to define an optimal statistical method for handling large scale performance data.

Comparison of apical sealing ability of continuous wave of obturation technique using EndoTwinn and System B (EndoTwinn과 System B continuous wave of obturation units를 이용한 근단부 근관충전 효율비교)

  • Shin, Hyun-Ju;Park, Jeong-Kil;Hur, Bock;Kim, Hyeon-Cheol
    • Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
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    • v.32 no.6
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    • pp.522-529
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    • 2007
  • The purpose of this study was to compare the apical leakage of the root canal filled with the System B and the EndoTwinn(the combined application of heat and ultrasonic vibration). Sixty extracted premolars with straight root were cleaned and shaped to size 35. Group SB was obturated using System B and Group ET was filled with EndoTwinn. A size 35 of 0.06 tapered gutta-percha and Adseal were used and the plugger which could be introduced to 4 mm short of working length was selected in the obturation procedure. As the positive control, Group PC was not filled. In Group SB, ET and PC, all external surfaces of each tooth were coated with nail varnish leaving only 1 mm area around the apical foramen. In the negative control of Group NSB and Group NET, all of external tooth surface including apical foramen was coated with the nail varnish. The specimens were immersed in methylene blue dye solution for 2 days. Then the specimens were sectioned at each 1 mm from apex to 5 mm level. The final score of one specimen was given by summing up of the points at all levels. The dye leakage of Group ET was significantly less than that observed in Group SB (p < 0.05). And the frequency of gutta-percha pulling out from root canal when the plugger was removed was more often with the System B than with EndoTwinn but there was no significant difference.

Effect of the Anthracnose Resistant Transgenic Chili Pepper on the Arthropod Communities in a Confined Field (야외 격리 포장에서 유전자 변형 탄저병 저항성 PepEST 고추가 절지동물 군집에 미치는 영향)

  • Yi, Hoon-Bok;Kwon, Min-Chul;Park, Ji-Eun;Kim, Chang-Gi;Park, Kee-Woong;Lee, Bum-Kyu;Kim, Hwan-Mook
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.326-335
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    • 2007
  • This study was conducted to assess the environmental risks of anthracnose resistant transgenic chili peppers with the PepEST gene on non-target organisms in the agroecosystem environments during the chili pepper growing seasons in 2006. We quantitatively collected arthropods assemblages living on leaves and flowers of chili peppers on June 20, July 25, and August 25 by using an insect vacuum collector to compare the patterns of arthropod community structures between non-transgenic chili peppers (nTR, WT512) and anthracnose resistant transgenic chili peppers (TR, line 68). We found the seasonal difference with the highest species richness and Shannon's diversity in July's sampling among the growing seasons (P<0.05) and each sampling season showed the different arthropod community composition. We also found there was no statistical difference between the two types of crops, nTR and TR, at each sampling time (P>0.05). The significance level of arthropod community showed that there were lots of seasonal difference of functional groups as well as taxa but only the herbivore group in the functional groups was significantly different for the types of plants (P<0.05). So, we further examined the herbivore groups to find any potential damage and identified the possibility of herbivorous damage from some herbivores, grasshoppers, aphids and thrips. Although we couldn't find any adverse effects from the environmental risk assessment between the arthropod community structures on two types of plants from our results, we should keep working for the environmental risk assessment because of the herbivorous potential risk possibility.

A Study on the Development of the Advertising Strategy and Public Service Announcement Materials for National Immunization (예방접종 홍보광고 전략개발 조사연구)

  • Oh, Kuk-Hwan;Lee, Moo-Sik;Kim, Byung-Hee;Na, Baeg-Ju;Kim, Keon-Yup;Hong, Jee-Young;Kim, Young-Taek;Go, Jae-Young;Kim, Young-Suk;Lee, Seok-Gu;Cho, Hyung Won
    • Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.183-204
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    • 2005
  • Objectives: Immunization program is essential public health service under the national responsibility. One of the immunization service of national immunization program is advertising and public relation service, but research for that was rarely conducted. Therefore we conducted the survey for developing advertising strategy of immunization program in 21th century. Methods: Our study subjects were 242 health workers in immunization service department of 169 health centers and 1,193 carers who visited community health center for receiving immunization service of their children. The major questions were general characteristics of the subjects, perceived importance of immunization program, experience of advertising, knowledge and perception about immunization, and items about advertising strategy. Results: Frequently exposed materials in both health workers and carers were TV, community newspapers, and pamphlets. Health workers had high professional knowledges of immunization and carers had high perceptions for need and importance of immunization. Health workers preferred pamphlets and posters as advertising materials and carerers preferred TV and community newspapers. Both health workers and carers preferred green and yellow as advertising posters' color, active and healthy style of immunization advertising, and positive messages of campaign's slogans. Conclusions: Further researches should be conducted for precising long-term immunization advertising strategy in 21th century, and for this we need to develop advertising materials based on public needs and strategy, and evaluate the materials. The national immunization program should be activated throughout more investment of the budgets and human powers.

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Comparison Study of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Using Bone-Patella Tendon-Bone Autograft and Achilles Tendon Allograft (이식건에 따른 관절경하 전방 십자 인대 재건술의 비교 -자가 골-슬개건-골과 동종 아킬레스건의 비교-)

  • Seo, Joong-Bae;Jung, Hong-Geun;Kim, Myung-Ho;Park, Hee-Gon;Yoo, Moon-Jib;Byun, Woo-Sup;Lee, Joo-Hong
    • Journal of the Korean Arthroscopy Society
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.132-136
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    • 2005
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical results of the arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction used by Bone-Patella tendon-Bone autograft and Achilles tendon allograft. Materials and Methods: We reviewed the results of patients who had been managed with arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using different graft such as Bone-Patella tendon-Bone autograft and Achilles les tendon allograft. 60patients (average age, 33.5 years)were retrospectively evaluated. The one group(average age, 33.4 years) was 32 patient who had been managed with arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using Bone-Patella tendon-Bone autograft. The other group(average age, 32.1 years) was 28 patient who had been managed with arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using Achilles tendon allograft. 2 groups were evaluated subjectively by Lysholm knee scoring scale and objectively by KT-2000 arthrometer. The follow-up period was more than a year(average, 18 month). An early rehabilitation protocol was instituted. Results: On Lysholm knee scoring scale, the final evaluation was nearly normal in all patients. We could not find statistical difference among the two groups by KT-2000TM arthrometer. Conclusion: The use of allografts may be an acceptable choice for ACL reconstruction.

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A Study on the Efforts of Technological Innovation by Academia-Industrial Collaboration for Venture Businesses (산학협력이 중소벤처기업의 기술혁신성과에 미치는 영향에 관한 연구)

  • Song, Geon-Ho;Lee, Cheol-Gyu;Yoo, Wang-Jin;Lee, Dong-Myung
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.10 no.11
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    • pp.3340-3353
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    • 2009
  • This paper aims to study the effect of academia-industrial cooperation on the technical innovation of small and medium-sized companies. A survey was conducted on about 1,100 businesses located in the Sihwa-Banwol industrial estate to analyze the consequence of three factors of academia-industrial cooperation. the joint use of equipments, technological support of universities to businesses, and cooperative technological development through technical guidance-on entrepreneurial capability and their knowledge-absorption ability, and ultimately on their technological innovation,. The validity of the survey result was tested through the Structural Equation Model. On the basis of the comparison between companies which have participated in academy-industry cooperation and companies which have not, this paper suggests that venture businesses should take advantage of the cooperation with universities to boost their competitiveness. The analysis of the three individual factors of the academy-industry cooperation based on the Structural Equation Model shows that all of them have remarkable influence on entrepreneurial capability, but that they don't have as much impact on businesses' knowledge absorption ability. However, the outcome of technological innovation of businesses is primarily influenced by entrepreneurial capability rather than their knowledge absorption ability. The survey also shows that the three factors of the cooperation have an equal impact on the competitiveness of companies regardless of their business type or their products' growth stages. As the companies involved in academy industry cooperation outweigh other businesses, in terms of technological innovation, the numbers of new product development, and the numbers of their process improvement cases, this paper argues that new strategies should be taken for the businesses to fully take advantage of academy-industry cooperation.

Assessment of Microbial Decomposition in Soil Organic Matter Accumulation with Depth in Golf Greens (골프장 그린에서 토심별 토양 유기물 집적에 대한 미생물 분해성 평가)

  • Huh, Keun-Young;Kim, In-Hea;Deurer, Markus
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.64-71
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    • 2009
  • Excessive soil organic matter (SOM) is detrimental to turfgrass quality when used intensively in sand-based root zones, thereby affecting the sustainability of turfgrass systems. As part of a major project examining the sustainable management of SOM on golf greens, microbial decomposition on soil organic matter accumulation with depth was assessed and the effect of soil air-condition improvement and Ca fertilization was investigated by soil microbial respiration (SMR). Three soil samples from three depths(0~5, 5~10, and 10~15cm) of 5 year and 30 year old green were analyzed for SOM content. In 30 year old green, SMR and dehydrogenase activity(DHA) were analyzed to assess the soil microbial decomposition with depth. It was then divided into 4 plots: untreated as a control, dolomite-treated, 0~5cm deep section-removed, and 0~5 cm deep section-removed+dolomite-treated. After treatment, three soil samples were taken at 1, 2 and 4 weeks by the above-mentioned method, and analyzed for SMR to better understand SOM decomposition. SOM accumulation in the 0~5cm depth of golf greens can be controlled by intensive cultivation such as coring, but below 5cm is more difficult as the results showed that SOM content below 5cm increased over time. Soil microbial decomposition of organic matter will be necessary to reduce SOM accumulation, but SMR below 5cm was low and wasn't significantly altered by increasing exposure to air and fertilizing with Ca. As a result, aeration treatments such as coring and Ca fertilization might not be effective at improving soil microbial decomposition below 5cm depth in aged greens.

Integrated Test for Screening in Down Syndrome as a Predictor of Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes (임신합병증 예측에 있어 다운증후군 통합 선별검사 지표의 의의)

  • Park, Sang-Won;Kang, Jin-Hee;Lee, Kyong-Jin;Jun, Hye-Sun;Kang, Myoung-Seo;Huh, Ji-Young;Cha, Dong-Hyun
    • Journal of Genetic Medicine
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.74-80
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    • 2009
  • Purpose: To assess the value of first-trimester pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), nuchal translucency (NT) and second-trimester alpha-fetoprotein (AFP), human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), unconjugated estriol (uE3), and inhibin-A in predicting pregnancy complications other than fetal aneuploidy. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study in 3,121 singleton pregnancies with integrated testing was performed at Kangnam CHA hospital between January 2005 and December 2006. Baseline characteristics, pregnancy outcomes, and serum marker levels were obtained by review of the medical records. We analyzed the data to identify associations between the integrated screening markers and adverse pregnancy outcomes. Statistical analyses were performed with the SPSS program. Results: In preterm labor and preeclampsia, high AFP, hCG, and inhibin-A levels and low PAPP-A and NT levels were found to be significantly correlated (P<0.05). Elevated second-trimester inhibin-A levels were associated with preeclampsia (odds ratio 2.843), low birth weight (odds ratio 1.446), and preterm labor (odds ratio 1.287), and while decreased first-trimester PAPP-A levels were associated with preeclampsia (odds ratio 0.51) and preterm labor (odds ratio 0.75). Conclusion: First- and second-trimester maternal serum markers screening can be used for predicting high-risk pregnancies.

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Phosphorous Removal in a Free Water Surface Wetland Constructed on the Gwangju Stream Floodplain (광주천 고수부지에 조성한 자유수면인공습지의 인 제거)

  • Yang, Hong-Mo
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.40 no.1
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    • pp.100-109
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    • 2012
  • Removal rates of $PO_4-P$ and TP in a free water surface wetland system were investigated. The system was established in 2008 on a floodplain in the middle reach of the Gwangju Stream flowing through Gwangju City. Its dimensions were 46 meters in length and 5 meters in width. Two year old Typha angustifloria L. growing in pots were planted on half of the area and Zizania latifolia Turcz on the other half in 2008. Stream water was funneled into the wetlands by gravity flow, and its effluent was discharged back into the stream. The influent volume was controlled by valves and water depth was adjusted by wires. Volume and water quality of inflow and outflow were analyzed from January to December in 2010. Inflow into the system averaged approximately $710m^3/day$ and hydraulic residence time was about 1.5 hours. Average influent and effluent $PO_4-P$ concentration were 0.144 and 0.103mg/L, respectively, and $PO_4-P$ abatement amounted to 28.6%. Influent and effluent TP concentration averaged 0.333 and 0.262mg/L, respectively, and TP retention reached to 20.7%.$PO_4-P$ removal rate(%) during plant growing season(31.448) was significantly high(p<0.001) when compared with that during plant non-growing season(25.829). TP abatement rate(%) during plant growing season(27.230) was also significantly high(p<0.001) when compared with that of the non-growing season(14.856). Major phosphorous removals in the system resulted from adsorption of phosphorous in the litter-soil layers; sedimentation of particulate phosphorous and Ca, Al, Fe bounded phosphates; and absorption of phosphorous by emergent plants. The adsorption and sedimentation occurred throughout the year, however, the absorption took place during plant growing season. This resulted in higher removals of $PO_4-P$ and TP during plant growing season.

Usefulness of Posture Change to Prevent Overlapping of Heart and Other Organs in Myocardial Perfusion SPECT using $^{99m}Tc$ Labeled Compound ($^{99m}Tc$ 표지화합물을 사용한 심근 관류 SPECT 검사에서 심장과 타 장기와의 중첩 방지를 위한 자세 변화의 유용성)

  • Lee, Dong-Hyuk;Oh, Shin-Hyun;Jeong, Seok;Jo, Seok-Won;NamKoong, Hyuk;Kim, Jae-Sam;Lee, Chang-Ho
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.62-69
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    • 2012
  • Purpose: The present study has an objective of effectively separating and making observations on a portion of radiopharmaceutical excreted via digestive organ to remain in the organ and invade a heart shadow. Materials and methods: When heart shadow is blocked by the organ in tests during a resting phase and a loaded phase, additional images were obtained using immobilization device. The immobilization devices were used to tilt the upper body forward from supine position. Results: In the reconstructed image for the separated case, as compared with the case where a part of organ is overlapped with heart, in terms of an overall mean value for each parameter, the end-diastolic volume increased by 2.75 mL, the end-systolic volume decreased by 3.16 mL, the left ventricle cardiac coefficient increased by 3.58%, and the area of defect region decreased by 3.58 and 3.92 cm for loading and resting phase, respectively. Conclusions: In the present study with myocardial perfusion SPECT, overlapped areas of heart and other organs could be effectively separated and visualization by the use of an immobilization device.

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